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The evolving legal status of cannabis worldwide necessitates evidence-based regulatory policies to minimize risks associated with cannabis misuse. A prominent concern is the impact legalization may have on the illegal cannabis market, including whether illegal cannabis will serve as a substitute for legal cannabis. Empirical data on this issue are virtually nonexistent. This study used behavioral economcis to investigate substitutability of legal and illegal cannabis in legalized catchment areas in the U.S.
The upcoming legalization of cannabis in Canada poses several challenges in which each province will have to respond with effective regulation. Studies show that policies alone have little impact on use rates. However, regulatory approaches and modalities seem important to reduce the possible negative consequences that may result from legalization. Although no framework system offers a perfect solution to the issues surrounding the use and sale of cannabis, it seems essential to implement a legalization mod...
With the growth of legal cannabis markets there has been recognition of the adverse impacts of certain cannabis growing practices, notably, use of harmful chemicals. A major concern has been the use of Plant Growth Regulators (PGRs) which limit plant size and stimulate bud production. These chemicals, many of which have been banned from food crops, have been found unlisted in cannabis growing nutrients sold online or in hydroponic stores. This study describes the cannabis growing practices used by small-sca...
Cannabis is used worldwide. So, it is necessary to stay especially concerned by the medical and social consequences of its use. For a long time, it was seen as a " soft drug ", in reference to the apparent low medical risk related to its use. However, the psycho-social consequences of cannabis use albeit of major importance are commonly neglected. Furthermore, danger for the health does exist, both from psychiatry and somatic medicine points of view. The danger is growing especially due to the apparition on...
Research typically characterizes cannabis use by self-report of cannabis intake frequency. In an effort to better understand relationships between measures of cannabis use, we evaluated if Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and metabolite concentrations (biometrics) were associated with a calibrated timeline followback (TLFB) assessment of cannabis use.
Legalization efforts in many states have heightened awareness of the medicinal uses of cannabis, and oncology nurses are more frequently caring for patients who have used or are using cannabis. Significant epidemiologic data on the prevalence of cannabis use in patients with cancer are not yet available, and not much is known about the effects of cannabis on cancer treatment.
: In observational and retrospective studies, people who use cannabis are more likely than people who do not use cannabis to also use other drugs. People who take medical cannabis are also more likely to report medical and non-medical use of opioid analgesics, stimulants, and tranquilizers. Given that people who take medical cannabis and those who do not are likely to have different underlying morbidity, it is possible that medical cannabis use reduces prescription drug use yet prescription drug use remains...
Legalization of medical and recreational cannabis has coincided with an increase in novel forms of cannabis use and a burgeoning cannabis product industry. This research seeks to understand the occurrence of discussions about these emerging and traditional forms of use in an online social media discussion forum.
Though high rates of co-occurring cannabis use and depression are well-documented, data regarding the association between cannabis use and dysthymia is scarce. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to explore clinical correlations of cannabis use among individuals with dysthymia, as well as the changes in the association between cannabis use and dysthymia across six decades of birth cohorts.
To characterize recommendations given to pregnant women by Colorado cannabis dispensaries regarding use of cannabis products for nausea during the first trimester of pregnancy.
Cannabis for medicinal and/or recreational purposes has been decriminalized in 28 states as of the 2016 election. In the remaining states, cannabis remains the most commonly used illicit drug. Cardiovascular effects of cannabis use are not well established due to a limited number of studies. We therefore utilized a large national database to examine the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and events amongst patients with cannabis use.
Cannabis is the most commonly used illicit drug in the United States, and craving for cannabis is related to cannabis use. Exercise has been demonstrated to reduce craving for substances. To examine the effects of exercise on cannabis craving, we conducted a 3-week within-subject crossover experiment. Young-adult men (n = 35) and women (n = 11), age 18-25 years (M = 20.76, SD = 1.68), who regularly (≥3 times per week) used cannabis participated in a cue exposure paradigm to stimulate craving. After each o...
Both cannabis use and alcohol use are elevated among people living with HIV, but few studies have investigated the relationship between cannabis use and alcohol use in this population. This study examined the longitudinal association between cannabis use and alcohol use among people living with HIV and explored the moderating role of medicinal vs. recreational cannabis use.
Overcoming impaired growth in an intrauterine growth restricted (IUGR) fetus has potential to improve neonatal morbidity, long-term growth, and metabolic health outcomes. The extent to which fetal anabolic capacity persists as the IUGR condition progresses is not known. We tested whether prolonged amino acid infusion would increase protein accretion in the IUGR fetus produced from chronic placental insufficiency. IUGR fetal sheep were infused for 10 days with either mixed amino acids providing ~2 g·kg·day...
Cannabis use impairs visual attention; however, it is unclear whether cannabis use also impairs low level visual processing or whether low level visual deficits can be related to lower dopaminergic functioning found in cannabis users.
The recent release of a medical cannabis strain has given a new impulse for the study of cannabis in Italy. The National Health Service advises to consume medical cannabis by vaporizing, in decoction or oil form. This is the first study that explores the pharmacokinetics and tolerability of a single oral dose of cannabis as decoction (200 ml) or in olive oil (1 ml), as a first step to improve the prescriptive recommendations.
We assessed the prevalence of potential health hazards to intervention staff and cannabis growers in Belgian indoor cannabis plantations. Surface mold swab samples were taken at 16 Belgian indoor plantations contained mostly Penicillium sp. and Aspergillus sp. However, their precise health impact on intervention staff and illicit growers is unclear as no molds spore concentrations were measured. Atmospheric gas monitoring in the studied cannabis plantations did not reveal dangerous toxic substances. Health ...
Studies have found age-specific effects of medical cannabis laws (MCLs), particularly affecting adult cannabis use but not adolescent use. We examined whether age differences in MCL knowledge are in accordance with age differences in MCL effects on cannabis use.
Adult and adolescent studies suggest increased motivational responses to cannabis cues among regular cannabis users. However, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have not explored neural activation in response to visual cannabis cues among adolescents in the United States. Gaining a better understanding of the neural circuits related to cue-elicited craving during adolescence may shed light on the neural basis for the development of problematic cannabis use that could ultimately be targeted...
College cannabis users report using more cannabis during the weekend than on weekdays, yet little attention has been paid to the role of weekend and weekday-specific motives for use. The present investigation evaluated the impact of weekend and weekday-specific cannabis motives on cannabis use and related problems among current (past-3 month) cannabis using undergraduates (N = 276). Participants reported more cannabis use motives during the weekend than weekday. Enhancement and social motives were gre...
The Canadian federal government has committed to legalizing non-medical cannabis use by adults in 2018. Medical use was legalized in 2001; however, not all people reporting medical use have medical authorization. To prepare for monitoring the effects of the policy change, a greater understanding of the prevalence of cannabis use and the characteristics of all cannabis users is needed.
With increasing legalization of medicinal and recreational cannabis, use is on the rise. Research suggests individuals may be able to guess cannabis user status based upon appearance; however, these findings utilized a small sample of photographs that was not balanced on user status or gender. Further, no studies examined whether raters with cannabis experience are better at judging others' cannabis use, or what physical features they use to make these judgments. This study explored these factors using a la...
In Belgium, Cannabis Social Clubs (CSCs) collectively organize the cultivation and distribution of cannabis for the personal use of their members. In this paper we seek to improve understanding of the motivations and practices of cannabis growers operating within CSCs, shedding light on the cultivation process.
Attentional bias to drug cues has been associated with the problematic use of drugs, including cannabis. The cognitive mechanisms underlying this bias are not fully understood. The purpose of this study was to determine whether cannabis-cue attentional bias is associated with disruptions in attentional processing. To this end, a novel cannabis-cue visual probe task that incorporated eye tracking technology and attention-based metrics derived from signal detection theory was administered to seventeen individ...
Cannabis allergy (CA) has mainly been attributed to Can s 3, the nsLTP (non-specific lipid transfer proten) of Cannabis sativa. Nevertheless, standardized diagnostic tests are lacking and research on CA is scarce.