PubMed Journals Articles About "Innate Innate Like Adaptive Lymphocytes Pathogenesis" RSS

19:43 EDT 23rd October 2019 | BioPortfolio

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Showing "Innate innate like adaptive lymphocytes pathogenesis" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 6,100+

Simultaneous blocking of CD47 and PD-L1 increases innate and adaptive cancer immune responses and cytokine release.

Treatment multiple tumors by immune therapy can be achieved by mobilizing both innate and adaptive immunity. The programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1; or CD274, B7-H1) is a critical "don't find me" signal to the adaptive immune system. Equally CD47 is a critical "don't eat me" signal to the innate immune system and a regulator of the adaptive immune response.

When rubber meets the road: how innate features of adaptive immune cells play critical roles in transplant alloimmunity.

Studies on adaptive cells have largely focused on features that are specific to adaptive immunity. However, adaptive cells utilize innate cell features to modulate their responses, and this area of T and B-cell biology is understudied. This review will highlight recent work done to understand how innate features of adaptive immune cells modulate alloimmunity.

Immune memory characteristics of innate lymphoid cells.

Immune memory is essential for host defense against invaders and it is also used as a basis for vaccine development. For these reasons, it is crucial to understand its molecular basis. In this review, we describe recent findings on memory characteristics of innate-like lymphocytes and its contribution to host protection.(Figure is included in full-text article.) RECENT FINDINGS: In addition to adaptive immune cells, innate cells are also able to mount memory responses through a process called 'trained immun...

Adaptive features of innate immune cells and their relevance to graft rejection.

Allograft rejection involves both innate and adaptive immune cells, and the adaptive immune cells have dominated transplant studies for decades. Recent studies have identified surprising new features for the innate immune cells, including memory recall responses, which may have significant implications in further improvement of transplant outcomes.

Immunophenotyping of Human Innate Lymphoid Cells.

In the last years, the family of innate lymphocytes has been growing following the discovery of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs). ILCs are lymphocytes able to rapidly produce a wide range of soluble mediators in an antigen-independent fashion. So far, three main subsets of ILCs have been discovered, ILC1, ILC2, and ILC3, expressing respectively the transcription factors T-bet, GATA3, and Rorγt and secreting distinct types of cytokines. After their discovery, several studies showed that different pathologies, s...

A murine model of the effects of inhaled CuO nanoparticles on cells of innate and adaptive immunity - a kinetic study of a continuous three-month exposure.

The inhalation or application of nanoparticles (NPs) has serious impacts on immunological reactivity. However, the effects of NPs on the immune system are influenced by numerous factors, which cause a high variability in the results. Here, mice were exposed to a three month continuous inhalation of copper oxide (CuO) NPs, and at different time intervals (3, 14, 42 and 93 days), the composition of cell populations of innate and adaptive immunity was evaluated in the spleen by flow cytometry. The ability of...

Revealed heterogeneity in rheumatoid arthritis based on multivariate innate signature analysis.

A growing body of evidence highlights the persistent activation of the innate immune system and type I interferon (IFN) signature in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and its association with disease activity. Since the recent study revealed heterogeneity in the IFN signature in RA, we investigated for the first time the heterogeneity in innate signature in RA.

Innate Lymphoid Cells in Mucosal Immunity.

Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are innate counterparts of T cells that contribute to immune responses by secreting effector cytokines and regulating the functions of other innate and adaptive immune cells. ILCs carry out some unique functions but share some tasks with T cells. ILCs are present in lymphoid and non-lymphoid organs and are particularly abundant at the mucosal barriers, where they are exposed to allergens, commensal microbes, and pathogens. The impact of ILCs in mucosal immune responses has been ...

CD89 Is a Potent Innate Receptor for Bacteria and Mediates Host Protection from Sepsis.

Direct bacterial recognition by innate receptors is crucial for bacterial clearance. Here, we show that the IgA receptor CD89 is a major innate receptor that directly binds bacteria independently of its cognate ligands IgA and c-reactive protein (CRP). This binding is only partially inhibited by serum IgA and induces bacterial phagocytosis by CD11c dendritic cells and monocytes and/or macrophages, suggesting a physiological role in innate host defense. Blood phagocytes from common variable immunodeficiency ...

IgM memory B cells: specific effectors of innate-like and adaptive responses.

Antigen-experienced IgM B cells with mutated V genes have emerged as important effectors of both adaptive and innate-like immune responses. While their precise role in recall responses appear to differ according to the nature of the immunogen or the infectious agent, they are able to achieve rapid plasma cell differentiation, germinal center re-initiation, as well as IgM and IgG memory pool replenishment, which establishes them as multi-lineage precursors of the various functional memory subsets. For innate...

The role of GNLY gene polymorphisms in psoriasis pathogenesis.

Psoriasis is a systemic inflammatory disorder that involves complex pathogenic interactions between the innate and adaptive immune systems. The most accepted mechanism in the etiopathogenesis of psoriasis is the induction of inflammation with keratinocyte hyperproliferation. Granulysin (GNLY) is a cytolytic antimicrobial peptide (AMP) that is secreted together with granzyme and perforin from the granules of human cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and natural killer (NK) cells. It has been immunohistochemically...

Innate lymphoid cells and cancer at border surfaces with the environment.

Innate lymphoid cells (ILC) are a recently identified group of innate lymphocytes. ILC are subdivided into cytotoxic ILC (i.e., conventional natural killer (NK) cells) and helper ILC. Helper ILC are tissue-resident cells that have been involved in various physiological and pathological processes of organs and tissues. While their roles during inflammation are well studied, their contribution to tumor immunity is not well known. Here, we will provide an overview of the various helper ILC subsets, their devel...

Heme Oxygenase-1 dictates innate - Adaptive immune phenotype in human liver transplantation.

Liver transplantation (LT) has become the standard of care for patients with end-stage liver disease and those with hepatic malignancies, while adaptive immune-dominated graft rejection remains a major challenge. Despite potent anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective functions of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) overexpression upon innate immune-driven hepatic ischemia reperfusion injury, its role in adaptive immune cell-driven responses remains to be elucidated. We analyzed human biopsies from LT recipients (n = 5...

Vascularized composite allotransplantation versus solid organ transplantation: innate-adaptive immune interphase.

Vascularized composite allotransplantation (VCA), a life-enhancing treatment for patients with complex tissue defects, trauma or illness, expounds upon the foundation of solid organ transplantation (SOT), the gold standard in end-stage organ failure. As innate and adaptive immunity remain the fundamental concern, this review highlights divergent immunobiology responses in VCA and SOT recipients.

Shigella-mediated immunosuppression in the human gut: subversion extends from innate to adaptive immune responses.

The enteropathogen, Shigella, is highly virulent and remarkably adjusted to the intestinal environment of its almost exclusive human host. Key for Shigella pathogenicity is the injection of virulence effectors into the host cell via its type three secretion system (T3SS), initiating disease onset and progression by the vast diversity of the secreted T3SS effectors and their respective cellular targets. The multifaceted modulation of host signaling pathways exerted by Shigella T3SS effectors, which include t...

Opposing Functions of Interferon Coordinate Adaptive and Innate Immune Responses to Cancer Immune Checkpoint Blockade.

Interferon-gamma (IFNG) augments immune function yet promotes T cell exhaustion through PDL1. How these opposing effects are integrated to impact immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) is unclear. We show that while inhibiting tumor IFNG signaling decreases interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) in cancer cells, it increases ISGs in immune cells by enhancing IFNG produced by exhausted T cells (T). In tumors with favorable antigenicity, these T mediate rejection. In tumors with neoantigen or MHC-I loss, T instead ut...

Pattern recognition receptors in Drosophila immune responses.

Insects, which lack the adaptive immune system, have developed sophisticated innate immune system consisting of humoral and cellular immune responses to defend against invading microorganisms. Non-self recognition of microbes is the front line of the innate immune system. Repertoires of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) recognize the conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) present in microbes, such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS), peptidoglycan (PGN), lipoteichoic acid (LTA) and β-1, 3-gluc...

Innate Lymphoid Cells: Their Contributions to Gastrointestinal Tissue Homeostasis and HIV/SIV Disease Pathology.

The discovery of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) over the past decade has reformed principles that were once thought to be exclusive to adaptive immunity. Here, we describe ILC nomenclature and function, and provide a survey of studies examining these cells in the context of HIV/SIV infections. Particular emphasis is placed on the ILC3 subset, important for proper functioning of the gastrointestinal tract barrier.

ILC3 cells promote the proliferation and invasion of pancreatic cancer cells through IL-22/AKT signaling.

Type 3 innate lymphocytes (ILC3s) are reported to be involved in lung cancer, possibly by producing interleukin-22 (IL-22). However, whether ILC3s and their secreted IL-22 molecules contribute to the pathogenesis of pancreatic cancer (PC) remains unclear. To this end, in this study, we investigated the effects and possible mechanisms of ILC3s on PC pathogenesis.

TB-IRIS pathogenesis and new strategies for intervention: Insights from related inflammatory disorders.

In almost one in five HIV/tuberculosis (TB) co-infected patients, initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) is complicated by TB immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (TB-IRIS). Corticosteroids have been suggested for treatment of severe cases, however no therapy is currently licensed for TB-IRIS. Hence, there is a strong need for more specific therapeutics, and therefore, a better understanding of TB-IRIS pathogenesis. Immune reconstitution following ART is a precariously balanced functional restora...

The Role of Innate Immunity in Asthma Development and Protection: Lessons from the Environment.

Asthma, a complex, chronic disease characterized by airway inflammation, hyperresponsiveness and remodeling, affects over 300 million people worldwide. While the disease is typically associated with exaggerated allergen-induced type 2 immune responses, these responses are strongly influenced by environmental exposures that stimulate innate immune pathways capable of promoting or protecting from asthma. The dual role played by innate immunity in asthma pathogenesis offers multiple opportunities for both rese...

Pattern recognition receptors in annelids.

The existence of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) on immune cells was discussed in 1989 by Charles Janeway, Jr., who proposed a general concept of the ability of PRRs to recognize and bind conserved molecular structures of microorganisms known as pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Upon PAMP engagement, PRRs trigger intracellular signaling cascades resulting in the expression of various proinflammatory molecules. These recognition molecules represent an important and efficient innate immunit...

Role of peptide transporter 2 and MAPK signaling pathways in the innate immune response induced by bacterial peptides in alveolar epithelial cells.

The innate immune response induced by bacterial peptidoglycan peptides, such as γ-d-glutamyl-meso-diaminopimelic acid (iE-DAP), is an important host defense system. However, little is known about the innate immune response in the lung alveolar region. In this study, we examined induction of the innate immune response by iE-DAP in human alveolar epithelial cell lines, NCI-H441 (H441) and A549.

Renal Effects of Cytokines in Hypertension.

Preclinical studies point to a key role for immune cells in hypertension via augmenting renal injury and/or hypertensive responses. Blood pressure elevation in rheumatologic patients is attenuated by anti-inflammatory therapies. Both the innate and adaptive immune systems contribute to the pathogenesis of hypertension by modulating renal sodium balance, blood flow, and functions of the vasculature and epithelial cells in the kidney. Monocytes/macrophages and T lymphocytes are pivotal mediators of hypertensi...

The Neuropeptide CGRP Induces Bipolar Syndrome in Group 2 Innate Lymphoid Cells.

In this issue of Immunity, Nagashima et al., Wallrapp et al., and Xu et al. demonstrate that the neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) fine tunes type 2 innate immune response via suppressing group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s).

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