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PubMed Journals Articles About "Innovative Brain Stimulation For Induction Of Learning Plasticity" RSS

14:29 EST 21st January 2020 | BioPortfolio

Innovative Brain Stimulation For Induction Of Learning Plasticity PubMed articles on BioPortfolio. Our PubMed references draw on over 21 million records from the medical literature. Here you can see the latest Innovative Brain Stimulation For Induction Of Learning Plasticity articles that have been published worldwide.

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Showing "Innovative Brain Stimulation Induction Learning Plasticity" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 17,000+

Temporary inactivation of Interpeduncular nucleus impairs long but not short term plasticity in the perforant-path dentate gyrus synapses in rats.

The interconnectivity of the hippocampus, interpeduncular nucleus (IPN) and several brain structures which are involved in modulating hippocampal theta rhythm activity makes a complicated dynamic network of interconnected regions and highlights the role of IPN in the hippocampal dependent learning and memory. In the present study we aimed to address whether IPN is involved in the perforant path-dentate gyrus (PP-DG) short term and long term synaptic plasticity in rats. To silent IPN transiently, lidocaine w...


Somatosensory cortical excitability changes precede those in motor cortex during human motor learning.

Motor learning is associated with plasticity in both motor and somatosensory cortex. It is known from animal studies that tetanic stimulation to each of these areas individually induces long-term potentiation in its counterpart. In this context it is possible that changes in motor cortex contribute to somatosensory change and that changes in somatosensory cortex are involved in changes in motor areas of the brain. It is also possible that learning related plasticity occurs in these areas independently. To b...

The contribution of ion channels in input-output plasticity.

Persistent changes that occur in brain circuits are classically thought to be mediated by long-term modifications in synaptic efficacy. Yet, many studies have shown that voltage-gated ion channels located at the input and output side of the neurons are also the subject to persistent modifications. These channels are thus responsible for intrinsic plasticity that is expressed in many different neuronal types including glutamatergic principal neurons and GABAergic interneurons. As for synaptic plasticity, act...


Short-term plasticity following motor sequence learning revealed by diffusion magnetic resonance imaging.

Current noninvasive methods to detect structural plasticity in humans are mainly used to study long-term changes. Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was recently proposed as a novel approach to reveal gray matter changes following spatial navigation learning and object-location memory tasks. In the present work, we used diffusion MRI to investigate the short-term neuroplasticity that accompanies motor sequence learning. Following a 45-min training session in which participants learned to accurately ...

Bidirectional short-term plasticity during single-trial learning of cerebellar-driven eyelid movements in mice.

The brain is constantly monitoring its own performance, using error signals to trigger mechanisms of plasticity that help improve future behavior. Indeed, adaptive changes in behavior have been observed after a single error trial in many learning tasks, including cerebellum-dependent eyeblink conditioning. Here, we demonstrate that the plasticity underlying single-trial learning during eyeblink conditioning in mice is bidirectionally regulated by positive and negative prediction errors, has a ephemeral effe...

Threshold for Tonic Motor Effects from Random Waveform in a Rat Experimental Model of Frontal Cortex Stimulation.

Brain stimulation is utilized to treat a variety of neurological disorders. Clinical brain stimulation technologies currently utilize charge-balanced pulse stimulation. The brain may better respond to other stimulation waveforms. This study was designed to evaluate the motor threshold of the brain to stimulation with various waveforms.

BDNF Controls Bidirectional Endocannabinoid Plasticity at Corticostriatal Synapses.

The dorsal striatum exhibits bidirectional corticostriatal synaptic plasticity, NMDAR and endocannabinoids (eCB) mediated, necessary for the encoding of procedural learning. Therefore, characterizing factors controlling corticostriatal plasticity is of crucial importance. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its receptor, the tropomyosine receptor kinase-B (TrkB), shape striatal functions, and their dysfunction deeply affects basal ganglia. BDNF/TrkB signaling controls NMDAR plasticity in various br...

Evolving Local Plasticity Rules for Synergistic Learning in Echo State Networks.

Existing synaptic plasticity rules for optimizing the connections between neurons within the reservoir of echo state networks (ESNs) remain to be global in that the same type of plasticity rule with the same parameters is applied to all neurons. However, this is biologically implausible and practically inflexible for learning the structures in the input signals, thereby limiting the learning performance of ESNs. In this paper, we propose to use local plasticity rules that allow different neurons to use diff...

Regulation of intrinsic excitability: Roles for learning and memory, aging and Alzheimer's disease, and genetic diversity.

Plasticity of intrinsic neuronal excitability facilitates learning and memory across multiple species, with aberrant modulation of this process being linked to the development of neurological symptoms in models of cognitive aging and Alzheimer's disease. Learning-related increases in intrinsic excitability of neurons occurs in a variety of brain regions, and is generally thought to promote information processing and storage through enhancement of synaptic throughput and induction of synaptic plasticity. Exp...

Investigating risk factors and predicting complications in deep brain stimulation surgery with machine learning algorithms.

Deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery is an option for patients experiencing medically resistant neurological symptoms. DBS complications are rare; finding significant predictors requires a large number of surgeries. Machine learning algorithms may be used to effectively predict these outcomes. The aims of this study were to (1) investigate preoperative clinical risk factors, and (2) build machine learning models to predict adverse outcomes.

Effects of uninterrupted sinusoidal LF-EMF stimulation on LTP induced by different combinations of TBS/HFS at the Schaffer collateral-CA1 of synapses.

Long-term potentiation (LTP) is an important aspect of synaptic plasticity and is one of the main mechanisms involved in memory. Low-frequency electromagnetic fields (LF-EMFs) such as transcranial magnetic stimulation are emerging neuromodulation tools for the regulation of LTP. However, whether LF-EMFs have different effects on different types of LTP has not yet been verified. Herein, we studied the regulatory effects of 15 Hz / 2 mT sinusoidal magnetic field as pre-magnetic stimulation on several types of...

Traces of Learning in Thalamocortical Circuits.

A recent study (Audette et al., 2019) demonstrates that thalamic input from the posterior medial (POm) nucleus to somatosensory cortex plays an unexpected role in plasticity resulting from associative sensory learning. POm-mediated plasticity may be critical for coordinating learning-related sensorimotor circuitry.

Somatosensory cortex participates in the consolidation of human motor memory.

Newly learned motor skills are initially labile and then consolidated to permit retention. The circuits that enable the consolidation of motor memories remain uncertain. Most work to date has focused on primary motor cortex, and although there is ample evidence of learning-related plasticity in motor cortex, direct evidence for its involvement in memory consolidation is limited. Learning-related plasticity is also observed in somatosensory cortex, and accordingly, it may also be involved in memory consolida...

Modulation of Intrinsic Excitability as a Function of Learning within the Fear Conditioning Circuit.

Experience-dependent neuronal plasticity is a fundamental substrate of learning and memory. Intrinsic excitability is a form of neuronal plasticity that can be altered by learning and indicates the pattern of neuronal responding to external stimuli (e.g. a learning or synaptic event). Associative fear conditioning is one form of learning that alters intrinsic excitability, reflecting an experience-dependent change in neuronal function. After fear conditioning, intrinsic excitability changes are evident in b...

Role of cutaneous and proprioceptive inputs in sensorimotor integration and plasticity occurring in the facial primary motor cortex.

Previous studies investigating the effects of somatosensory afferent inputs on cortical excitability and neural plasticity often used TMS of hand motor cortex (M1) as a model. In this model it is difficult to separate out the relative contribution of cutaneous and muscle afferent input to each effect. In the face, cutaneous and muscle afferents are segregated in the trigeminal and facial nerves respectively. We studied their relative contribution to corticobulbar excitability and neural plasticity in the de...

Deep brain stimulation restores the glutamatergic and GABAergic synaptic transmission and plasticity to normal levels in kindled rats.

The precise effect of low frequency stimulation (LFS) as a newly postulated, anticonvulsant therapeutic approach on seizure-induced changes in synaptic transmission has not been completely determined.

Reinforcement Learning in Spiking Neural Networks with Stochastic and Deterministic Synapses.

Though succeeding in solving various learning tasks, most existing reinforcement learning (RL) models have failed to take into account the complexity of synaptic plasticity in the neural system. Models implementing reinforcement learning with spiking neurons involve only a single plasticity mechanism. Here, we propose a neural realistic reinforcement learning model that coordinates the plasticities of two types of synapses: stochastic and deterministic. The plasticity of the stochastic synapse is achieved b...

Chemical LTD, but not LTP, induces transient accumulation of gelsolin in dendritic spines.

Synaptic plasticity underlies central brain functions, such as learning. Ca2+ signaling is involved in both strengthening and weakening of synapses, but it is still unclear how one signal molecule can induce two opposite outcomes. By identifying molecules, which can distinguish between signaling leading to weakening or strengthening, we can improve our understanding of how synaptic plasticity is regulated. Here, we tested gelsolin's response to the induction of chemical long-term potentiation (cLTP) or long...

Effects of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation on GABA and Glx in Children: A pilot study.

Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a form of non-invasive brain stimulation that safely modulates brain excitability and has therapeutic potential for many conditions. Several studies have shown that anodal tDCS of the primary motor cortex (M1) facilitates motor learning and plasticity, but there is little information about the underlying mechanisms. Using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), it has been shown that tDCS can affect local levels of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and Glx (a measu...

Basal ganglia contributions during the learning of a visuomotor rotation: effect of dopamine, deep brain stimulation and reinforcement.

It is commonly thought that visuomotor adaptation is mediated by the cerebellum while reinforcement learning is mediated by the basal ganglia. In contrast to this strict dichotomy, we demonstrate a role for the basal ganglia in visuomotor adaptation (error-based motor learning) in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) by comparing the degree of motor learning in the presence and absence of dopamine medication. We further show similar modulation of learning rates in the presence and absence of subthalamic d...

Case Studies in Neuroscience: Lack of inhibitory synaptic plasticity in the substantia nigra pars reticulata of a patient with lithium-induced tremor.

Tremor is a well-known side effect from many psychiatric medications including lithium and dopamine antagonists. In patients whose psychiatric symptoms are stabilized and only respond to certain medications, deep brain stimulation may offer relief of the consequent motor complications. We report the case of an elderly male with disabling tremor related to lithium therapy for bipolar affective disorder, who was subsequently treated with deep brain stimulation. In this patient, we obtained recordings from the...

Theoretical principles of deep brain stimulation induced synaptic suppression.

Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a successful clinical therapy for a wide range of neurological disorders; however, the physiological mechanisms of DBS remain unresolved. While many different hypotheses currently exist, our analyses suggest that high frequency (∼100 Hz) stimulation-induced synaptic suppression represents the most basic concept that can be directly reconciled with experimental recordings of spiking activity in neurons that are being driven by DBS inputs.

Episodic memory improvements due to noninvasive stimulation targeting the cortical-hippocampal network: A replication and extension experiment.

The distributed cortical network of the human hippocampus is important for episodic memory. In a previous experiment, noninvasive stimulation of the hippocampal-cortical network applied for five consecutive days improved paired-associate learning measured after the stimulation regimen via cued recall (Wang et al., Science, 2014, 345, 1054). This finding has not yet been directly replicated. Furthermore, evidence for long-lasting effects of stimulation on paired-associate learning was obtained by analyzing r...

Can neuromodulation techniques optimally exploit cerebello-thalamo-cortical circuit properties to enhance motor learning post-stroke?

Individuals post-stroke sustain motor deficits years after the stroke. Despite recent advancements in the applications of non-invasive brain stimulation techniques and Deep Brain Stimulation in humans, there is a lack of evidence supporting their use for rehabilitation after brain lesions. Non-invasive brain stimulation is already in use for treating motor deficits in individuals with Parkinson's disease and post-stroke. Deep Brain Stimulation has become an established treatment for individuals with movemen...

Microstructural plasticity in the bilingual brain.

The human brain has been uniquely equipped with the remarkable ability to acquire more than one language, as in bilingual individuals. Previous neuroimaging studies have indicated that learning a second language (L2) induced neuroplasticity at the macrostructural level. In this study, using the quantitative MRI (qMRI) combined with functional MRI (fMRI) techniques, we quantified the microstructural properties and tested whether second language learning modulates the microstructure in the bilingual brain. We...


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