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01:55 EST 17th November 2018 | BioPortfolio

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Showing "Inside Beijing Office Inhabited Human Guinea Pigs" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 20,000+

In Vivo Imaging of the Retina, Choroid and Optic Nerve Head in Guinea Pigs.

Guinea pigs are increasingly being used as a model of myopia, and may also represent a novel model of glaucoma. Here, optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging was performed in guinea pigs. In vivo measurements of retinal, choroidal and optic nerve head parameters were compared with histology, and repeatability and interocular variations were assessed.

Particle Size Distribution and Human Health Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Atmospheric Particles from Beijing and Xinxiang During Summer.

Under a condition of good air quality (AQI:55-90, PM:37-97 μg·m, PM:17-76 μg·m), six groups of 54 samples were collected using an Andersen cascade impactor from both the indoor and outdoor stations in Beijing and Xinxiang from June to August in 2016. The samples were digested by microwave digestion, and nine heavy metal elements (Pb, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Mn, and Co) in the atmospheric particles were determined with an inductively coupled plasma source mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). The results showed th...

Dopamine Receptor Subtypes Mediate Opposing Effects on Form Deprivation Myopia in Pigmented Guinea Pigs.

We reported previously that changes in dopamine receptor (DR) subtype activation modulate spontaneous myopia progression in albino guinea pigs. To determine if DR control of refractive error development is different than in its normal counterpart, we evaluated the contribution of dopaminergic pathways to emmetropization and form deprivation myopia (FDM) progression in pigmented guinea pigs.

Effects of the Tyrosinase-Dependent Dopaminergic System on Refractive Error Development in Guinea Pigs.

To determine if myopia in albino guinea pigs is linked to altered ocular dopamine (DA) levels in both the retinal and uveal dopaminergic systems.

Cochlear Changes Caused by Peginterferon α-2b.

To evaluate the effect of peginterferon α-2b on guinea pigs' hearing and its cochlea, and to determine whether these effects are permanent or reversible. This study is an experimental animal study done on the organs of Corti of 30 guinea pigs after a peginterferon α-2b injection course. The cochleae of guinea pigs were extracted and examined by scanning electron microscopy for the right side and immunohistochemistry for the left side. All guinea pigs were subjected to pinna reflex, otological examination,...

Guinea pig for meat production: A systematic review of factors affecting the production, carcass and meat quality.

In developing countries, interest in guinea pig farming is growing exponentially because it provides a regular source of high quality animal protein for domestic consumption. Guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) are prolific animals, grow and are capable of reproduction on a flexible diet, and are adaptable to a wide range of climates. This article mainly reviews findings on guinea pig meat production, including factors affecting raising guinea pigs, carcass and meat quality. We also present some studies that desc...

Comparison of humoral neutralizing antibody response in rabbits, guinea pigs, and cattle vaccinated with epsilon and beta toxoids from Clostridium perfringens and C. botulinum types C and D toxoids.

Rabbits and guinea pigs are used in the official control and validation of clostridial vaccines, but it is unknown whether the antitoxin titers obtained in these animals corroborate with the humoral response in bovine. The objective of the study was to compare the humoral antibody response of guinea pig and rabbits to those obtained in cattle vaccinated with a commercial vaccine containing Clostridium perfringens epsilon and beta, and Clostridium botulinum types C and D toxoids. This study revealed the same...

Evaluation of the anti-asthmatic and antitussive potentials of methanol leaf extract of Napoleona vogelii in rodents.

Napoleona vogelii is used in ethnomedicine for the treatment of asthma and cough. This study evaluated antiasthmatic and antitussive properties of its methanol leaf extract (NVE) in rodents. Phytochemical screening was conducted using established methods. Acute oral toxicity test was done in mice and guinea pigs. Ovalbumin (OA)-sensitized guinea pigs were orally pretreated with 100, 200 or 400 mg/kg/day of NVE or 0.5 mg/kg/day of salbutamol for 14 days before exposure to 0.2% histamine aerosol. Latency ...

Effect of supplementation with fresh orange pulp (Citrus sinensis) on mortality, growth performance, slaughter traits and sensory characteristics in meat guinea pigs.

The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of the partial replacement of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) with fresh orange pulp (Citrus sinensis) in a diet fed to guinea pigs on their mortality, growth performance, slaughter traits and sensory characteristics during the fattening period. A total of 450 guinea pigs were housed in collective pens of ~10 animals. Animals were divided into three groups: Control group (CG), supplied with fresh alfalfa as forage and treatment groups (G15 and G30), in ...

Effects of Topical Latanoprost on Intraocular Pressure and Myopia Progression in Young Guinea Pigs.

To determine whether latanoprost, a prostaglandin analog proven to be very effective in reducing intraocular pressure (IOP) in humans, can also slow myopia progression in the guinea pig form deprivation (FD) model.

Capsaicin alleviates hyperlipidemia, oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction, and atherosclerosis in Guinea pigs fed on a high-fat diet.

Capsaicin has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects, as well as some benefits on the cardiovascular system. The exact effects of capsaicin on atherosclerosis are poorly understood. To investigate the effects of capsaicin on hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis in guinea pigs fed on a high-fat diet, as well as its potential mechanisms. Guinea pigs (n = 48) were randomly divided into six groups (n = 8/group): normal diet (control); high fat diet (model); model + low-dose capsaicin (2.5 mg/kg); model...

Pharmacological properties of revefenacin (TD-4208), a novel, nebulized long-acting, and lung selective muscarinic antagonist, at human recombinant muscarinic receptors and in rat, guinea pig, and human isolated airway tissues.

Revefenacin (TD-4208) is a novel, long-acting, and lung-selective muscarinic cholinergic receptor (mAChR) antagonist in development as a nebulized inhalation solution for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. This study evaluated the pharmacology of revefenacin at human recombinant mAChRs and in airway tissues from rats, guinea pigs, and humans. At human recombinant mAChRs, revefenacin displayed high affinity (pK = 8.2-9.8) and behaved as a competitive antagonist (pKI, ap...

PM-bound phthalates in indoor and outdoor air in Beijing: Seasonal distributions and human exposure via inhalation.

Phthalates (phthalates esters, PAEs) are ubiquitous contaminants in various indoor and outdoor environment. Exposure to PAEs exerts adverse effects on human health. Seasonal variations of air phthalate concentrations and paired indoor and outdoor air phthalate level are rarely known. In this study, six priority phthalates in PM were investigated in three indoor sites (a students' dormitory, a residential apartment and an office) and one outdoor site in Beijing, China across four seasons. PM samples were col...

Cardioprotective Effects of Curcumin-Nisin Based Poly Lactic Acid Nanoparticle on Myocardial Infarction in Guinea Pigs.

Myocardial infarction (MI) is the most prevalent cause of cardiovascular death. A possible way of preventing MI maybe by dietary supplements. The present study was thus designed to ascertain the cardio-protective effect of a formulated curcumin and nisin based poly lactic acid nanoparticle (CurNisNp) on isoproterenol (ISO) induced MI in guinea pigs. Animals were pretreated for 7 days as follows; Groups A and B animals were given 0.5 mL/kg of normal saline, group C metoprolol (2 mg/kg), groups D and E Cu...

Human Genetic Variation and HIV/AIDS in Papua New Guinea: Time to Connect the Dots.

Human genetic polymorphisms known to influence HIV acquisition and disease progression occur in Papua New Guinea (PNG). However, no genetic association study has been reported so far. In this article, we review research findings, with a view to stimulate genotype-to-phenotype research.

Effects of human activities and climate change on the reduction of visibility in Beijing over the past 36 years.

Both climate change and intensive human activities are thought to have contributed to the impairment of atmospheric visibility in Beijing. But the detailed processes involved and relative roles of human activities and climate change have not been quantified. Optical extinction of aerosols, the inverse of meteorological visibility is especially sensitive to fine particles

Changes in spontaneous movement in response to silent gaps are not robust enough to indicate the perception of tinnitus in mice.

Approaches to identify the perception of tinnitus in various animal models have been difficult to apply to mouse. As a result, mice have been underutilized to investigate the cellular, molecular, and genetic mechanisms underlying tinnitus. A recent study in guinea pigs identified a novel spontaneous behavior (unconditioned response), changes in movement during silent gaps, that identified a subgroup of animals presumably with tinnitus. Guinea pigs identified with tinnitus failed to "freeze" in response to s...

Development of disease and immunity at the genital epithelium following intrarectal inoculation of male guinea pigs with herpes simplex virus type 2.

Most analyses of genital immunity to herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) have been performed in females, consequently immune protection of the male genital epithelium is incompletely understood. We developed a model of male genital HSV-2 infection resulting from intrarectal inoculation of guinea pigs. Vesicular lesions developed transiently on the perineum and foreskin concurrent with acute virus shedding. Virus shedding and recurrent genital lesions were also detected after establishment of a latent infect...

Notes from the Field: Recurrence of a Multistate Outbreak of Salmonella Enteritidis Infections Linked to Contact with Guinea Pigs - Eight States, 2015-2017.

Vaccine-induced antibodies to herpes simplex virus glycoprotein D epitopes involved in virus entry and cell-to-cell spread correlate with protection against genital disease in guinea pigs.

Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) glycoprotein D (gD2) subunit antigen is included in many preclinical candidate vaccines. The rationale for including gD2 is to produce antibodies that block crucial gD2 epitopes involved in virus entry and cell-to-cell spread. HSV-2 gD2 was the only antigen in the Herpevac Trial for Women that protected against HSV-1 genital infection but not HSV-2. In that trial, a correlation was detected between gD2 ELISA titers and protection against HSV-1, supporting the importance o...

Virus-like particles of recombinant PCV2b carrying FMDV-VP1 epitopes induce both anti-PCV and anti-FMDV antibody responses.

Mixed infection of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) and foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is devastating to swine populations. To develop an effective vaccine that can protect the pigs from the infection of PCV2 and FMDV, we used the neutralizing B cell epitope region (aa 135-160) of FMDV to replace the regions aa 123-151 and aa 169-194 of the PCV2b Cap protein to generate a recombinant protein designated as Capfb. The Capfb protein was expressed in Escherichia coli system and the purified Capfb protein a...

Population genetic analysis of Chadian Guinea worms reveals that human and non-human hosts share common parasite populations.

Following almost 10 years of no reported cases, Guinea worm disease (GWD or dracunculiasis) reemerged in Chad in 2010 with peculiar epidemiological patterns and unprecedented prevalence of infection among non-human hosts, particularly domestic dogs. Since 2014, animal infections with Guinea worms have also been observed in the other three countries with endemic transmission (Ethiopia, Mali, and South Sudan), causing concern and generating interest in the parasites' true taxonomic identity and population gen...

Effects of Rickettsia amblyommatis Infection on the Vector Competence of Amblyomma americanum Ticks for Rickettsia rickettsii.

Although Dermacentor spp. ticks are considered the primary vectors of Rickettsia rickettsii in the United States, other North American tick species are also capable of transmitting the agent, including the lone star tick-Amblyomma americanum. The lone star tick is an aggressive human-biting tick abundant in the South, Central, and Mid-Atlantic United States, which has been shown to be a competent vector of R. rickettsii in laboratory studies. However in nature, A. americanum frequently carry Rickettsia ambl...

Rapid analysis of neomycin in cochlear perilymph of guinea pigs using disposable SPE cartridges and high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

Irreversible hearing loss induced by aminoglycoside in human through local or systemic administration route negatively impacts quality of life. The aim of this work was to develop and validate an analytical method suitable for the detection and quantification of neomycin in cochlear perilymph of guinea pig after local application. The SupelMIP SPE column was used for the pre-treatment of matrix. Chromatographic separation was conducted by a reversed phase ODS column (100 × 2.1 mm, 3 μm) at 40 °...

The ethanol extract of Involucrum castaneae ameliorated ovalbumin-induced asthma in guinea pigs.

Involucrum castaneae(IC)is used in Chinese folk medicine to treat various lung diseases, as well as for its reducing phlegm and anti-inflammatory properties.

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