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Despite improvements in its treatment, HIV infection continues to affect Blacks disproportionally. Using National HIV Surveillance System data from 50 U.S. states and the District of Columbia, we examined demographic and epidemiologic differences between U.S.-born and non-U.S.-born Black adults. Of 110,452 Black adults reported with diagnosed HIV during 2008-2014 with complete country of birth information, 11.1% were non-U.S.-born. Non-U.S.-born were more likely to be older, female, have HIV infection attri...
Conventionally, the alveolar surface area (S) has been measured by using post-mortem morphometry. Such studies have highlighted that S in prematurely-born infants is markedly smaller when compared to term-born infants as a result of postnatal impairment or arrest of alveolar development. We herein explore how, non-invasive measurements of the ventilation/perfusion ratio (V/Q) can be used to estimate S in prematurely-born surviving, convalescent infants. We also compare S in prematurely-born infants measured...
Infants born very preterm (VPT) and moderate-to-late preterm (MLPT) are at increased risk of long-term neurodevelopmental deficits, but how these deficits relate to early neurobehaviour in MLPT children is unclear. The aims of this study were to compare the neurobehavioural performance of infants born across three different gestational age groups: preterm
To examine the reported mental health outcomes of adolescent foreign-born non-citizens and adolescent foreign-born U.S. citizens compared to adolescent U.S.-born citizens.
Children born after assisted reproductive technology (ART), particularly singletons, have been shown to have an increased risk of congenital malformations compared with children born after spontaneous conception. We wished to study if there has been a change in the risk of major congenital malformations in children conceived after ART compared with children born after spontaneous conception during the latest decades?
This study investigated developmental changes and differences in upper-limb movement organization from 4 to 8 years of age in children born preterm (PT) and fullterm (FT). Kinematic recordings of precision-demanding unimanual movements and lateral assessments were carried out in 37 children (18 PT). All children, particularly children born PT, displayed considerable gain in movement kinematics. Contrary to controls, children born PT displayed persistently less-evident side preference. Gestational age (GA) ...
Preterm birth causes long-term problems, even for infants born 1 or 2 weeks early. However, less is known about infants born after their due date and over a quarter of infants are born over 1 week late, and many still remain undelivered after 2 weeks. The aim of this work is to quantify the risks of infants developing encephalopathy when birth occurs after the due date, and if other proposed risk factors modify this relationship.
Using 15 years (2000-2014) of restricted cross-sectional National Health Interview Survey data (n = 276,914), we estimated and compared the age-adjusted and sex-specific prevalence of cigarette smoking between US- and foreign-born Europeans and Arab Americans and examined associations between ethnicity and current smoking. Arab Americans were categorized as non-Hispanic Whites born in 15 countries located in the Middle East. Current smoking, average cigarettes per day, and quit attempts were compared. ...
Being born with very low birth weight (
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major public health problem and affects large populations all over the world. Serum anti-HCV level is a valuable marker to determine HCV infection. Anti-HCV testing has been recommended for high-risk population. The Center for Disease Control (CDC) and Prevention in the United States proposed a new high-risk population group - adults born between 1945-1965. Under this perspective, we designed a multicentre retrospective study to determine the seropositivity of anti-HCV...
Infants born preterm are at risk of cerebral palsy (CP) and motor or cognitive developmental delay. For clinicians, it is essential to know the relative predictive accuracy of the most commonly used neuroimaging and neurophysiological tests for the early prediction of adverse neurodevelopmental outcome. The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of these tests in survivors of a population of infants born very preterm.
We aimed to analyze the effect of oral zinc supplementation on serum insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) levels and catch-up growth in infants with non-organic failure to thrive (NOFTT) who were born preterm as compared to those born at term.
Preterm birth is a significant public health issue, with children born prematurely experiencing educational and health difficulties throughout childhood. The aim of the descriptive secondary data analysis was to compare health implications and educational experiences in children born prematurely compared with children born at term.
Preterm birth affects more than 10% of births worldwide, with over 80% of these individuals born moderately preterm; between 32-36 weeks' gestation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Prematurity and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) affect long-term lung function. We studied the respiratory outcome of adolescents born very preterm and controls from the Etude EPIdémiologique sur les Petits Ages Gestationnels cohort and analysed their current lung function in relation to asthma symptoms (categorised in three age groups) from birth. In models including BPD, asthma at each age and confounding factors in the preterm group, BPD and preschool wheeze were the only independent variables associat...
We study the gender-specific impact of macroeconomic conditions around birth on infant health. We use a sample of over 50,000 respondents born between 1950 and 1994 from Lifelines-a cohort and biobank from the northern Netherlands. Our results show that high provincial unemployment rates decrease fertility and lead to a lower birthweight in boys. The negative impact of high unemployment on birthweight is particularly strong for boys born to older mothers and for babies born to smoking mothers.
Mother-to-child transmission of hepatitis B can be prevented with vaccination and screening. Foreign-born women living in the United States may have lower vaccination coverage and greater lifetime exposure to hepatitis B virus than US-born women.
Contact investigation is an important strategy for maintaining control of tuberculosis (TB) in the United States. However, testing and treatment outcomes specifically to foreign-born populations are poorly understood. We reviewed literature on testing and LTBI identified during contact investigations in foreign-born populations living in the US.
A very preterm birth can induce deleterious neurophysiological consequences beyond childhood; alterations of the corpus callosum (CC) are reported in adolescents born very preterm along with cognitive impairments. The question remains whether neurophysiological alterations are still detectable in adulthood such as an alteration in CC inhibitory function. The aim of the present study was thus to examine transcallosal inhibition in young adults born very preterm compared to counterparts born at term.
Despite knowledge that the Hispanic population is growing in the United States and that birth outcomes may vary by maternal country of birth, data on birth outcomes by maternal country of birth among Hispanic women are scant. We compared the rates of 3 birth outcomes for infants born in the United States-preterm birth, low birth weight, and small for gestational age-between foreign-born Hispanic women and US-born Hispanic women, and then we examined these birth outcomes by mother's country of birth for fore...
Migrants may experience immunisation inequities compared with the host population related to barriers with accessing immunisations in their home countries, while migrating and/or post-arrival. This retrospective cohort study explored vaccination rates among migrant and non-migrant children in New Zealand (NZ). Linked de-identified data from various government sources from 1 January 2006 to 31 December 2015 were analysed using Statistic NZ's Integrated Data Infrastructure. Vaccination rates were compared bet...
Environmental factors during the fetal period may adversely affect reproductive functions in men being born with very low birth weight (VLBW,
The aim was to investigate social competence and behavioral and emotional problems in children and adolescents born with CDH.
An increased preterm birth survival rate is associated with long-term neurological and metabolic risks; thus, our aim was to evaluate whether early patterns of infancy anthropometry and metabolic hormonal profile differ in preterm infants born small for gestational age (SGA) or appropriate for gestational age (AGA) from birth to 36 months of corrected age (CA).
Little is known on the motor development of moderately preterm born (MPT) children, in comparison with early preterm born (EPT) children and fullterm born (FT), for children with normal motor outcomes at school entry.