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PubMed Journals Articles About "Kaufman, Hall & Associates, Inc." RSS

07:53 EST 10th December 2018 | BioPortfolio

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Showing "Kaufman Hall Associates" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 394

B-periodic oscillations in the Hall-resistance induced by a dc-current-bias under combined microwave-excitation and dc-current bias in the GaAs/AlGaAs 2D system.

We report the observation of dc-current-bias-induced B-periodic Hall resistance oscillations and Hall plateaus in the GaAs/AlGaAs 2D system under combined microwave radiation- and dc bias excitation at liquid helium temperatures. The Hall resistance oscillations and plateaus appear together with concomitant oscillations also in the diagonal magnetoresistance. The periods of Hall and diagonal resistance oscillations are nearly identical, and source power (P) dependent measurements demonstrate sub-linear rela...


Anomalous Hall magnetoresistance in a ferromagnet.

The anomalous Hall effect, observed in conducting ferromagnets with broken time-reversal symmetry, offers the possibility to couple spin and orbital degrees of freedom of electrons in ferromagnets. In addition to charge, the anomalous Hall effect also leads to spin accumulation at the surfaces perpendicular to both the current and magnetization direction. Here, we experimentally demonstrate that the spin accumulation, subsequent spin backflow, and spin-charge conversion can give rise to a different type of ...

Intrinsic Spin and Orbital Hall Effects from Orbital Texture.

We show theoretically that both the intrinsic spin Hall effect (SHE) and orbital Hall effect (OHE) can arise in centrosymmetric systems through momentum-space orbital texture, which is ubiquitous even in centrosymmetric systems unlike spin texture. The OHE occurs even without spin-orbit coupling (SOC) and is converted into the SHE through SOC. The resulting spin Hall conductivity is large (comparable to that of Pt) but depends on the SOC strength in a nonmonotonic way. This mechanism is stable against orbit...


Hall Number of Strongly Correlated Metals.

An exact formula for the temperature dependent Hall number of metals is derived. It is valid for nonrelativistic fermions or bosons, with an arbitrary potential and interaction. This dc transport coefficient is proven to (remarkably) depend solely on equilibrium susceptibilities, which are more amenable to numerical algorithms than the conductivity. An application to strongly correlated phases is demonstrated by calculating the Hall sign in the vicinity of Mott phases of lattice bosons.

Hexapod Hall scanner for high-resolution large area magnetic imaging.

We demonstrate a six-axis scanning imaging apparatus using piezo bending actuators with a large scan range. The six axes of motion of the bending actuators together with the coupling mechanism to the translation stage allow complete control of the sensor position and orientation over the scanning surface, which is ideal for the use of planar sensors such as Hall devices. In particular, the design allows for in situ correction of the probe tilt angle so that the sensor distance to sample surface can be minim...

Quantization of the Thermal Hall Conductivity at Small Hall Angles.

We consider the effect of coupling between phonons and a chiral Majorana edge in a gapped chiral spin liquid with Ising anyons (e.g., Kitaev's non-Abelian spin liquid on the honeycomb lattice). This is especially important in the regime in which the longitudinal bulk heat conductivity κ_{xx} due to phonons is much larger than the expected quantized thermal Hall conductance κ_{xy}^{q}=(πT/12)(k_{B}^{2}/ℏ) of the ideal isolated edge mode, so that the thermal Hall angle, i.e., the angle between the therma...

High mobility HgTe microstructures for Quantum Spin Hall studies.

The topic of two-dimensional topological insulators has blossomed after the first observation of the quantum spin Hall (QSH) effect in HgTe quantum wells. However, studies have been hindered by the relative fragility of the edge states. Their stability has been a subject of both theoretical and experimental investigation in the last decade. Here we present a new generation of high quality (Cd,Hg)Te/HgTe-structures based on a new chemical etching method. From magnetotransport measurements on macro - and micr...

Do criminal associates impact psychiatric inpatients' social support and interpersonal needs?

Suicide risk is elevated among psychiatric inpatients; however, research has not examined moderators of the associations between perceived social support and thwarted belongingness (TB) and perceived burdensomeness (PB), such as involvement with criminal associates. Adult psychiatric inpatients (N = 142) completed assessments. Perceived social support was negatively associated with TB and PB; however, associates' criminal involvement did not moderate these associations. A significant interaction indicat...

Spin-Hall effect in the scattering of structured light from plasmonic nanowire.

Spin-orbit interactions are subwavelength phenomena that can potentially lead to numerous device-related applications in nanophotonics. Here, we report the spin-Hall effect in the forward scattering of Hermite-Gaussian (HG) and Gaussian beams from a plasmonic nanowire. Asymmetric scattered radiation distribution was observed for circularly polarized beams. Asymmetry in the scattered radiation distribution changes the sign when the polarization handedness inverts. We found a significant enhancement in the sp...

Spin-Dependent Processes Measured without a Permanent Magnet.

A novel Hall circuit design that can be incorporated into a working electrode, which is used to probe spin-selective charge transfer and charge displacement processes, is reviewed herein. The general design of a Hall circuit based on a semiconductor heterostructure, which forms a shallow 2D electron gas and is used as an electrode, is described. Three different types of spin-selective processes have been studied with this device in the past: i) photoinduced charge exchange between quantum dots and the worki...

Inter-Landau-level Andreev Reflection at the Dirac Point in a Graphene Quantum Hall State Coupled to a NbSe_{2} Superconductor.

Superconductivity and the quantum Hall effect are distinct states of matter occurring in apparently incompatible physical conditions. Recent theoretical developments suggest that the coupling of the quantum Hall effect with a superconductor can provide fertile ground for realizing exotic topological excitations such as non-Abelian Majorana fermions or Fibonacci particles. As a step toward that goal, we report observation of Andreev reflection at the junction of a quantum Hall edge state in a single layer gr...

Quantum Hall Effect in Electron-doped Black Phosphorus Field-effect Transistors.

The advent of black phosphorus field-effect transistors (FETs) has brought new possibilities in the study of two-dimensional (2D) electron systems. In a black phosphorus FET, the gate induces highly anisotropic two-dimensional electron and hole gases. While the 2D hole gas in black phosphorus has reached high carrier mobilities that led to the observation of the integer quantum Hall effect, the improvement in the sample quality of the 2D electron gas (2DEG) has however been only moderate; quantum Hall effec...

Skyrmionium - high velocity without the skyrmion Hall effect.

The lateral motion of a magnetic skyrmion, arising because of the skyrmion Hall effect, imposes a number of restrictions on the use of this spin state in the racetrack memory. A skyrmionium is a more promising spin texture for memory applications, since it has zero total topological charge and propagates strictly along a nanotrack. Here, the stability of the skyrmionium, as well as the dependence of its size on the magnetic parameters, such as the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction and perpendicular magnetic...

Time-of-Flight Measurements as a Possible Method to Observe Anyonic Statistics.

We propose a standard time-of-flight experiment as a method for observing the anyonic statistics of quasiholes in a fractional quantum Hall state of ultracold atoms. The quasihole states can be stably prepared by pinning the quasiholes with localized potentials and a measurement of the mean square radius of the freely expanding cloud, which is related to the average total angular momentum of the initial state, offers direct signatures of the statistical phase. Our proposed method is validated by Monte Carl...

The Government response to the consultation on nursing associates.

Emeritus Professor Alan Glasper, from the University of Southampton, discusses a recently published report from the Government on the response to proposals concerning the regulation of nursing associates in England.

Majorana quantization and half-integer thermal quantum Hall effect in a Kitaev spin liquid.

The quantum Hall effect in two-dimensional electron gases involves the flow of topologically protected dissipationless charge currents along the edges of a sample. Integer or fractional electrical conductance is associated with edge currents of electrons or quasiparticles with fractional charges, respectively. It has been predicted that quantum Hall phenomena can also be created by edge currents with a fundamentally different origin: the fractionalization of quantum spins. However, such quantization has not...

Cortical associates of emotional reactivity and regulation in childhood stuttering.

This study sought to determine the cortical associates of emotional reactivity and emotion regulation (as indexed by the amplitude of evoked response potentials [ERP]) in young children who do and do not stutter during passive viewing of pleasant, unpleasant and neutral pictures.

Time-Reversal Symmetry-Breaking Nematic Insulators near Quantum Spin Hall Phase Transitions.

We study the phase diagram of a model quantum spin Hall system as a function of band inversion and band-coupling strength, demonstrating that when band hybridization is weak, an interaction-induced nematic insulator state emerges over a wide range of band inversion. This property is a consequence of the long-range Coulomb interaction, which favors interband phase coherence that is weakly dependent on momentum and therefore frustrated by the single-particle Hamiltonian at the band inversion point. For weak b...

Observation of Extrinsic Photo-Induced Inverse Spin Hall Effect in a GaAs/AlGaAs Two-Dimensional Electron Gas.

The inverse spin Hall effect induced by circularly polarized light has been observed in a GaAs/AlGaAs two-dimensional electron gas. The spin transverse force has been determined by fitting the photo-induced inverse spin Hall effect (PISHE) current to a theoretical model. The PISHE current is also measured at different light power and different light spot profiles, and all the measurement results are in good agreement with the theoretical calculations. We also measure the PISHE current at different temperatu...

Anomalous Hall Effect in 2D Dirac Materials.

We present a unified theory of charge carrier transport in 2D Dirac systems with broken mirror inversion and time-reversal symmetries (e.g., as realized in ferromagnetic graphene). We find that the entanglement between spin and pseudospin SU(2) degrees of freedom stemming from spin-orbit effects leads to a distinctive gate voltage dependence (change of sign) of the anomalous Hall conductivity approaching the topological gap, which remains robust against impurity scattering and thus is a smoking gun for magn...

Unusual Thermal Hall Effect in a Kitaev Spin Liquid Candidate α-RuCl_{3}.

The Kitaev quantum spin liquid displays the fractionalization of quantum spins into Majorana fermions. The emergent Majorana edge current is predicted to manifest itself in the form of a finite thermal Hall effect, a feature commonly discussed in topological superconductors. Here we report on thermal Hall conductivity κ_{xy} measurements in α-RuCl_{3}, a candidate Kitaev magnet with the two-dimensional honeycomb lattice. In a spin-liquid (Kitaev paramagnetic) state below the temperature characterized by t...

Spin Thermal Hall Conductivity of a Kagome Antiferromagnet.

A clear thermal Hall signal (κ_{xy}) was observed in the spin-liquid phase of the S=1/2 kagome antiferromagnet Ca kapellasite [CaCu_{3}(OH)_{6}Cl_{2}·0.6H_{2}O]. We found that κ_{xy} is well reproduced, both qualitatively and quantitatively, using the Schwinger-boson mean-field theory with the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction of D/J∼0.1. In particular, κ_{xy} values of Ca kapellasite and those of another kagome antiferromagnet, volborthite, converge to one single curve in simulations modeled using Sc...

Phase difference dependence of output power in synchronized stacked spin Hall nano-oscillators.

Synchronization between stacked spin Hall nano-oscillators (SHNO), attributed to the spin Hall effect (SHE) and anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) effect, was studied by numerical calculations. In order to obtain the synchronized state of the SHNOs, we considered the magneto-dipolar field, which was calculated in the rectangular prism. We revealed that the output power depended on the distance between the SHNOs, as the phase difference between the SHNOs depended on the coupling strength. For N = 3 (nu...

Surface and 3D Quantum Hall Effects from Engineering of Exceptional Points in Nodal-Line Semimetals.

We show that, under a strong magnetic field, a 3D nodal-line semimetal is driven into a topological insulating phase in which the electronic transport takes place at the surface of the material. When the magnetic field is perpendicular to the nodal ring, the surface states of the semimetal are transmuted into Landau states which correspond to exceptional points, i.e., branch points in the spectrum of a non-Hermitian Hamiltonian which arise upon the extension to complex values of the momentum. The complex st...

Grain Boundary Sliding and Amorphization are Responsible for the Reverse Hall-Petch Relation in Superhard Nanocrystalline Boron Carbide.

The recent observation of the reverse Hall-Petch relation in nanocrystalline ceramics offers a possible pathway to achieve enhanced ductility for traditional brittle ceramics via the nanosize effect, just as nanocrystalline metals and alloys. However, the underlying deformation mechanisms of nanocrystalline ceramics have not been well established. Here we combine reactive molecular dynamics (RMD) simulations and experimental transmission electron microscopy to determine the atomic level deformation mechanis...


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