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Mutations have been investigated for more than a century but remain difficult to observe directly in single cells, which limits the characterization of their dynamics and fitness effects. By combining microfluidics, time-lapse imaging, and a fluorescent tag of the mismatch repair system in, we visualized the emergence of mutations in single cells, revealing Poissonian dynamics. Concomitantly, we tracked the growth and life span of single cells, accumulating ~20,000 mutations genome-wide over hundreds of gen...
Discretionary screen time (time spent viewing a television or computer screen during leisure time) is an important contributor to total sedentary behaviour, which is associated with increased risk of mortality and cardiovascular disease (CVD). The aim of this study was to determine whether the associations of screen time with cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality were modified by levels of cardiorespiratory fitness, grip strength or physical activity.
Cardiorespiratory fitness is positively related to heart failure (HF) prognosis, but lack of time and low energy are barriers for adherence to exercise. We, therefore, compared the effect of low-volume time-based resistance exercise training (TRE) with aerobic moderate-intensity cycling (AMC) on maximal and submaximal exercise capacity, health-related quality of life, and vascular function.
The aim of this study was to examine the effects of aerobic high-intensity training with reduced volume and training cessation on body composition and physical fitness after the end of season and the time required to recapture physical fitness with intensified retraining following two weeks of detraining in elite soccer players.
Could seasonally deteriorating environments favour the evolution of autogamous selfing and a drought escape physiology through indirect selection? A test of the time limitation hypothesis using artificial selection in Clarkia.
The evolution of selfing from outcrossing may be the most common transition in plant reproductive systems and is associated with a variety of ecological circumstances and life history strategies. The most widely discussed explanation for these associations is the reproductive assurance hypothesis - the proposition that selfing is favoured because it increases female fitness when outcross pollen receipt is limited. Here an alternative explanation, the time limitation hypothesis, is addressed, one scenario of...
The purpose of this investigation was to examine changes over time in the physical fitness of the United States (US) Army infantry. A systematic review was conducted to identify and analyze articles and databases that reported on physical characteristics (height, weight, and body mass index) and/or Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT) scores of male infantrymen or men in infantry units.
Physical fitness (PF) and adherence to the Mediterranean diet are important indicators of healthy lifestyles. The purpose of this study is to analyze the independent and combined associations between PF and adherence to Mediterranean diet with health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in adolescents.
Physical activity improves general health and quality of life. A stressful academic environment can increase both physical and mental health disruptions in medical and nursing students, negatively impacting physical activity and fitness. We explored the relationship between the fitness profiles of 202 medical and graduate nursing students with self-reported levels of general and emotional health to elucidate the role of the psychosocial factors involved in choosing to exercise.
In this paper we introduce a novel algorithm, called Exogenous Fitness, to calculate the Fitness of subnational entities and we apply it to the states of Brazil. In the last decade, several indices were introduced to measure the competitiveness of countries by looking at the complexity of their export basket. Tacchella et al (2012) developed a non-monetary metric called Fitness. In this paper, after an overview about Brazil as a whole and the comparison with the other BRIC countries, we introduce a new meth...
To assess criterion validity of a single item question on self-rated physical fitness against objectively measured cardiorespiratory fitness. From the Health2008 study 749 men and women between 30 and 60 years of age rated their fitness as excellent, very good, good, fair or poor. Cardiorespiratory fitness was estimated with the watt-max test. Agreement between self-rated and objectively measured physical fitness was assessed by Cohen's weighted kappa coefficient. Correlation was determined by Goodman & Kru...
Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) are known to have poor physical fitness. However, differentiating homogenous subgroups of DCD using fitness performance has not yet been established. Therefore the purpose of this study was to identify subtypes in children with and without DCD using measures of physical fitness.
Numerous studies have reported a strong association between temperature and mortality. Additional insights can be gained from investigating the effects of temperature on years of life lost (YLL), considering the life expectancy at the time of death.
Two critical developmental transitions in plants are seed germination and flowering, and the timing of these transitions has strong fitness consequences. How genetically independent the regulation of these transitions is can influence the expression of life cycles.
Age-specific survival and reproduction are closely linked to fitness and therefore subject to strong selection that typically limits their variability within species. Furthermore, adult survival rate in vertebrate populations is typically less variable over time than other life-history traits, such as fecundity or recruitment. Hence, adult survival is often conserved within a population over time, compared to the variation in survival found across taxa. In stark contrast to this general pattern, we report e...
There are a high number of soldiers with deployment-related and non-deployment-related mental health problems in the German Armed Forces (Bundeswehr): This has led to an increase in mental disorders and a decrease in quality of life. To tackle these problems and to strengthen resources among the Bundeswehr personnel, this study aims at developing a screening instrument for assessing the psychological fitness of soldiers on the basis of questionnaire scales. In this approach, psychological fitness describes ...
In nature, selection varies across time in most environments, but we lack an understanding of how specific ecological changes drive this variation. Ecological factors can alter phenotypic selection coefficients through changes in trait distributions or individual mean fitness, even when the trait-absolute fitness relationship remains constant. We apply and extend a regression-based approach in a population of Soay sheep (Ovis aries) and suggest metrics of environment-selection relationships that can be comp...
The prevalence of obesity is increasing among children nationally. Native American children from Zuni Pueblo appear to be at increased risk for obesity, which also increases the risk for the metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. While exercise and physical fitness can prevent or forestall these developments, predictors of physical fitness in this population are unknown. Forty-seven Native American adolescents completed four aspects of the Presidential Fitness Challenge (push-ups, sit-ups...
The United States Air Force currently uses AFI 36-2905 for cardiovascular fitness standards and evaluation. Regarding its fitness test, the Air Force considers waist circumference (WC) twice as important as push-ups or sit-ups. Because of this weighting, one assumes that the Air Force considers WC relatively correlated with overall fitness or at least cardiovascular fitness. To our knowledge, the Air Force has not considered on a large scale how body mass index (BMI), height-to-weight ratio (H-W), or waist-...
Children and adolescents with an univentricular heart after total cavopulmonary connection (TCPC) have functional impairments. This study assesses health-related physical fitness (HRPF) and exercise capacity, as well as their relation to health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with an univentricular heart after total-pulmonary connection (TCPC).
Body size is a key determinant of mortality risk. In natural populations, a broad range of relationships are observed between body size and mortality, including positive and negative correlations. Previous evolutionary modeling has shown that negatively size-dependent mortality can result in life-history bistability, with early maturation at small size and late maturation at large size representing alternative fitness optima. Here we present a general analysis of conditions under which such life-history bis...
Mutualistic relationships with microbes may aid plants in overcoming environmental stressors and increase the range of abiotic environments where plants can persist. Rhizobia, nitrogen-fixing bacteria associated with legumes, often confer fitness benefits to their host plants by increasing access to nitrogen in nitrogen-limited soils, but effects of rhizobia on host fitness under other stresses, such as drought, remain unclear.
Fitness centers could be ideal places for people with disabilities to engage in the recommended levels of physical activity for healthy well-being. However, one of the primary barriers to participation at fitness centers is an inaccessible built environment.
Little is known about the financial costs that smoking adds to the life-time treatment of periodontal disease.
Coevolutionary interactions between pathogens and their insect vectors can dramatically impact the fitness of herbivorous insects and patterns of plant disease transmission. Soybean mosaic virus (SMV) is a common disease in soybean production worldwide. Infected seed is the primary source of inoculum in fields and the virus is secondarily spread among plants by the soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), in a nonpersistent manner. In this study, we compared the biological fitness of ...
Local adaptation can lead to genotype-by-environment interactions, which can create fitness tradeoffs in alternative environments, and govern the distribution of biodiversity across geographic landscapes. Exploring the ecological circumstances that promote the evolution of fitness tradeoffs requires identifying how natural selection operates and during which ontogenetic stages natural selection is strongest. When organisms disperse to areas outside their natural range, tradeoffs might emerge when organisms ...