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Mutations have been investigated for more than a century but remain difficult to observe directly in single cells, which limits the characterization of their dynamics and fitness effects. By combining microfluidics, time-lapse imaging, and a fluorescent tag of the mismatch repair system in, we visualized the emergence of mutations in single cells, revealing Poissonian dynamics. Concomitantly, we tracked the growth and life span of single cells, accumulating ~20,000 mutations genome-wide over hundreds of gen...
Discretionary screen time (time spent viewing a television or computer screen during leisure time) is an important contributor to total sedentary behaviour, which is associated with increased risk of mortality and cardiovascular disease (CVD). The aim of this study was to determine whether the associations of screen time with cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality were modified by levels of cardiorespiratory fitness, grip strength or physical activity.
The aim of this study was to examine the effects of aerobic high-intensity training with reduced volume and training cessation on body composition and physical fitness after the end of season and the time required to recapture physical fitness with intensified retraining following two weeks of detraining in elite soccer players.
Research is emerging suggesting that fitness not only improves health, but enhances academic achievement in children. Many studies have found the strongest correlation with academic achievement to be aerobic fitness. The purpose of this study is to examine the influence of aerobic fitness and academic ranking on the association between improvements in students' aerobic fitness and their academic achievement.
The purpose of this investigation was to examine changes over time in the physical fitness of the United States (US) Army infantry. A systematic review was conducted to identify and analyze articles and databases that reported on physical characteristics (height, weight, and body mass index) and/or Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT) scores of male infantrymen or men in infantry units.
Physical fitness (PF) and adherence to the Mediterranean diet are important indicators of healthy lifestyles. The purpose of this study is to analyze the independent and combined associations between PF and adherence to Mediterranean diet with health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in adolescents.
Physical activity improves general health and quality of life. A stressful academic environment can increase both physical and mental health disruptions in medical and nursing students, negatively impacting physical activity and fitness. We explored the relationship between the fitness profiles of 202 medical and graduate nursing students with self-reported levels of general and emotional health to elucidate the role of the psychosocial factors involved in choosing to exercise.
In this paper we introduce a novel algorithm, called Exogenous Fitness, to calculate the Fitness of subnational entities and we apply it to the states of Brazil. In the last decade, several indices were introduced to measure the competitiveness of countries by looking at the complexity of their export basket. Tacchella et al (2012) developed a non-monetary metric called Fitness. In this paper, after an overview about Brazil as a whole and the comparison with the other BRIC countries, we introduce a new meth...
To assess criterion validity of a single item question on self-rated physical fitness against objectively measured cardiorespiratory fitness. From the Health2008 study 749 men and women between 30 and 60 years of age rated their fitness as excellent, very good, good, fair or poor. Cardiorespiratory fitness was estimated with the watt-max test. Agreement between self-rated and objectively measured physical fitness was assessed by Cohen's weighted kappa coefficient. Correlation was determined by Goodman & Kru...
Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) are known to have poor physical fitness. However, differentiating homogenous subgroups of DCD using fitness performance has not yet been established. Therefore the purpose of this study was to identify subtypes in children with and without DCD using measures of physical fitness.
There are a high number of soldiers with deployment-related and non-deployment-related mental health problems in the German Armed Forces (Bundeswehr): This has led to an increase in mental disorders and a decrease in quality of life. To tackle these problems and to strengthen resources among the Bundeswehr personnel, this study aims at developing a screening instrument for assessing the psychological fitness of soldiers on the basis of questionnaire scales. In this approach, psychological fitness describes ...
In nature, selection varies across time in most environments, but we lack an understanding of how specific ecological changes drive this variation. Ecological factors can alter phenotypic selection coefficients through changes in trait distributions or individual mean fitness, even when the trait-absolute fitness relationship remains constant. We apply and extend a regression-based approach in a population of Soay sheep (Ovis aries) and suggest metrics of environment-selection relationships that can be comp...
Children and adolescents with an univentricular heart after total cavopulmonary connection (TCPC) have functional impairments. This study assesses health-related physical fitness (HRPF) and exercise capacity, as well as their relation to health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with an univentricular heart after total-pulmonary connection (TCPC).
Body size is a key determinant of mortality risk. In natural populations, a broad range of relationships are observed between body size and mortality, including positive and negative correlations. Previous evolutionary modeling has shown that negatively size-dependent mortality can result in life-history bistability, with early maturation at small size and late maturation at large size representing alternative fitness optima. Here we present a general analysis of conditions under which such life-history bis...
Fitness centers could be ideal places for people with disabilities to engage in the recommended levels of physical activity for healthy well-being. However, one of the primary barriers to participation at fitness centers is an inaccessible built environment.
Mutualistic relationships with microbes may aid plants in overcoming environmental stressors and increase the range of abiotic environments where plants can persist. Rhizobia, nitrogen-fixing bacteria associated with legumes, often confer fitness benefits to their host plants by increasing access to nitrogen in nitrogen-limited soils, but effects of rhizobia on host fitness under other stresses, such as drought, remain unclear.
Coevolutionary interactions between pathogens and their insect vectors can dramatically impact the fitness of herbivorous insects and patterns of plant disease transmission. Soybean mosaic virus (SMV) is a common disease in soybean production worldwide. Infected seed is the primary source of inoculum in fields and the virus is secondarily spread among plants by the soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), in a nonpersistent manner. In this study, we compared the biological fitness of ...
We aimed to examine the cross-sectional associations of patterns of sedentary time (ST) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) with total fat mass index (FMI) and abdominal fat mass index (FMIabd) in children, and additionally, to analyze if cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) mediated these associations.
Little is known about the financial costs that smoking adds to the life-time treatment of periodontal disease.
Epidemiological studies have described the association between physical fitness and health. Few have reported the impact of seasonal variation on fitness determinants, in elderly. We investigated the effects of summer and winter environmental conditions on physical fitness, in both exercise and non-exercise elders. 371 non-institutionalized older adults (74.1% female; 78.4 ± 5.3 years) randomly recruited from a total sample of 1338 subjects from north of Portugal, were prospectively followed during 1...
Local adaptation can lead to genotype-by-environment interactions, which can create fitness tradeoffs in alternative environments, and govern the distribution of biodiversity across geographic landscapes. Exploring the ecological circumstances that promote the evolution of fitness tradeoffs requires identifying how natural selection operates and during which ontogenetic stages natural selection is strongest. When organisms disperse to areas outside their natural range, tradeoffs might emerge when organisms ...
The Rehabilitation Strategies in Esophagogastric cancer (RESTORE) randomized controlled trial evaluated the efficacy of a 12-week multidisciplinary program to increase the cardiorespiratory fitness and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of esophagogastric cancer survivors.
Drug resistance has been reported against all antimalarial drugs, and while parasites can evolve classical resistance mechanisms (e.g., efflux pumps), it is also possible that changes in life history traits could help parasites evade the effects of treatment. The life history of malaria parasites is governed by an intrinsic resource allocation problem: specialized stages are required for transmission, but producing these stages comes at the cost of producing fewer of the forms required for within-host survi...
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is associated with poor quality of life and disability. The short inflammatory bowel disease questionnaire (SIBDQ) is validated to determine patients quality of life at single time points, or improvement over time. Few studies have evaluated if sustained poor quality of life is associated with future healthcare utilization patterns.