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PubMed Journals Articles About "Lightweight Catalyst Artificial Photosynthesis" RSS

00:54 EST 25th November 2017 | BioPortfolio

Lightweight Catalyst Artificial Photosynthesis PubMed articles on BioPortfolio. Our PubMed references draw on over 21 million records from the medical literature. Here you can see the latest Lightweight Catalyst Artificial Photosynthesis articles that have been published worldwide.

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Showing "Lightweight Catalyst Artificial Photosynthesis" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 2,700+

Artificial Photosynthesis: Beyond Mimicking Nature.

In this Editorial, Guest Editors Holger Dau, Etsuko Fujita, and Licheng Sun introduce the Special Issue of ChemSusChem on "Artificial Photosynthesis for Sustainable Fuels". They discuss the need for non-fossil based fuels, introduce both biological and artificial photosynthesis, and outline various important concepts in artificial photosynthesis, including molecular and solid-state catalysts for water oxidation and hydrogen evolution, catalytic CO2 reduction, and photoelectrochemical systems.


Natural and Artificial Mn4Ca-cluster for Water-Splitting Reaction.

The oxygen-evolving center (OEC) in photosystem II (PSII) is a unique biological catalyst that splits water into electrons, protons and O2 by using solar energy. Recent crystallographic studies have revealed that the structure of the OEC is an asymmetric Mn4Ca-cluster, which provides a blueprint to develop man-made water-splitting catalysts in artificial photosynthesis. Although it is a great challenge to mimic the whole structure and function of the OEC in the laboratory, significant advances have recently...

Application of Pulse Radiolysis to Mechanistic Investigations of Catalysis Relevant to Artificial Photosynthesis.

Taking inspiration from natural photosystems, the goal of artificial photosynthesis is to harness solar energy to convert abundant materials, such as CO2 and H2O, into solar fuels. Catalysts are required to ensure that the necessary redox half-reactions proceed in the most energy-efficient manner. It is therefore critical to gain a detailed mechanistic understanding of these catalytic reactions in order to develop new and improved catalysts. Many of the key catalytic intermediates are short-lived transient ...


Molecular catalysts for artificial photosynthesis: general discussion.

Tuning of CO2 Reduction Selectivity on Metal Electrocatalysts.

Climate change, caused by heavy CO2 emissions, is driving new demands to alleviate the rising concentration of atmospheric CO2 levels. Enlightened by the photosynthesis of green plants, photo(electro)chemical catalysis of CO2 reduction, also known as artificial photosynthesis, is emerged as a promising candidate to address these demands and is widely investigated during the past decade. Among various artificial photosynthetic systems, solar-driven electrochemical CO2 reduction is widely recognized to posses...

Inorganic assembly catalysts for artificial photosynthesis: general discussion.

Biological approaches to artificial photosynthesis, fundamental processes and theoretical approaches: general discussion.

Elevated CO2 increases photosynthesis in fluctuating irradiance regardless of photosynthetic induction state.

Leaves are often exposed to fluctuating irradiance, which limits assimilation. Elevated CO2 enhances dynamic photosynthesis (i.e. photosynthesis in fluctuating irradiance) beyond its effects on steady-state photosynthesis rates. Studying the role of CO2 in dynamic photosynthesis is important for understanding plant responses to changing atmospheric CO2 partial pressures. The rise of photosynthesis after a step-wise increase to 1000 μmol m-2 s-1, the loss of photosynthetic induction after irradiance decreas...

Use of Cement Kiln Dust, Blast Furnace Slag and Marble Sludge in the Manufacture of Sustainable Artificial Aggregates by Means of Cold Bonding Pelletization.

In this work, three different samples of solid industrial wastes cement kiln dust (CKD), granulated blast furnace slag and marble sludge were employed in a cold bonding pelletization process for the sustainable production of artificial aggregates. The activating action of CKD components on the hydraulic behavior of the slag was explored by evaluating the neo-formed phases present in several hydrated pastes. Particularly, the influence of free CaO and sulfates amount in the two CKD samples on slag reactivity...

The Quest for Mononuclear Gold(II) and its Potential Role in Photocatalysis and Drug Action.

The chemistry of gold strongly focuses on the ubiquitous oxidation states +I and +III. The intermediate oxidation state +II is generally avoided in mononuclear gold species. In recent years, gold(II) has been increasingly suggested as key intermediate in artificial photosynthesis systems with gold(III) moieties as electron acceptors or in gold-catalyzed photoredox catalysis and radical chemistry. This Minireview provides a concise summary on confirmed and characterized mononuclear open-shell gold(II) comple...

A solid iridium catalyst for diastereoselective hydrogenation.

An Ir(NHC) supported catalyst is used in the selective hydrogenation of terpinen-4-ol to cis p-menthan-4-ol. Its activity, selectivity and stability are compared to those of a homogeneous homologue [IrCl(COD)MesImPr] and to a commercial Pd/C. The solid Ir catalyst is much more selective than the Pd catalyst (92 vs. 42% at 80°C) but also more active, more selective and more stable than the iridium complex in solution. For the first time, a supported catalyst shows an enhanced activity with respect to a comp...

Excitation-power modulates energy-transfer dynamics in a supramolecular RuII-FeII-RuII triad.

Multichromophoric arrays are key to light-harvesting in natural and artificial photosynthesis. A trinuclear, symmetric RuII-FeII-RuII triad may resemble a light-harvesting model system, in which excitation energy from donor units (Ru-terpyridine-fragments) is efficiently transferred to the acceptor (an Fe-terpyridine-fragment). The photoinduced dynamics after simultaneous excitation of more than a single chromophoric unit (donor/acceptor) at varying excitation fluence is investigated in this contribution. D...

Interactive effects of oxygen, carbon dioxide and flow on photosynthesis and respiration in the scleractinian coral Galaxea fascicularis.

Rates of dark respiration and net photosynthesis were measured on six replicate clonal fragments of the stony coral Galaxea fascicularis (Linnaeus 1767), which were incubated under twelve different combinations of dissolved oxygen (20%, 100% and 150% saturation), dissolved carbon dioxide (9.5 and 19.1 μmol L(-1)) and water flow (1-1.6 cm s(-1) versus 4-13 cm s(-1)) in a repeated measures design. Dark respiration was enhanced by increased flow and increased oxygen saturation in an interactive way, which rel...

CH3NH3PbBr3 Perovskite nanocrystals as efficient light harvesting antenna for fluorescence resonance energy transfer.

Hybrid perovskites have created enormous research interest as a low-cost material for high-performance photovoltaic devices, light-emitting diodes, photodetectors, memories and sensors. Perovskite materials in nanocrystal form, show intense luminescence due to quantum confinement effect, were found to be particularly suitable for most of these applications. However, the potential use of perovskite nanocrystals as a light harvesting antenna for possible applications in artificial photosynthesis systems is no...

The regulation of the chloroplast proton motive force plays a key role for photosynthesis in fluctuating light.

Plants use sunlight as their primary energy source. During photosynthesis, absorbed light energy generates reducing power by driving electron transfer reactions. These are coupled to the transfer of protons into the thylakoid lumen, generating a proton motive force (pmf) required for ATP synthesis. Sudden alterations in light availability have to be met by regulatory mechanisms to avoid the over-accumulation of reactive intermediates and maximize energy efficiency. Here, the acidification of the lumen, as a...

Switch in Catalyst State: Single Bifunctional Bi-State Catalyst for Two Different Reactions.

Disclosed here is a molecular switch which responds to acid-base stimuli and serves as a bi-state catalyst for two different reactions. The two states of the switch serve as a highly active and poorly active catalyst for two catalytic reactions (namely a hydrogenation and a dehydrogenative coupling) but in a complementary manner. The system was used in an assisted tandem catalysis set-up involving dehydrogenative coupling of an amine and then hydrogenation of the resulting imine product by switching between...

In situ temperature relationships of biochemical and stomatal controls of photosynthesis in four lowland tropical tree species.

Net photosynthetic carbon uptake of Panamanian lowland tropical forest species is typically optimal at 30-32°C. The processes responsible for the decrease in photosynthesis at higher temperatures are not fully understood for tropical trees. We determined temperature responses of maximum rates of RuBP-carboxylation (VCMax ) and RuBP-regeneration (JMax ), stomatal conductance (Gs ) and respiration in the light (RLight ) in situ for four lowland tropical tree species in Panama. Gs had the lowest temperature o...

An original valveless artificial heart providing pulsatile flow tested in mock circulatory loops.

We present the test bench results of a valveless total artificial heart that is potentially compatible with the pediatric population.

Catalytic, Conductive Bipolar Membrane Interfaces via Layer-by-Layer Deposition for the Design of Membrane-Integrated Artificial Photosynthesis Systems.

In the presence of an electric field, bipolar membranes (BPMs) are capable of initiating water disassociation (WD) within the interfacial region, which can make water splitting for renewable energy in the presence of a pH gradient possible. In addition to WD catalytic efficiency, there is also need for electronic conductivity in this region for membrane-integrated artificial photosynthesis (AP) systems. Graphene oxide (GO) has been shown to catalyze WD and to be controllably reduced resulting in electronic ...

Evaluating the attractiveness and effectiveness of artificial coral reefs as a recreational ecosystem service.

Artificial reefs are increasingly being used around the globe to attract recreational divers, for both environmental and commercial reasons. This paper examines artificial coral reefs as recreational ecosystem services (RES) by evaluating their attractiveness and effectiveness and by examining divers' attitudes toward them. An online survey targeted at divers in Israel (n = 263) indicated that 35% of the dives in Eilat (a resort city on the shore of the Red Sea) take place at artificial reefs. A second st...

Layer-by-Layer Assembly of Polyoxometalates for Photoelectrochemical (PEC) Water Splitting: Towards Modular PEC Devices.

Artificial photosynthesis is considered one of the most promising solutions to modern energy and environmental crises. Considering that it is enabled by multiple components through a series of photoelectrochemical processes, the key to successful development of a photosynthetic device depends not only on the development of novel individual components but also on the rational design of an integrated photosynthetic device assembled from them. However, most studies have been dedicated to the development of ind...

Overcoming the instability of nanoparticle based catalyst films in alkaline electrolysers by self-assembling and self-healing films.

Engineering stable electrodes using highly active catalyst nanopowders for electrochemical water splitting remains a notorious challenge. We report an innovative and general approach for attaining highly stable catalyst films with self-healing capability based on in-situ self-assembly of catalyst particles during electrolysis. The catalyst particles are added to the electrolyte forming a suspension that is pumped through the electrolyzer. Particles with negatively charged surfaces stick onto the anode, whil...

Changes in redox regulation during transition from C3 to single cell C4 photosynthesis in Bienertia sinuspersici.

Bienertia sinuspersici performs single cell C4 photosynthesis without Kranz anatomy. Peripheral and central cytoplasmic compartments in a single chlorenchyma cell act as mesophyll cells and bundle sheath cells. Development of this specialized mechanism is gradual during plant development. Young leaves perform C3 photosynthesis, while mature leaves have complete C4 cycle. The aim of this work was to investigate changes in redox regulation and antioxidant defence during transition from C3 to single cell C4 ph...

{Co4O4} and {CoxNi4-xO4} Cubane Water Oxidation Catalysts as Surface Cut-Outs of Cobalt Oxides.

The future of artificial photosynthesis depends on economic and robust water oxidation catalysts (WOCs). Cobalt-based WOCs are especially promising for knowledge transfer between homogeneous and heterogeneous catalyst design. We introduce the active and stable {Co(II)4O4} cubane [Co(II)4(dpy{OH}O)4(OAc)2(H2O)2](ClO4)2 (Co4O4-dpk) as the first molecular WOC with the characteristic {H2O-Co2(OR)2-OH2} edge-site motif representing the sine qua non moiety of the most efficient heterogeneous Co-oxide WOCs. DFT-MD...

Microstructural observation of fuel cell catalyst inks by Cryo-SEM and Cryo-TEM.

In order to improve the electricity generation performance of fuel cell electric vehicles, it is necessary to optimize the microstructure of the catalyst layer of a polymer electrolyte fuel cell. The catalyst layer is formed by a wet coating process using catalyst inks. Therefore, it is very important to observe the microstructure of the catalyst ink. In this study, the morphology of carbon-supported platinum (Pt/C) particles in catalyst inks with a different solvent composition was investigated by cryogeni...


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