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PubMed Journals Articles About "Making Meal Mosquito Spit Protein Controls Blood Feeding" RSS

06:13 EDT 20th June 2019 | BioPortfolio

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Showing "Making meal Mosquito spit protein controls blood feeding" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 31,000+

Malaria load affects the activity of mosquito salivary apyrase.

Mosquitoes infected by sporozoites, the infectious stage of malaria, bite more frequently than uninfected mosquitoes. One of the mechanisms underlying this behavioural change appears to be that the sporozoites decrease the activity of apyrase, an ADP-degrading enzyme that helps the mosquitoes to locate blood. Using the parasite Plasmodium berghei and the mosquito Anopheles gambiae, we confirmed that sporozoite infection alters the host-seeking behaviour of mosquitoes by making them more likely to refeed aft...


Complete NMR chemical shift assignments of odorant binding protein 22 from the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, bound to arachidonic acid.

Aedes aegypti mosquitoes are the vector for transmission of Dengue, Zika and chikungunya viruses. These mosquitos feed exclusively on human hosts for a blood meal. Previous studies have established that Dengue virus infection of the mosquito results in increased expression of the odorant binding proteins 22 and 10 within the mosquito salivary gland and silencing of these genes dramatically reduces blood-feeding behaviors. Odorant binding proteins are implicated in modulating the chemosensory perception of e...

Effects of host blood meal source on reproductive output, nutrient reserves and gut microbiome of West Nile virus vector Culex quinquefasciatus.

Female mosquitoes feed on blood from vertebrates, including humans, as a protein source to provision eggs. Through blood feeding, mosquitoes may transmit pathogens to humans and other animals. In diseases like malaria and dengue, humans are the main hosts and mosquitoes that preferentially feed on humans transmit the pathogens. We know relatively less about mosquitoes that switch between different vertebrate hosts and their underlying physiologic to utilize blood from different vertebrate hosts. Our study f...


Fat body-specific vitellogenin expression regulates host-seeking behaviour in the mosquito Aedes albopictus.

The high vector competence of mosquitoes is intrinsically linked to their reproductive strategy because females need a vertebrate blood meal to develop large batches of eggs. However, the molecular mechanisms and pathways regulating mosquito host-seeking behaviour are largely unknown. Here, we test whether host-seeking behaviour may be linked to the female's energy reserves, with low energy levels triggering the search for a nutrient-rich blood meal. Our results demonstrate that sugar feeding delays host-se...

Effect of Serratia AS1 (Enterobacteriaceae: Enterobacteriales) on the Fitness of Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) for Paratransgenic and RNAi Approaches.

The mosquito Culex pipiens is the primary vector of Rift Valley fever, West Nile, encephalitis, and Zika viruses, and periodic lymphatic filariasis. Developing insecticide resistance in mosquitoes demands the development of new approaches to fight these diseases. Paratransgenesis and RNAi approaches by using engineered bacteria have been shown to reduce mosquito vector competence. Serratia-AS1 is a bacterium found in mosquitoes and was genetically modified for expression of antimalaria effector molecules th...

Human Direct Skin Feeding versus Membrane Feeding to Assess the Mosquitocidal Efficacy of High-Dose Ivermectin (IVERMAL Trial).

Ivermectin is being considered for mass-drug-administration for malaria due to its ability to kill mosquitoes feeding on recently treated individuals. In a recent trial, 3-day courses of 300 and 600 mcg/kg/day were shown to kill Anopheles mosquitoes for at least 28 days post-treatment when fed patients' venous blood using membrane-feeding-assays. Direct-skin-feeding on humans may lead to higher mosquito-mortality as ivermectin capillary-concentrations are higher. We compared mosquito-mortality following dir...

Small-Molecule Agonists of Ae. aegypti Neuropeptide Y Receptor Block Mosquito Biting.

Female Aedes aegypti mosquitoes bite humans to obtain blood to develop their eggs. Remarkably, their strong attraction to humans is suppressed for days after the blood meal by an unknown mechanism. We investigated a role for neuropeptide Y (NPY)-related signaling in long-term behavioral suppression and discovered that drugs targeting human NPY receptors modulate mosquito host-seeking. In a screen of all 49 predicted Ae. aegypti peptide receptors, we identified NPY-like receptor 7 (NPYLR7) as the sole target...

Acceptability of Aedes aegypti blood feeding on dengue virus-infected human volunteers for vector competence studies in Iquitos, Peru.

As part of a study to investigate drivers of dengue virus (DENV) transmission dynamics, this qualitative study explored whether DENV-infected residents of Iquitos, Peru, considered it acceptable (1) to participate in direct mosquito feeding experiments (lab-reared Aedes aegypti mosquitoes fed directly on human volunteers) and (2) to provide blood meals indirectly (Ae. aegypti fed on blood drawn from participants by venipuncture). Twelve focus group discussions (FGDs; 94 participants: 82 females and 12 males...

The Muscle Protein Synthetic Response to Meal Ingestion Following Resistance-Type Exercise.

Protein ingestion following resistance-type exercise stimulates muscle protein synthesis rates and consequently enhances the skeletal muscle adaptive response to prolonged training. Ingestion of ~ 20 g of quickly digestible protein isolate optimizes muscle protein synthesis rates during the first few hours of post-exercise recovery. However, the majority of daily protein intake is consumed as slower digestible, nutrient-rich, whole-food protein sources as part of mixed meals. Therefore, the muscle prot...

In vivo digestion characteristics of protein sources fed to broilers.

The rate and extent of protein digestion are relevant to broiler performance and health, but information is lacking on the rate of digestion and the characteristics of the undigested fraction for common protein feed ingredients. Therefore, this study evaluated the digestion kinetics and the distal ileum (DI) digesta protein characteristics of protein meals fed to broiler chickens. Using a completely randomized design, 360 male broilers at 14 D of age were assigned to 60 battery cages and fed semi-purified d...

Functional and structural similarities of D7 proteins in the independently-evolved salivary secretions of sand flies and mosquitoes.

The habit of blood feeding evolved independently in many insect orders of families. Sand flies and mosquitoes belong to separate lineages of blood-feeding Diptera and are thus considered to have evolved the trait independently. Because of this, sand fly salivary proteins differ structurally from those of mosquitoes, and orthologous groups are nearly impossible to define. An exception is the long-form D7-like proteins that show conservation with their mosquito counterparts of numerous residues associated wit...

Length-specific occurrence and profile of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in animal protein feeds.

Animal protein supplement feeds (APFs) are susceptible to perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) and could be the main sources for raised animals, thereafter causing further human exposure through the farm-to-fork pathway. However, the occurrence of PFAAs has been rarely evaluated in various APFs, especially for emerging short-chain PFAAs. In the present study, we collected the most prevalent APFs (blood meal, meat meal, feather meal, soybean meal and DDGS) and found that ΣPFAAs ranged from undetectable to 37.1 ng...

Establishing and maintaining colonies of Forcipomyia taiwana in the laboratory.

Successful colonies of the biting midge Forcipomyia taiwana (Shiraki) were established and maintained in the laboratory by feeding blood with an artificial blood-feeding apparatus, rearing larvae on a soil substrate employing algae liquid, and setting suitable mating cages. The feeding rates of F. taiwana fed on pig blood (69.9%) and artificial blood (72.7%) were not significantly different from those fed on human blood (67.0%). The mean numbers of adults produced by females fed on the artificial blood and ...

Entomological Risk Factors for Potential Transmission of Rift Valley Fever Virus Around Concentrations of Livestock in Colorado.

Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) poses a major threat of introduction to several continents, including North America. Such an introduction could cause significant losses to the livestock industry, in addition to substantial human morbidity and mortality. Because of the opportunistic blood host selection of Cx. tarsalis mosquitoes, we hypothesized that this species could be an important bridge vector of RVFV near feedlots in the event of an introduction. We investigated the mosquito community composition at li...

Evaluation of a novel West Nile virus transmission control strategy that targets Culex tarsalis with endectocide-containing blood meals.

Control of arbovirus transmission remains focused on vector control through application of insecticides directly to the environment. However, these insecticide applications are often reactive interventions that can be poorly-targeted, inadequate for localized control during outbreaks, and opposed due to environmental and toxicity concerns. In this study, we developed endectocide-treated feed as a systemic endectocide for birds to target blood feeding Culex tarsalis, the primary West Nile virus (WNV) bridge ...

The role of vagal activation in postprandial glucose metabolism after gastric bypass in individuals with and without hypoglycemia.

Patients with gastric bypass surgery (GB) have enhanced postprandial hyperinsulinemia and incretin effect. Here we sought to determine the effect of vagal activation, a neural component of the enteroinsular axis, on postprandial glucose metabolism in patients with and without hypoglycemia after GB. Seven subjects with documented post-GB hypoglycemia (HGB), 7 GB subjects without hypoglycemia (AGB), and 10 weight-matched non-surgical controls with normal glucose tolerance (CN) were recruited. Blood glucose, a...

Dietary replacement of fish-meal impaired protein synthesis and immune response of juvenile Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei at low salinity.

An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of fish-meal replacement on growth performance, protein synthesis and immune response of juvenile Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei reared at low salinity (7‰). Five isonitrogenous and isolipidic diets were formulated to contain graded levels (25, 20, 15, 10 and 5%) of fish-meal. High quality alternative solutions were performed, crystalline amino acids, phytase, mannan oligosaccharides and some micro-nutrients were supplemented in the ...

Linking Bird and Mosquito Data to Assess Spatiotemporal West Nile Virus Risk in Humans.

West Nile virus (WNV; family Flaviviridae) causes a disease in humans that may develop into a deadly neuroinvasive disease. In North America, several peridomestic bird species can develop sufficient viremia to infect blood-feeding mosquito vectors without succumbing to the virus. Mosquito species from the genus Culex, Aedes and Ochlerotatus display variable host preferences, ranging between birds and mammals, including humans, and may bridge transmission among avian hosts and contribute to spill-over transm...

Identification of gravid mosquitoes from changes in spectral and polarimetric backscatter cross-sections.

Improving the survey of mosquito populations is of the utmost importance to further enhance mitigation techniques that protect human populations from mosquito-borne diseases. While mosquito populations are generally studied using physical traps, stand-off optical sensors allow to study insect ecosystems with potentially better spatial and temporal resolution. This can be greatly beneficial to eco-epidemiological models and various mosquito control programs. In this contribution, we demonstrate that the grav...

Dietary protein affects both the dose and pattern of insulin delivery required to achieve postprandial euglycaemia in Type 1 diabetes: a randomized trial.

To quantify the insulin requirement for a high-protein meal compared with a low-protein meal, controlling for carbohydrate and fat content.

IgG1 and IgG4 antibodies against Aedes aegypti salivary proteins and risk for dengue infections.

Dengue virus (DENV) is an arbovirus responsible for a significant number of deaths in Latin America. This virus is transmitted through the bite of Aedes aegypti, the main mosquito vector, and Ae. albopictus. During blood uptake, the mosquito injects its saliva into the host to facilitate the feeding process. Mosquito saliva contains potent immunogens capable of inducing antibody production directly related to mosquito bite exposure intensity and disease risk. In this study, we first determined the DENV infe...

Gut Hormone Responses to Mixed Meal Test in New-Onset Prediabetes/Diabetes After Acute Pancreatitis.

The study was aimed to investigate gut hormone responses to mixed meal test in individuals with new-onset prediabetes or diabetes after acute pancreatitis (cases) compared with healthy controls, and the effect of body fat parameters. A total of 29 cases and 29 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were recruited. All participants were given standard mixed meal drink and blood samples were collected to measure dipeptidyl peptidase IV, gastric inhibitory peptide, glucagon like peptide-1, insulin, oxyntomoduli...

The effect of a maternal meal on fetal liver blood flow.

During the third trimester of development, the human fetus accumulates fat, an important energy reservoir during the early postnatal period. The fetal liver, perfused by the nutrient-rich and well-oxygenated blood coming directly from the placenta, is assumed to play a central role in these processes. Earlier studies have linked fetal liver blood flow with maternal nutritional status and response to the maternal oral glucose tolerance test. Our aim was to explore the effect of a regular maternal meal on fet...

Comparative analysis of three methods from dried blood spots for expeditious DNA extraction from mosquitoes; suitable for PCR based techniques.

The objective of this work was to compare the quality, purity and quantity of DNA isolated from dried blood spots (DBS) by three methods (Chelex-100, QIAamp DNA mini kit, and TE (Tris EDTA)-Buffer). Sample collection was performed in six districts in Odisha, India and screened for cases of clinical malaria and dengue and vector density. Mosquito abdomens were spotted on Whatman 3MM (MERCK) Filter paper and dried for 10 min at room temperature. DNA was isolated from DBS using three methods (Chelex-100, QIAa...

Gene cloning and expression of a partial sequence of Hirudomacin, an antimicrobial protein that is increased in leech (Hirudo nipponica Whitman) after a blood meal.

The novel antimicrobial gene Hirudomacin (Hmc), with a 249-bp cDNA, encodes a mature protein of 61 amino acids and a 22-amino acid signal peptide. Hmc exhibits the highest similarity, at 90.1%, with macin family members found in the salivary gland of the leech Hirudo nipponica Whitman. A mature Hmc protein concentration of 219 μg/mL was detected using the Bradford method. The mature Hmc protein is 6862.82 Da and contains 8 cysteine residues. Antimicrobial assays showed a minimum bactericidal concentrat...


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