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PubMed Journals Articles About "Mapping First Family Tree Tropical Forests" RSS

05:21 EST 12th December 2018 | BioPortfolio

Mapping First Family Tree Tropical Forests PubMed articles on BioPortfolio. Our PubMed references draw on over 21 million records from the medical literature. Here you can see the latest Mapping First Family Tree Tropical Forests articles that have been published worldwide.

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Showing "Mapping first family tree tropical forests" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 9,100+

Tree stem bases are sources of CH and N O in a tropical forest on upland soil during the dry to wet season transition.

Tropical forests on upland soils are assumed to be a methane (CH ) sink and a weak source of nitrous oxide (N O), but studies of wetland forests have demonstrated that tree stems can be a substantial source of CH , and recent evidence from temperate woodlands suggests that tree stems can also emit N O. Here, we measured CH and N O fluxes from the soil and from tree stems in a semi-evergreen tropical forest on upland soil. To examine the influence of seasonality, soil abiotic conditions, and substrate availa...


The potential of the tree water potential.

Non-invasive quantification of tree water potential is one of the grand challenges for assessing the fate of trees and forests in the coming decades. Tree water potential is a robust and direct indicator of tree water status and is preferably used to track how trees, forests and vegetation in general respond to changes in climate and drought. In this issue of Tree Physiology, Dietrich et al. (2018) predict the daily canopy water potential of mature temperate trees from tree water deficit derived from stem d...

Can plant DNA barcoding be implemented in species-rich tropical regions? A perspective from São Paulo State, Brazil.

DNA barcoding helps to identify species, especially when identification is based on parts of organisms or life stages such as seeds, pollen, wood, roots or juveniles. However, the implementation of this approach strongly depends on the existence of complete reference libraries of DNA sequences. If such a library is incomplete, DNA-based identification will be inefficient. Here, we assess if DNA barcoding can already be implemented in species-rich tropical regions. We focus on the tree flora of São Paulo st...


Soil drivers of local-scale tree growth in a lowland tropical forest.

Soil nutrients influence the distribution of tree species in lowland tropical forests, but their effect on productivity, especially at local scales, remains unclear. We used tree census, canopy occupancy, and soil data from the Barro Colorado Island (BCI; Panama) 50-ha forest dynamics plot to investigate the influence of soil nutrients and potential toxins on aboveground tree productivity. Growth was calculated as the increase in diameter of 150,000 individual stems ≥1 cm diameter at breast height, repre...

Seasonal changes in the diversity and composition of the litter fauna in native forests and rubber plantations.

The litter layer of tropical forests supports a significant fraction of total arthropod diversity and decomposition of this layer is the main pathway by which nutrients are returned to the soil and CO to the atmosphere. Conversion of tropical forests to agriculture is the main threat to biodiversity and ecosystem services, and understanding effects on the litter layer is important for understanding and mitigating these impacts. We used high through-put DNA sequencing of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidas...

Responses of forest ecosystems to increasing N deposition in China: A critical review.

China has been experiencing a rapid increase in nitrogen (N) deposition due to intensified anthropogenic N emissions since the late 1970s. By synthesizing experimental and observational data taken from literature, we reviewed the responses of China's forests to increasing N deposition over time, with a focus on soil biogeochemical properties and acidification, plant nutrient stoichiometry, understory biodiversity, forest growth, and carbon (C) sequestration. Nitrogen deposition generally increased soil N av...

Windthrows control biomass patterns and functional composition of Amazon forests.

Amazon forests account for ~25% of global land biomass and tropical tree species. In these forests, windthrows (i.e. snapped and uprooted trees) are a major natural disturbance, but the rates and mechanisms of recovery are not known. To provide a predictive framework for understanding the effects of windthrows on forest structure and functional composition (DBH ≥10 cm), we quantified biomass recovery as a function of windthrow severity (i.e. fraction of windthrow tree-mortality on Landsat pixels, ranging ...

Crown damage and the mortality of tropical trees.

What causes individual tree death in tropical forests remains a major gap in our understanding of the biology of tropical trees and leads to significant uncertainty in predicting global carbon cycle dynamics. We measured individual characteristics (diameter at breast height, wood density, growth rate, crown illumination and crown form) and environmental conditions (soil fertility and habitat suitability) for 26 425 trees ≥ 10 cm diameter at breast height belonging to 416 species in a 52-ha plot in L...

Seasonal changes in plant-water relations influence patterns of leaf display in Miombo woodlands: evidence of water conservative strategies.

Water availability has frequently been linked to seasonal leaf display in seasonally dry ecosystems, but there have been few ecohydrological investigations of this link. Miombo woodland is a dominant seasonally dry tropical forest ecosystem type in southern Africa; however, there are few data on the relationship between seasonal dynamics in plant-water relations and patterns of leaf display for Miombo woodland. Here we investigate this relationship among nine key Miombo woodland tree species differing in dr...

Drivers of tree carbon storage in subtropical forests.

Tropical and subtropical forest ecosystems play an important role in the global carbon regulation. Despite increasing evidence for effects of biodiversity (species diversity, functional diversity and functional dominance), stand structural attributes, stand age and environmental conditions (climate and topography) on tree carbon storage, the relative importance of these drivers at large scale is poorly understood. It is also still unclear whether biodiversity effects on tree carbon storage work through nich...

iForest: Interpreting Random Forests via Visual Analytics.

As an ensemble model that consists of many independent decision trees, random forests generate predictions by feeding the input to internal trees and summarizing their outputs. The ensemble nature of the model helps random forests outperform any individual decision tree. However, it also leads to a poor model interpretability, which significantly hinders the model from being used in fields that require transparent and explainable predictions, such as medical diagnosis and financial fraud detection. The inte...

Tree leaf trade-offs are stronger for sub-canopy trees: leaf traits reveal little about growth rates in canopy trees.

Can morphological plant functional traits predict demographic rates (e.g., growth) within plant communities as diverse as tropical forests? This is one of the most important next-step questions in trait-based ecology and particularly for global reforestation efforts. Due to the diversity of tropical tree species and their longevity, it is difficult to predict their performance prior to reforestation efforts. In this study, we investigate if simple leaf traits are predictors of the more complex ecological pr...

Spatial variability of tree species diversity in a mixed tropical forest in Southern Brazil.

Floristic surveys and diversity indices are often applied to measure tree species diversity in mixed tropical forest remnants. However, these analyses are frequently limited to the overall results and do not allow to evaluate the spatial variability distributions of tree diversity, leading to develop additional tools. This study aimed to estimate the spatial variability of tree diversity and map their spatial patterns in a Brazilian mixed tropical forest conservation area. We used indices to measure the tre...

Photosynthetic heat tolerance of shade and sun leaves of three tropical tree species.

Previous studies of heat tolerance of tropical trees have focused on canopy leaves exposed to full sunlight and high temperatures. However, in lowland tropical forests with leaf area indices of 5-6, the vast majority of leaves experience varying degrees of shade and a reduced heat load compared to sun leaves. Here we tested whether heat tolerance is lower in shade than in sun leaves. For three tropical tree species, Calophyllum inophyllum, Inga spectabilis, and Ormosia macrocalyx, disks of fully developed s...

Topography and neighborhood crowding can interact to shape species growth and distribution in a diverse Amazonian forest.

Abiotic constraints and biotic interactions act simultaneously to shape communities. However, these community assembly mechanisms are often studied independently, which can limit understanding of how they interact to affect species dynamics and distributions. We develop a hierarchical Bayesian neighborhood modeling approach to quantify the simultaneous effects of topography and crowding by neighbors on the growth of 124,704 individual stems ≥1 cm DBH for 1,047 tropical tree species in a 25-ha mapped rainf...

Spatial distribution, mobility and bioavailability of arsenic, lead, copper and zinc in low polluted forest ecosystem in North-western Mexico.

A geochemical-environmental mapping was carried for a low polluted forest in North-western Mexico (Santiago Papasquiaro mining area), as part of the North American forests accounting for environmental behavior of arsenic (As), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) in soil and tree components (stem wood and aciculums). Spectroscopic and microscopic techniques along with standard protocols were used to determine the mineralogical phases containing these elements, and their corresponding spatial distributions i...

Testing ecological theory with lianas.

Contents Summary 366 I. Introduction 366 II. Testing ecological theory: effects of the environment on lianas 369 III. A unified explanation for liana distribution and the maintenance of liana diversity 370 IV. Testing ecological theory: effects of lianas on the environment 373 V. Theoretical effects of lianas on forest diversity 375 VI. Lianas and trophic interactions in forests 375 VII. Unresolved challenges in liana ecology 376 VIII. Conclusions 377 Acknowledgements 377 References 377 SUMMARY: Lianas cons...

Nitrogen-induced new net primary production and carbon sequestration in global forests.

Nitrogen (N) deposition and biological N fixation (BNF) are main external N inputs into terrestrial ecosystems. However, few studies have simultaneously quantified the contribution of these two external N inputs to global NPP and consequent C sequestration. Based on literature analysis, we estimated new net primary production (NPP) due to external N inputs from BNF and N deposition and the consequent C sinks in global boreal, temperate and tropical forest biomes via a stoichiometric scaling approach. Nitrog...

Tropical savannas and dry forests.

In the tropics, research, conservation and public attention focus on rain forests, but this neglects that half of the global tropics have a seasonally dry climate. These regions are home to dry forests and savannas (Figures 1 and 2), and are the focus of this Primer. The attention given to rain forests is understandable. Their high species diversity, sheer stature and luxuriance thrill biologists today as much as they did the first explorers in the Age of Discovery. Although dry forest and savanna may make ...

Plant species diversity, community structure and invasion status in insular primary forests on the Sekimon uplifted limestone (Ogasawara Islands).

Native forests on oceanic islands are among the most threatened ecosystems. The forests formed on Sekimon uplifted limestone in Haha-jima Island (Ogasawara Islands) have not yet been destroyed by human activities and remain as primary forests harboring several narrow endemic endangered plants. In this paper, we described the plant species diversity, community structure, and status of invasion by alien plants in the mesic forests of Sekimon. The Sekimon forest was characterized by low tree diversity (37 spec...

Evidence of forest restoration success and the conservation value of community-owned forests in Southwest China using dung beetles as indicators.

Protection of the world's remaining forests and biodiversity is a matter of global concern. Yunnan, China is home to China's only mainland tropical rainforests, and 20% of China's total biodiversity. Despite restoration measures and establishment of new protected areas, this region is still experiencing biodiversity loss due to inadequate management and monitoring. We evaluate restoration success of China's tropical forests in Xishuangbanna National Nature Reserve (XSBN-NNR), Yunnan, China using dung beetle...

Determinants of Soil Bacterial and Fungal Community Composition Toward Carbon-Use Efficiency Across Primary and Secondary Forests in a Costa Rican Conservation Area.

Tropical secondary forests currently represent over half of the world's remaining tropical forests and are critical candidates for maintaining global biodiversity and enhancing potential carbon-use efficiency (CUE) and, thus, carbon sequestration. However, these ecosystems can exhibit multiple successional pathways, which have hindered our understanding of the soil microbial drivers that facilitate improved CUE. To begin to address this, we examined soil % C; % N; C:N ratio; soil microbial biomass C (C); NO...

Foliar mercury content from tropical trees and its correlation with physiological parameters in situ.

The terrestrial biogeochemical cycle of mercury has been widely studied because, among other causes, it presents a global distribution and harmful biotic interactions. Forested ecosystems shows great concentrations from Hg and Litterfall is known as the major contributor to the fluxes at the soil/air interface, through the superficial adsorption on the leaves and by the gas exchange of the stomatal pores. The understanding of which processes control the stage of Hg cycle in these ecosystems is still not tot...

Vascular epiphyte biomass in a South Brazilian fragment of Atlantic Forest.

The present study aimed at sampling the biomass of vascular epiphytes within a protected area in South Brazilian Atlantic Forest. All tree specimens with diameter at breast height equal or greater than 4.8 cm were measured and divided into classes. In each class, 10% of tree specimens were randomly selected for epiphytic biomass measuring. Furthermore, we divided the phorophytes into five tree parts to analyze epiphytic biomass. We generated mathematical models to estimate epiphytic biomass in similar fores...

Comparative foliar metabolomics of a tropical and a temperate forest community.

Plant enemies that attack chemically similar host species are thought to mediate competitive exclusion of chemically similar plants and select for chemical divergence among closely related species. This hypothesis predicts that plant defenses should diverge rapidly, minimizing phylogenetic signal. To evaluate this prediction, we quantified metabolomic similarity for 203 tree species that represent >89% of all individuals in large forest plots in Maryland and Panama. We constructed molecular networks based o...


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