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16:16 EDT 25th March 2019 | BioPortfolio

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Showing "Medical News Today Treatment options COPD exacerbations" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 39,000+

Real-time breath analysis reveals specific metabolic signatures of COPD exacerbations.

Exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are defined by acute worsening of respiratory symptoms leading to a change in therapy. Identifying altered metabolic processes in patients at risk for future exacerbations is desirable for treatment optimization, the development of new therapeutic strategies, and might also be of diagnostic value. We aimed to identify affected pathways using the profiles of volatile organic compounds in exhaled breath from COPD patients with and without frequent ...

Emergency department antibiotic use for exacerbations of COPD.

COPD is the third leading cause of death, with acute exacerbations accounting for 1.5 million emergency department (ED) visits annually. Guidelines include recommendations for antibiotic therapy, though evidence for benefit is limited, and little is known about ED prescribing patterns. Our objectives were to determine the rate with which ED patients with acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD) are treated with antibiotics, compare the proportions of antibiotic classes prescribed, describe trends of antibiotic ...

Coexisting chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and cardiovascular disease in clinical practice: a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge.

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) frequently coexist but combined disease is often not recognised. Since symptoms overlap significantly, it is common for patients' presentations to be attributed to one disease alone, and for the other to be overlooked. The effect of COPD and CVD goes beyond the shared risk factors of smoking and advancing age. The presence of COPD adversely affects cardiac disease and vice versa. In comparison to individuals with one disease alone...

Comparing severity scores in exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

Prognostic scores help identify patients at a high risk of mortality in exacerbations of COPD. The DECAF score has been reported to perform better than other severity scores in predicting mortality from exacerbations of COPD in studies including patients with pneumonia.

Exacerbations of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease - Diagnostic Approach, Management and Follow-up Care.

Exacerbations are major events in the disease process in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). They have a negative effect on the quality of life and the progression of the disease. Frequent exacerbations are associated with increased mortality. In addition to the optimal therapy, the prevention of further exacerbations and the attention to concomitant diseases are prognostically crucial for the patients. In this review article, current recommendations for the diagnosis, therapy and fo...

The effect of delaying initiation with umeclidinium/vilanterol in patients with COPD: an observational administrative claims database analysis using marginal structural models.

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with high clinical and economic burden. Optimal pharmacological therapy for COPD aims to reduce symptoms and the frequency and severity of exacerbations. Umeclidinium/vilanterol (UMEC/VI) is an approved combination therapy for once-daily maintenance treatment of patients with COPD. This study evaluated the impact of delaying UMEC/VI initiation on medical costs and exacerbation risk.

Pharmacological interventions for the treatment of depression in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

Studies report that up to 80% of individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) may struggle with symptoms of depression. However, this major comorbidity in COPD is rarely managed effectively. A number of recent studies indicate that left untreated, COPD-related depression is associated with worse quality of life, worse compliance with COPD treatment plan, increased exacerbations, hospital admissions, and healthcare costs when compared to individuals with COPD without depression. Regrettably,...

The stepwise approach of COPD therapy.

The goal of pharmacologic therapy of stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is to reduce symptoms, improve exercise intolerance and health-related quality of life, and to reduce exacerbations. Inhaled long-acting β2-agonists (LABAs) and long-acting muscarinic antagonists (LAMAs) are equally effective for the symptomatic management of COPD. However, LAMAs are more effective than LABAs in the reduction of exacerbations. In patients with symptomatic COPD pharmacologic therapy is usually escalated...

Stability of Frequency of Severe Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Exacerbations and Health Care Utilization in Clinical Populations.

Although chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbation frequency is stable in research cohorts, whether severe COPD exacerbation frequency can be used to identify patients at high risk for future severe COPD exacerbations and/or mortality is unknown. Severe COPD exacerbation frequency stability was determined in 3 distinct clinical cohorts. A total of 17,450 patients with COPD in Intermountain Healthcare were categorized based on the number of severe COPD exacerbations per year. We determined w...

Right Heart Failure as a Risk Factor for Severe Exacerbation in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Prospective Cohort Study.

The prognosis in patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) depends in large part on the frequency of exacerbations. Cardiovascular diseases, including heart failure (HF), are risk factors for exacerbations. However, its unknown the importance of HF type over the exacerbations in COPD patients.

Temporal trends in survival following ward-based NIV for acute hypercapnic respiratory failure in patients with COPD.

Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) is recommended for treatment of acute hypercapnic respiratory failure (AHRF) in acute exacerbations of COPD. National UK audit data suggests that mortality rates are rising in COPD patients treated with NIV.

Ensifentrine (RPL554): an inhaled 'bifunctional' dual PDE3/4 inhibitor for the treatment of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

Ensifentrine (RPL554), an inhaled 'bifunctional' dual phosphodiesterase 3/4 inhibitor that exhibits both bronchodilator and anti-inflammatory activities, provides a new option in the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and other inflammatory airway diseases that are under clinical development. Ensifentrine appears to be initially under development for the treatment of COPD although it is not yet clear whether it should be understood as an add-on therapy in patients for the treatment o...

Increased COPD Exacerbations of Likely Viral Etiology Follow Elevated Ambient NOx.

Epidemiological research strongly supports an association between air pollution and COPD exacerbations. Numerous mechanisms may underlie any association as pollutants are toxic to pulmonary cells and may increase susceptibility to respiratory infections. The relationship between ambient pollution and exacerbation etiology has not been studied.

Impact of fatty acid binding protein 5-deficiency on COPD exacerbations and cigarette smoke-induced inflammatory response to bacterial infection.

Although cigarette smoking (CS) is by far the most important risk factor of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), repeated and sustained infections are clearly linked to disease pathogenesis and are responsible for acute inflammatory flares (i.e. COPD exacerbations). We have previously identified Fatty Acid Binding Protein 5 (FABP5) as an important anti-inflammatory protein in primary airway epithelial cells.

Obesity in COPD: Comorbidities with Practical Consequences?

COPD and obesity often coexist and there is a complex interaction between them. Our aim was to evaluate the prevalence of obesity in a secondary care COPD population. Furthermore, the presence of comorbidities in obese (COPD) and non-obese COPD (COPD) individuals was studied. In 1654 COPD patients (aged ≥18 years) who visited a pulmonologist between January 2015 and December 2015, patient characteristics, pulmonary function tests and comorbidities were obtained from the medical records. Subjects were cate...

Clinical characteristics and outcomes in Japanese patients with COPD according to the 2017 GOLD classification: the Ishinomaki COPD Network Registry.

The GOLD report provides a framework for classifying COPD in a way that reflects its clinical impact and allows treatment recommendations. The GOLD 2017 proposes a new classification whereby patients are grouped as A-D according to their symptoms and history of exacerbations. However, the clinical characteristics and outcomes in these patients are not well documented.

Effect of Theophylline as Adjunct to Inhaled Corticosteroids on Exacerbations in Patients With COPD: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major global health issue and theophylline is used extensively. Preclinical investigations have demonstrated that low plasma concentrations (1-5 mg/L) of theophylline enhance antiinflammatory effects of corticosteroids in COPD.

The Efficacy and Safety of Once-daily Fluticasone Furoate/Umeclidinium/Vilanterol Versus Twice-daily Budesonide/Formoterol in a Subgroup of Patients from China with Symptomatic COPD at Risk of Exacerbations (FULFIL Trial).

The FULFIL study evaluated once-daily fluticasone furoate/umeclidinium/vilanterol (FF/UMEC/VI) 100 µg/62.5 µg/25 µg versus twice-daily budesonide/formoterol (BUD/FOR) 400 µg/12 µg in patients with symptomatic COPD at risk of exacerbations. FULFIL demonstrated clinically meaningful and statistically significant improvements at Week 24 in trough forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV), St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) Total scores and reduced exacerbation frequency. Predefined ...

Mechanisms and Management of Asthma Exacerbations.

Acute asthma remains an important medical emergency, the most frequent cause of acute admissions in children and a major source of morbidity for adults with asthma. In all ages with asthma the presence of exacerbations is an important defining characteristic of asthma severity. In this review we will assess the epidemiology of acute asthma, the triggers of acute exacerbations and the mechanisms that underlie these exacerbations. We will also assess current treatments that prevent exacerbations, with an emph...

Sputum Microbiome is Associated with 1-Year Mortality Following COPD Hospitalizations.

Lung dysbiosis promotes airway inflammation and decreased local immunity, potentially playing a role in the pathogenesis of acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD). We determined the relationship between sputum microbiome at the time of AECOPD hospitalization and 1-year mortality in a COPD cohort.

Acute Exacerbation of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in Oldest Adults: Predictors of In-Hospital Mortality and Need for Post-acute Care.

Older age is associated with higher risk of death during acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AE-COPD). Older patients hospitalized for AE-COPD often require post-acute care after acute phase. The aim of this study was to evaluate components of a comprehensive geriatric assessment and clinical/laboratory parameters, in order to find predictors of in-hospital mortality and need for post-acute care in patients aged 80 and older hospitalized for AE-COPD.

Update on Immunotherapeutics in the Management of Metastatic Melanoma

Today, a number of treatment options are now available for metastatic melanoma. Within the last decade, the development of novel immunotherapies for cancer has significantly altered the course of the disease in patients with melanoma. With more patients receiving these potentially life-saving treatments, not only have we learned more about the interplay between the immune system and melanoma, but more importantly, which treatment options are most appropriate given the clinical picture.

Health Status in Patients with COPD According to GOLD 2017 Classification: Use of the COMCOLD Score in Routine Clinical Practice.

The COMCOLD score was developed to quantify the impact of comorbidities on health status in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The objective of this study is to evaluate the association between health status in outpatients with COPD according to COMCOLD score and the GOLD 2017 groups according to symptoms (B and D vs. A and C) and exacerbations (C and D vs. A and B). 439 patients were included. The average score was 2.4 ± 3. 48% of cases had a COMCOLD score >0. The most symptom...

IL-33 drives influenza-induced asthma exacerbations by halting innate and adaptive anti-viral immunity.

Influenza virus triggers severe exacerbations of asthma for which no adequate treatment is available. It is known that IL-33 levels correlate with exacerbation severity, but its role in the immune-pathogenesis of exacerbations has remained elusive.

Failure of Low-Dose Theophylline to Prevent Exacerbations in Patients With COPD.

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