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03:56 EDT 21st September 2018 | BioPortfolio

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Showing "Methodological Flaws Found Studies Reporting Adverse Effects Crops" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 59,000+

Methodological and reporting quality in laboratory studies of human eating behavior.

The methodological quality and reporting practices of laboratory studies of human eating behavior determine the validity and replicability of nutrition science. The aim of this research was to examine basic methodology and reporting practices in recent representative laboratory studies of human eating behavior. We examined laboratory studies of human eating behavior (N = 140 studies) published during 2016. Basic methodology (e.g., sample size, use of participant blinding) and reporting practices (e.g., ...

Reporting guidelines for oncology research: helping to maximise the impact of your research.

Many reports of health research omit important information needed to assess their methodological robustness and clinical relevance. Without clear and complete reporting, it is not possible to identify flaws or biases, reproduce successful interventions, or use the findings in systematic reviews or meta-analyses. The EQUATOR Network ( promotes responsible reporting and the use of reporting guidelines to improve the accuracy, completeness, and transparency of health research. E...

Systematic review: methodological flaws in racial/ethnic reporting for gastroesophageal reflux disease.

Health care disparities affecting the care of multiple disease groups are of growing concern internationally. Research guidelines, governmental institutions, and scientific journals have attempted to minimize disparities through policies regarding the collection and reporting of racial/ethnic data. One area where shortcomings remain is in gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). This systematic review, which adheres to the PRISMA statement, focuses on characterizing existing methodological weaknesses in rese...

A hierarchical anatomical classification schema for prediction of phenotypic side effects.

Prediction of adverse drug reactions is an important problem in drug discovery endeavors which can be addressed with data-driven strategies. SIDER is one of the most reliable and frequently used datasets for identification of key features as well as building machine learning models for side effects prediction. The inherently unbalanced nature of this data presents with a difficult multi-label multi-class problem towards prediction of drug side effects. We highlight the intrinsic issue with SIDER data and me...

Under-reporting of adverse drug reactions, a problem that also involves medicines subject to additional monitoring. Preliminary data from a single-center experience on novel oral anticoagulants.

Spontaneous reporting system is the most widely used method by pharmacovigilance centers. Its "voluntary nature" represents the main cause of adverse drug reaction (ADR) under-reporting phenomena. The aim of this study was to point out the issue of ADR under-reporting from doctors, particularly serious ADRs and adverse reactions caused by medicinal products subject to additional monitoring, such as novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs).

Antidepressants-related cardiovascular adverse events using the adverse event reporting system.

The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical manifestations and the age and sex distribution of cardiovascular adverse events (CVAEs) related to antidepressants. The FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) and Korea Adverse Event Reporting System (KAERS) database records on patients prescribed antidepressants were used. The frequency of CVAEs was compared between adults (19-64 years) and an older (age ≥ 65 years) group. In total, 75,608 CVAEs from 43,824 patients and 325 CVAEs from 313 patients i...

Statistical reporting inconsistencies in experimental philosophy.

Experimental philosophy (x-phi) is a young field of research in the intersection of philosophy and psychology. It aims to make progress on philosophical questions by using experimental methods traditionally associated with the psychological and behavioral sciences, such as null hypothesis significance testing (NHST). Motivated by recent discussions about a methodological crisis in the behavioral sciences, questions have been raised about the methodological standards of x-phi. Here, we focus on one aspect of...

Quality of reporting web-based and non-web-based survey studies: What authors, reviewers and consumers should consider.

Several influential aspects of survey research have been under-investigated and there is a lack of guidance on reporting survey studies, especially web-based projects. In this review, we aim to investigate the reporting practices and quality of both web- and non-web-based survey studies to enhance the quality of reporting medical evidence that is derived from survey studies and to maximize the efficiency of its consumption.

Review of animal studies on the cardiovascular effects of caffeine.

To address the safety of caffeine levels in energy drinks, we previously conducted a detailed evaluation of epidemiology studies in humans consuming coffee/caffeine, in which we assessed multiple health effects (unpublished). To further evaluate the effects of caffeine on the cardiovascular system, we turned to animal studies, which often use pure caffeine (not coffee), frequently at higher doses than those typical of human exposure. We identified key scientific studies and reviews in which effects of coffe...

The Psychiatry Morbidity and Mortality Incident Reporting Tool Increases Psychiatrist Participation in Reporting Adverse Events.

Although the reporting of adverse events (AEs) is widely thought to be a key first step to improving patient safety in hospital systems, underreporting remains a common problem, particularly among physicians. We aimed to increase the number of safety reports filed by psychiatrists in our hospital system.

Pharmacoeconomics Evaluations of Oral Anticancer Agents: Systematic Review of Characteristics, Methodological Trends, and Reporting Quality.

To review literature characteristics, describe methodological trends, and assess the reporting quality of the economic evaluations of oral anticancer drugs (OACDs).

Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting in Institutions Across Six Chinese Provinces: A Cross-sectional Study.

Although China's adverse drug reaction (ADR) reporting and monitoring has developed rapidly, many challenges remain. This study assessed ADR monitoring and reporting in China and identified monitoring problems.

Patient Reporting of Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs): Survey of Public Awareness and Predictors of Confidence to Report.

Many countries incorporate direct patient reporting of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) into their pharmacovigilance systems as patients provide a different insight into drug safety compared to health care professionals. This study aimed to examine public awareness about ADR reporting in Malaysia and patients' confidence in reporting ADRs.

Increasing the reliability and reproducibility of aquatic ecotoxicology: Learn lessons from aquaculture research.

Regulatory ecotoxicology highly relies on aquatic toxicity studies carried out under controlled conditions. Researchers recently expressed increasing concern about their possible lack of repeatability/reproducibility in many cases. Poor experimental designs, inappropriate statistics and lack of accurate reporting are often pointed out. However, I believe that there is also insufficient attention paid to the various experimental conditions under which fish studies are conducted. These conditions encompass nu...

Do Exercise Trials for Hypertension Adequately Report Interventions? A Reporting Quality Study.

Non-pharmacological treatment, including exercise, is an important therapy option for patients with hypertension. The study assessed the reporting quality of exercise-based interventions included in the latest meta-analysis on that topic in order to evaluate the transferability of findings into clinical practice. Reporting quality of 24 randomised controlled trials from a meta-analysis assessing blood pressure lowering effects of endurance training in 1,195 hypertensive patients was evaluated using TIDieR (...

Side effects of corticosteroids in patients with advanced cancer: a systematic review.

Corticosteroids are commonly used in palliative care settings, but are associated with several side effects. Although adverse events (AEs) are highly distressing for patients, few data are available from prospective studies to look at incidence or predictors of such harms. The aim of this study is to identify AE reporting among studies of patients with advanced cancer receiving corticosteroids for any reason.

Evidence of citation bias in the pesticide ecotoxicology literature.

As scientists, we are tasked with letting evidence guide our conclusions. In the world of pesticides this takes on added importance as the data can influence ecological and human health outcomes and regulations, and even the manner in which we grow food. Yet, there seems to be a reticence to engage with the totality of the pesticide ecotoxicology literature, especially papers that report few or no effects or low risk to non-target organisms. We suspected that these studies would have fewer citations than st...

Methodological Characteristics and Future Directions for Plyometric Jump Training Research: A Scoping Review.

Recently, there has been a proliferation of published articles on the effect of plyometric jump training, including several review articles and meta-analyses. However, these types of research articles are generally of narrow scope. Furthermore, methodological limitations among studies (e.g., a lack of active/passive control groups) prevent the generalization of results, and these factors need to be addressed by researchers. On that basis, the aims of this scoping review were to (1) characterize the main ele...

General discussion of data quality challenges in social media metrics: Extensive comparison of four major altmetric data aggregators.

The data collection and reporting approaches of four major altmetric data aggregators are studied. The main aim of this study is to understand how differences in social media tracking and data collection methodologies can have effects on the analytical use of altmetric data. For this purpose, discrepancies in the metrics across aggregators have been studied in order to understand how the methodological choices adopted by these aggregators can explain the discrepancies found. Our results show that different ...

A systematic review about costing methodology in robotic surgery: evidence for low quality in most of the studies.

The main objective of this review was to evaluate the methodological design in studies reporting resource use and costs related to robotic surgery in gynecology.

Reporting Recommendations for Tumor Marker Prognostic Studies (REMARK): An Abridged Explanation and Elaboration.

The Reporting Recommendations for Tumor Marker Prognostic Studies (REMARK) were developed to address widespread deficiencies in the reporting of such studies. The REMARK checklist consists of 20 items to report for published tumor marker prognostic studies. A detailed paper was published explaining the rationale behind checklist items, providing positive examples and giving empirical evidence of the quality of reporting. REMARK provides a comprehensive overview to educate on good reporting and provide a val...

Reporting of adverse drug reactions in India: A review of the current scenario, obstacles and possible solutions.

Pharmacovigilance is a practice aimed to monitor drug safety in real life conditions and capture adverse drug events during the post marketing phase of drug's life cycle. But under reporting of adverse reactions is a major cause of concern and a threat to the pharmacovigilance systems. The present article looks into the major obstacles affecting the spontaneous reporting of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in India and the possible solutions. As per available scientific literature, the major impediments to ADR...

Three-Component Mixture Model-Based Adverse Drug Event Signal Detection for the Adverse Event Reporting System.

The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) is an important source for detecting adverse drug event (ADE) signals. In this article, we propose a three-component mixture model (3CMM) for FAERS signal detection. In 3CMM, a drug-ADE pair is assumed to have either a zero relative risk (RR), or a background RR (mean RR = 1), or an increased RR (mean RR >1). By clearly defining the second component (mean RR = 1) as the null distribution, 3CMM estimates local false disc...

Methodological quality assessment of network meta-analysis of drug interventions: implications from a systematic review.

We aimed to determine the methodological quality of network meta-analyses (NMAs) and their compliance with reporting guidelines.

Methodological Challenges of Prevention Reporting - More to it Than Just Evidence Reporting!

The German Prevention Act came into force in 2015 with the aim of strengthening prevention of disease and health promotion, focussing on settings-based approaches. An established field of public health action is thus strengthened and expanded by a set of rules that has largely come into force as a social security law. The implementation of legislation is to be accompanied by the establishment of a prevention reporting system.

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