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PubMed Journals Articles About "Mind Institute Helps With Seeing Brain Problems Differently" RSS

19:58 EDT 20th June 2019 | BioPortfolio

Mind Institute Helps With Seeing Brain Problems Differently PubMed articles on BioPortfolio. Our PubMed references draw on over 21 million records from the medical literature. Here you can see the latest Mind Institute Helps With Seeing Brain Problems Differently articles that have been published worldwide.

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Showing "Mind Institute Helps with Seeing Brain Problems Differently" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 14,000+

Fathers' and Mothers' Early Mind-Mindedness Predicts Social Competence and Behavior Problems in Childhood.

Parental mind-mindedness, the parent's propensity to treat the child as an intentional agent, has repeatedly shown to promote children's development of social understanding and secure attachment. Less is known about whether the impact of maternal and paternal mind-mindedness extends to children's social and behavior problems. We investigated the combined effect of mothers' and fathers' (N = 104) mind-mindedness at 4, 12, and 30 months on children's social competence and externalizing and internalizing ...


Brain and mind: Dissidence or subordination? Notes for an epistemological reading.

Two opposing readings of significant authors - Eric Kandel and Hans Jonas - are examined in relation to the mind-brain problem. From there, the thesis is argued that the inadequacy of the critique of materialistic scientism reduces the theoretical and practical possibilities of both psychiatry and psychoanalysis.

Off-track thoughts: Intentional and unintentional mind wandering in Alzheimer's disease.

Despite the recent upsurge of interest in mind wandering (i.e. the occurrence of task-unrelated and stimulus-independent thoughts), little research has attempted to evaluate mind wandering in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We addressed this issue by evaluating intentional and unintentional mind wandering, as well as the relationship between both mind-wandering domains. We also investigated the relationship between mind wandering and depression and working memory.


Do you know what I'm thinking? Temporal and spatial brain activity during a theory-of-mind task in children with autism.

The social impairments observed in children with autism spectrum disorder are thought to arise in part from deficits in theory of mind, the ability to understand other people's thoughts and feelings. To determine the temporal-spatial dynamics of brain activity underlying these atypical theory-of-mind processes, we used magnetoencephalography to characterize the sequence of functional brain patterns (i.e. when and where) related to theory-of-mind reasoning in 19 high-functioning children with autism compared...

The neural and cognitive architecture for learning from a small sample.

Artificial intelligence algorithms are capable of fantastic exploits, yet they are still grossly inefficient compared with the brain's ability to learn from few exemplars or solve problems that have not been explicitly defined. What is the secret that the evolution of human intelligence has unlocked? Generalization is one answer, but there is more to it. The brain does not directly solve difficult problems, it is able to recast them into new and more tractable problems. Here, we propose a model whereby high...

Age differences in specific neural connections within the Default Mode Network underlie theory of mind.

Theory of mind (i.e., the ability to infer others' mental states) - a fundamental social cognitive ability - declines with increasing age. Prior investigations have focused on identifying task-evoked differences in neural activation that underlie these performance declines. However, these declines could also be related to dysregulation of the baseline, or 'intrinsic', functional connectivity of the brain. If so, age differences in intrinsic connectivity may provide novel insight into the mechanisms that con...

Are Impairments in Theory of Mind Specific to Borderline Personality Disorder?

Impaired theory of mind (ToM) is an assumed feature of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Yet, no studies have compared ToM abilities in patients with BPD, other personality disorders, and healthy controls, or investigated the relationship between ToM and severity of psychopathology and interpersonal problems. In this study, ToM was investigated by the Movie for the Assessment of Social Cognition. No differences were found between the three groups in overall ToM abilities. The BPD group was, however, ch...

The Combined Use of Ultrasound and Fetal Magnetic Resonance Imaging for a Comprehensive Fetal Neurological Assessment in Fetal Congenital Cardiac Defects: Scientific Impact Paper No. 60.

Heart problems are common in newborn babies, affecting approximately 5-10 in 1000 babies. Some are more serious than others, but most babies born with heart problems do not have other health issues. Of those babies who have a serious heart problem, almost 1 in 4 will have heart surgery in their first year. In the UK, pregnant women are offered a scan at around 20 weeks to try and spot any heart problems. In most cases there is not a clear reason for the problem, but sometimes other issues, such as genetic ...

For a minute, there I lost myself … dosage dependent increases in mind wandering via prefrontal tDCS.

Allowing our mind's eye to wander to task unrelated thoughts can impact productivity and, in many everyday settings, safety. However, the drifting of our thoughts from our current task(s)/situation to others is undeniably a common occurrence and has even been associated with adaptive outcomes in terms of creativity. Previous researchers have used non-invasive transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), applied to the prefrontal cortex, to modulate mind wandering occurrences. However, little is known abo...

Influence of automation on mind wandering frequency in sustained attention.

There is accumulating evidence which shows that mind wandering may be increased within automated environments. This is particularly concerning when considering the negative effect of mind wandering on short-term performance. Seventeen participants performed an obstacle avoidance task under two conditions, manual and automated, each lasting 40 min. Subjects perceived the manual condition as more demanding than the automated one. We noted a significant increase of mind wandering frequency after only approxi...

A Riemannian geometry approach to reduced and discriminative covariance estimation in Brain Computer Interfaces.

Spatial covariance matrices are extensively employed as brain activity descriptors in BCI research that, typically, involve the whole array of sensors. Here, we introduce a methodological framework for delineating the subset of sensors, the covariance structure of which offers a reduced, but more powerful, representation of brain's coordination patterns that ultimately leads to reliable mind reading.

How pervasive is mind wandering, really?

Recent claims that people spend 30-50% of their waking lives mind wandering (Killingsworth & Gilbert, 2010; Kane et al., 2007) have become widely accepted and frequently cited. While acknowledging attention to be inconstant and wavering, and mind wandering to be ubiquitous, we argue and present evidence that such simple quantitative estimates are misleading and potentially meaningless without serious qualification. Mind-wandering estimates requiring dichotomous judgments of inner experience rely on question...

Using ecological momentary assessments to evaluate extant measures of mind wandering.

Mind wandering is a commonly experienced phenomenon. Although self-report measures are available to assess these attentional lapses, examination of their correspondence with the reported frequency of these episodes in daily life is warranted. Using ecological momentary assessments (EMAs), the present study aimed to validate 3 mind-wandering measures: the Mind-Wandering Questionnaire (MWQ) and the Mind Wandering-Spontaneous (MW-S) and Mind Wandering-Deliberate (MW-D) measures in university students (N = 100)...

On illness and value: biopolitics, psychosomatics, participating bodies.

In its heyday, around the mid-twentieth century, psychosomatic medicine was promoted as heralding a new science of body/mind relations that held the promise of transforming medicine as a whole. Sixty years on, the field appears to have achieved no more than a respectable position as a research specialism within the medical status quo. This paper articulates the problematic of psychosomatics through a number of propositions that reconnect its promise of novelty to the present and to contemporary concerns. In...

Shame, guilt, and secrets on the mind.

Recent work suggests that what is harmful about secrecy is not active concealment within social interactions but rather mind wandering to a secret outside of concealment contexts. However, it is not yet clear what predicts mind wandering to and concealing secrets. We proposed that emotional appraisals of shame and guilt for secrecy would predict how secrecy is experienced. Four studies with 1,000 participants keeping more than 6,000 secrets demonstrated that shame was linked with increased mind wandering to...

Support for Resettling Refugees: The Role of Fixed Versus Growth Mind-Sets.

In six studies ( N = 2,340), we identified one source of people's differential support for resettling refugees in their country-their beliefs about whether the kind of person someone is can be changed (i.e., a growth mind-set) or is fixed (i.e., a fixed mind-set). U.S. and UK citizens who believed that the kind of person someone is can be changed were more likely to support resettling refugees in their country (Studies 1 and 2). Study 3 identified a causal relationship between the type of mind-set people ho...

Sex differences in pediatric traumatic brain injury.

The response of the developing brain to traumatic injury is different from the response of the mature, adult brain. There are critical developmental trajectories in the young brain, whereby injury can lead to long term functional abnormalities. Emerging preclinical and clinical literature supports the presence of significant sex differences in both the response to and the recovery from pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI). These sex differences are seen at all pediatric ages, including neonates/infants, p...

Is There a Positive Association Between Working Memory Capacity and Mind Wandering in a Low-Demand Breathing Task? A Preregistered Replication of a Study by Levinson, Smallwood, and Davidson (2012).

Levinson, Smallwood, and Davidson (2012, Experiment 2) found that working memory capacity (WMC) correlated positively with mind-wandering rates measured by thought probes in a breath-awareness task but was unassociated with the tendency to self-catch mind wandering. Here, I sought to replicate the associations between mind wandering and WMC in Levinson et al.'s breath-awareness task. The data from the current study, collected from 315 subjects ( ns differed among analyses) and two measures of WMC, suggest t...

How is your mind-set? Proof of concept for the measurement of the level of emotional development.

In persons with intellectual and developmental disabilities, not only cognitive brain functions, but also socio-emotional processing networks may be impaired. This study aims to validate the Scale of Emotional Development-Short (SED-S) to provide an instrument for the assessment of socio-emotional brain functions.

Backpropagation through time and the brain.

It has long been speculated that the backpropagation-of-error algorithm (backprop) may be a model of how the brain learns. Backpropagation-through-time (BPTT) is the canonical temporal-analogue to backprop used to assign credit in recurrent neural networks in machine learning, but there's even less conviction about whether BPTT has anything to do with the brain. Even in machine learning the use of BPTT in classic neural network architectures has proven insufficient for some challenging temporal credit assig...

Theory of mind and suicide ideation and attempt in adolescent inpatients.

Suicide ideation and attempt are alarmingly prevalent in adolescents, and even more so for youth in psychiatric settings. Interpersonal factors have been emphasized as important in the etiology and maintenance of suicide ideation and attempt in adolescents. Evaluating social cognitive deficits offers important insight into processes underlying interpersonal problems associated with suicide ideation and attempt; however little social-cognitive research has been conducted in this area. The aim of the current ...

Estimation of brain age delta from brain imaging.

It is of increasing interest to study "brain age" - the apparent age of a subject, as inferred from brain imaging data. The difference between brain age and actual age (the "delta") is typically computed, reflecting deviation from the population norm. This therefore may reflect accelerated aging (positive delta) or resilience (negative delta) and has been found to be a useful correlate with factors such as disease and cognitive decline. However, although there has been a range of methods proposed for estima...

When the Muses Strike: Creative Ideas of Physicists and Writers Routinely Occur During Mind Wandering.

How often are creative ideas generated during episodes of mind wandering, and do they differ from those generated while on task? In two studies ( N = 98, N = 87), professional writers and physicists reported on their most creative idea of the day, what they were thinking about and doing when it occurred, whether the idea felt like an "aha" moment, and the quality of the idea. Participants reported that one fifth of their most significant ideas of the day were formed during spontaneous task-independent mind ...

Inter-Brain Synchrony in Mother-Child Dyads During Cooperation: An fNIRS Hyperscanning Study.

Coordinated brain activity between individuals, or inter-brain synchrony, has been shown to increase during cooperation and correlate with cooperation success. However, few studies have examined parent-child inter-brain synchrony and whether it is associated with meaningful aspects of the parent-child relationship. Here, we measured inter-brain synchrony in the right prefrontal (PFC) and temporal cortices in mother-child dyads while they engaged in a cooperative and independent task. We tested whether inter...

Increased frequency of mind wandering in healthy women using oral contraceptives.

Oral contraceptive (OC) is the most common type of contraceptive method used in industrialized countries. A recent epidemiological study showed that OC use was associated with the onset of depression in young women. Mind wandering, a cognitive process associated with spontaneous thoughts unrelated to the task at-hand, has previously been associated with depressive thinking. Consequently, mind wandering might be a precursor for cognitive vulnerability in individuals who are at-risk for mood disorders. The pu...


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