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PubMed Journals Articles About "Morning Break Another Crackdown Reward Baby Boys 23andMe" RSS

04:57 EDT 5th April 2020 | BioPortfolio

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Showing "Morning Break Another Crackdown Reward Baby Boys 23andMe" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 1,400+

Salivary and Serum Concentrations of Cortisol and Testosterone at Rest and in Response to Intense Exercise in Boys Versus Men.

This study compared salivary and serum concentrations of testosterone and cortisol at rest and in response to intense multitask exercise in boys and men. Early morning saliva and venous blood samples were obtained before and 15 minutes after exercise from 30 competitive swimmers (15 boys, age 14.3 [1.9] y; 15 men, age 21.7 [3.1] y). Exercise included a swim-bench maximal strength task and an all-out 200-m swim, followed by a high-intensity interval swimming protocol (5 × 100 m, 5 × 50 m, and 5 × 25...


Effects of baby walker use on the development of gait by typically developing toddlers.

Decisions about the use of baby walker are in part predicated on caregivers´ beliefs about its effect on gait development. The actual effects of baby walkers, however, have not been established.

23andMe Develops First Drug Compound Using Consumer Data.


Novel rewards occlude the reward positivity, and what to do about it.

Both the Reward Positivity (RewP) and the novelty N2 component appear within the same spatio-temporal window. This signal overlap impedes the assessment of the RewP evoked by complex novel rewards like affective or motivational imagery. Here we conducted a series of experiments which successfully isolated signals of reward and novelty through spectral decomposition as well as with experimental manipulations that systematically removed the influence of novelty on the reward-evoking image. Together, these fin...

Semantic generalization of value-based attentional priority.

This study aimed to determine whether attentional prioritization of stimuli associated with reward transfers across conceptual knowledge independently of physical features. Participants successively performed two color-word Stroop tasks. In the learning phase, neutral words were associated with high, low, or no monetary reward. In the generalization phase (in which no reward was delivered), synonyms of words previously paired with reward served as Stroop stimuli. Results are consistent with semantic general...

Cerebellar climbing fibers encode expected reward size.

Climbing fiber inputs to the cerebellum encode error signals that instruct learning. Recently, evidence has accumulated to suggest that the cerebellum is also involved in the processing of reward. To study how rewarding events are encoded, we recorded the activity of climbing fibers when monkeys were engaged in an eye movement task. At the beginning of each trial, the monkeys were cued to the size of the reward that would be delivered upon successful completion of the trial. Climbing fiber activity increase...

Probabilistic punishment and reward under rule of trust-based decision-making in continuous public goods game.

Altruistic punishment and reward have been proved to promote the evolution of cooperation in the public goods game(PGG), but the punishers and the rewarders have to pay a price for these behaviors and that results in overall loss of interest. In present work, probabilistic punishment and reward are introduced to PGG. Probabilistic punishment and reward mean that punishment and reward are executed with a certain probability. Although that will reduce unnecessary costs, occasional absence of execution can lea...

Variations in Morning Serum Cortisol Levels Based on Sex and Pubertal Status.

Patients with suspected adrenal insufficiency undergo screening with a serum morning cortisol level and confirmatory testing with an adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulation test. However, much of the data collected to determine appropriate values for morning cortisol levels are derived from adult populations and may not accurately represent pediatric physiology. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the mean morning cortisol level in the pediatric population based on pubertal status and sex in or...

Functional Impairment in Youth With ADHD: Normative Data and Norm-Referenced Cutoff Points for the Before School Functioning Questionnaire and the Parent Rating of Evening and Morning Behavior Scale, Revised.

Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) frequently manifest behavioral difficulties in the morning prior to school and in the afternoons and evenings. We sought to establish norms for 2 time-specific measures of functioning: the Before School Functioning Questionnaire (BSFQ) and the Parent Rating of Evening and Morning Behavior Scale, Revised (PREMB-R), which includes Morning (AM) and Evening (PM) subscales.

Reward sensitivity and the course of bipolar disorder: A survival analysis in a treatment seeking sample.

Reward sensitivity is suggested to be an influence on the onset and reoccurrence of bipolar disorder (BD) in observational longitudinal studies. The current study examined whether reward sensitivity predicted the recurrence of mood episodes in a treatment seeking sample. We also explored if reward sensitivity moderated treatment outcomes of psychosocial treatment.

How sequential changes in reward expectation modulate cognitive control: Pupillometry as a tool to monitor dynamic changes in reward expectation.

Much evidence suggests that positive affect associated with performance-contingent reward modulates cognitive flexibility and stability. For example, in voluntary task switching, it has been shown that unchanged high reward promotes cognitive stability whereas increases or decreases in reward prospect as well as unchanged low reward promote cognitive flexibility (higher voluntary switch rate, VSR). Pupil diameter has been shown to respond to reward prospect, to task switching manipulations, and more general...

Encoding of eye movements explains reward-related activity in cerebellar simple spikes.

The cerebellum exhibits both motor and reward-related signals. However, it remains unclear whether reward is processed independently from the motor command or might reflect the motor consequences of the reward drive. To test how reward-related signals interact with sensorimotor processing in the cerebellum, we recorded Purkinje cell simple spike activity in the cerebellar floccular complex while monkeys were engaged in smooth pursuit eye movement tasks. The color of the target signaled the size of the rewar...

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder is associated with altered reward mechanisms during the anticipation and the outcome of monetary incentive cues.

Recent studies suggest that Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) might be associated with dysfunctional reward circuitry. However, further research is needed to understand the key role of the reward system in PTSD symptomatology.

Influence of Expected Reward on Temporal Order Judgment.

Perceptual decision-making has been shown to be influenced by reward expected from alternative options or actions, but the underlying neural mechanisms are currently unknown. More specifically, it is debated whether reward effects are mediated through changes in sensory processing, later stages of decision-making, or both. To address this question, we conducted two experiments in which human participants made saccades to what they perceived to be either the first or second of two visually identical but asyn...

Classical conditioning drives learned reward prediction signals in climbing fibers across the lateral cerebellum.

Classical models of cerebellar learning posit that climbing fibers operate according to a supervised learning rule to instruct changes in motor output by signaling the occurrence of movement errors. However, cerebellar output is also associated with non-motor behaviors, and recently with modulating reward association pathways in the VTA. To test how the cerebellum processes reward related signals in the same type of classical conditioning behavior typically studied to evaluate reward processing in the VTA a...

Women's Preferences for Maternal and Neonatal Morbidity and Mortality in Childbirth.

To measure utility values that describe women's willingness to tradeoff maternal morbidity for fetal benefit among pregnant and nonpregnant women of reproductive age. We recruited English-speaking women aged 18 to 45 years in clinical and community-based settings. Eight health states were studied: 4 maternal (healthy, stroke, hysterectomy, death) and 4 neonatal (healthy, severe cerebral palsy [CP], severe mental retardation [MR], death). Utilities were assessed on a subset of 9 pairs of mom/baby delivery o...

Testosterone effects on functional amygdala lateralization: A study in adolescent transgender boys and cisgender boys and girls.

The influence of testosterone on the development of human brain lateralization has been subject of debate for a long time, partly because studies investigating this are necessarily mostly correlational. In the present study we used a quasi-experimental approach by assessing functional brain lateralization in trans boys (female sex assigned at birth, diagnosed with Gender Dysphoria, n = 21) before and after testosterone treatment, and compared these results to the functional lateralization of age-matched...

Delayed disengagement of attention from distractors signalling reward.

Attention refers to the set of cognitive mechanisms that facilitate the prioritization of incoming sensory information. Existing research suggests that motivationally salient stimuli, such as those associated with reward, are prioritized by the attention system and that this prioritization occurs independently of an observer's goals. Specifically, studies of visual search have shown that stimuli signalling the availability of monetary reward are more likely to capture eye movements, even when participants a...

Frontostriatal functional connectivity supports reward-enhanced memory in older adults.

Both younger and older adults prioritize reward-associated stimuli in memory, but there has been little research on possible age differences in the neural mechanisms mediating this effect. In the present study, we examine neural activation and functional connectivity in healthy younger and older adults to test the hypothesis that older adults would engage prefrontal regions to a greater extent in the service of reward-enhanced memory. While undergoing MRI, target stimuli were presented after high- or low-re...

The influence of reward magnitude on stimulus memory and stimulus generalization in categorization decisions.

Reward magnitude is a central concept in most theories of preferential decision making and learning. However, it is unknown whether variable rewards also influence cognitive processes when learning how to make accurate decisions (e.g., sorting healthy and unhealthy food differing in appeal). To test this, we conducted 3 studies. Participants learned to classify objects with 3 feature dimensions into two categories before solving a transfer task with novel objects. During learning, we rewarded all correct de...

Heightened self-reported punishment sensitivity, but no differential attention to cues signaling punishment or reward in anorexia nervosa.

This study examined whether adolescents with anorexia nervosa (AN) are more sensitive to punishment and less sensitive to reward than a non-eating disorder comparison group. Both self-report and performance measures were used to index reward and punishment sensitivity. Participants were adolescents with AN (n = 69) and an individually matched comparison group with healthy weight (n = 69). They completed the Behavioral Inhibition Scale/Behavioral Activation Scale and the Sensitivity to Punishment and Sensiti...

Reward expectation modulates multiple stages of auditory conflict control.

Although mounting evidence has shown that reward can improve conflict control in the visual domain, little is known about whether and how reward affects conflict processing in the auditory domain. In the present study, we adopted an auditory Stroop task in which the meaning of a sound word ('male' or 'female') could be either congruent or incongruent with the gender of the voice (male or female speaker), and the participants were asked to discriminate the gender of the voice (the phonetic task) or the meani...

Quantitative associations between objective sleep measures and early-morning mobility in Parkinson's disease: cross-sectional analysis of the PHASE study.

Previous studies have suggested associations between sleep measures and early-morning akinesia; however, objective evidence is limited. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the associations between objective sleep measures and morning mobility among patients with Parkinson's disease (PD).

The Influence of Maturity Status on Muscle Architecture in School-Aged Boys.

To determine the differences in muscle architecture of the lower limb in pre-peak height velocity (PHV), circa-PHV, and post-PHV boys.

Reward-related brain activity and behavior are associated with peripheral ghrelin levels in obesity.

While excessive food consumption represents a key factor in the development of obesity, the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. Ghrelin, a gut-brain hormone involved in the regulation of appetite, is impaired in obesity. In addition to its role in eating behavior, this hormone was shown to affect brain regions controlling reward, including the striatum and prefrontal cortex, and there is strong evidence of impaired reward processing in obesity. The present study investigated the possibility that disrup...


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