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NASA Airborne Mission Returns Africa Study Smoke Clouds PubMed articles on BioPortfolio. Our PubMed references draw on over 21 million records from the medical literature. Here you can see the latest NASA Airborne Mission Returns Africa Study Smoke Clouds articles that have been published worldwide.
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The objective of this study was to assess the validity of two questions about the perception of intensity of exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) at home using as a reference environmental markers (airborne nicotine and benzene) and biomarkers of exposure (cotinine in saliva and urine). This was a cross-sectional study in a convenience sample of 49 non-smoking volunteers. We found a high correlation between self-reported SHS exposure and airborne nicotine (rsp=0.806, p
The sensitivity of NASA-TLX scale, modified Cooper-Harper (MCH) scale and the mean inter-beat interval (IBI) of successive heart beats, as measures of pilot mental workload (MWL), were evaluated in a flight training device (FTD). Operational F/A-18C pilots flew instrument approaches with varying task loads. Pilots' performance, subjective MWL ratings and IBI were measured. Based on the pilots' performance, three performance categories were formed; high-, medium- and low-performance. Values of the subjective...
Emergomyces africanus is a thermally dimorphic fungus that causes a systemic mycosis in immunocompromised persons in South Africa. Infection is presumed to follow inhalation of airborne propagules. We developed a quantitative PCR protocol able to detect as few as 5 Es. africanus propagules per day. Samples were collected in Cape Town, South Africa over 50 weeks by a Burkard spore trap with an alternate orifice. We detected Es. africanus in air samples from 34 days (10%) distributed over 11 weeks. These resu...
Exposure to biomass smoke is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Africa. Commercial food vendors in Nigeria and elsewhere in Africa are commonly exposed to biomass smoke from open fire cooking both at work and home. Little is known about the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of food vendors about the health hazards of biomass smoke exposure in Nigeria.
This paper describes a Mission Definition System and the automated flight process it enables to implement measurement plans for discrete infrastructure inspections using aerial platforms, and specifically multi-rotor drones. The mission definition aims at improving planning efficiency with respect to state-of-the-art waypoint-based techniques, using high-level mission definition primitives and linking them with realistic flight models to simulate the inspection in advance. It also provides flight scripts an...
The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the NASA 70-day Bed Rest Study. The integrated complement of investigations and the standardized bed rest environment that served as the platform for this study complement are described. Outcomes of the studies will not be presented here, but will be reported in separate publications.
Secondhand smoke (SHS) in US casinos is common, but little is known about the residue of tobacco smoke pollutants left behind in dust and on surfaces, commonly referred to as thirdhand smoke (THS). We examined SHS and THS pollution and exposure before and during a casino smoking ban and after smoking resumed.
Effective and sustainable intervention programs are needed to promote physical activity (PA) in children.
Prenatal smoke exposure is known to be robustly associated with DNA methylation among offspring in early life, but whether the association persists into adulthood is unclear. This study aimed to investigate the long-term effect of maternal smoke exposure on DNA methylation in 754 women (mean age 30 years); to replicate findings in the same women 18 years later and in a cohort of 230 men (mean age 53 years); and to assess the extent to which a methylation score could predict prenatal smoke exposure.
The pathogenesis of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is currently unknown, but evidence suggests that allergic sensitization to food and airborne allergens may play a key role. This retrospective study examines the rate of sensitization to both food and airborne allergens in EoE patients, and compares their sensitivity patterns to control groups.
Cigarette smoking is a major risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Exposure to cigarette smoke may stimulate inflammatory response and activate polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) thus resulting in secretion of cellular proteases. The aim of our study was to explore the effect of cigarette smoke extract (CSE) on the release of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) from PMN.
Cigarette smokers are more likely to experience pain than nonsmokers, and experimental research indicates that pain is a potent motivator of smoking. Urge to smoke is a predictor of early relapse, yet associations between pain and urge to smoke have yet to be tested among daily smokers. This study aimed to conduct the first crosssectional test of associations between current pain intensity and urge to smoke, and to test the role of negative affect and pain catastrophizing in relations between pain intensity...
Interventions to encourage smoke-free homes in remote indigenous Australian communities: a study protocol to evaluate the effects of a community-inspired awareness-raising and motivational enhancement strategy.
Rates of secondhand smoke exposure are currently significantly higher among remote indigenous communities in the top end of Australia. By implementing a 'smoke-free home' rule, secondhand smoke exposure can be reduced. Smoke-free homes encourage quit attempts and improve the health of children. The prevalence of indigenous smoking rates in remote, discrete communities in Australia is elevated compared with their non-indigenous counterparts. The primary aim of this project is to examine the feasibility of co...
This experimental study aimed to evaluate airborne particulates and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from surgical smoke when a local exhaust ventilation (LEV) system is in place. Surgical smoke was generated from human tissue in an unoccupied operating room using an electrocautery surgical device for 15 minutes with three different test settings; 1) without LEV control, 2) control with a wall irrigation suction unit with an in-line ultra-low penetration air filter and 3) control with a smoke evacuation sy...
The prevention of airborne infections in emergency departments is a very important issue. This study investigated the effects of architectural features on airborne pathogen dispersion in emergency departments by using a CFD (computational fluid dynamics) simulation tool. The study included three architectural features as the major variables: increased ventilation rate, inlet and outlet diffuser positions, and partitions between beds. The most effective method for preventing pathogen dispersion and reducing ...
The Appalachian Region has among the highest rates of smoking and smoking-related illness in the United States. Strong smoke-free legislation could help protect nonsmoking residents from the harmful effects of secondhand smoke. However, there is a dearth of state, county, city, and subcounty smoke-free law coverage throughout Appalachia. As of July 2016, only 21% of Appalachian residents were covered by comprehensive smoke-free laws (i.e., 100% coverage for workplaces, restaurants, and bars). Only 46% of Ap...
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We examined prevalence and predictors of comprehensive smoke-free household rules (ie, smoke-free homes and cars) among smokers and nonsmokers in Minnesota. Data came from the 2014 Minnesota Adult Tobacco Survey; weighted analyses consisted of descriptive analyses and multivariate logistic regression analyses. Most adult smokers implemented home-only smoke-free rules (43%) while most nonsmokers implemented comprehensive smoke-free rules (home and car; 85%). Comprehensive smoke-free rules were more common am...
Trace levels of airborne hormones during the pharmaceutical compounding process are analyzed by air monitoring and surface sampling. This study is discussed in two parts: the first part discusses the analysis of particulates suspended in the air by using video particle counting; the second part discusses the analysis of particulates settled on the surface by using surface wipe sampling. One solution to the problem of airborne hormones is to incorporate the hormones into a vehicle like a semisolid cream with...
A high proportion of children presenting to pediatric urgent cares are exposed to tobacco smoke. An electronic health record-based clinical decision support system for nurses to facilitate guideline-based tobacco smoke exposure screening and counseling for caregivers who smoke was designed and evaluated.
We report on the design and performance of the laser deployed in the airborne demonstrator Doppler wind lidar for the Aeolus mission of the European Space Agency (ESA). The all-solid-state, diode-pumped and frequency-tripled Nd:YAG laser is realized as a master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) system, generating 60 mJ of single-frequency pulses at 355 nm wavelength, 50 Hz repetition rate and 20 ns pulse duration. For the measurement of the Doppler frequency shift over several accumulated laser shots, th...
As part of the Smoke-Free Illinois Act, smoking on the gambling floors of all commercial casinos in Illinois became prohibited. This study examined the effects of the Smoke-Free Illinois Act on casino admissions per-capita and real per-capita adjusted gross receipts using 18 years of data (10 years before and 8 years after the Illinois law went into effect).
One of the foundations of financial economics is the idea that rational investors will discount stocks with more risk (volatility), which will result in a positive relation between risk and future returns. However, the empirical evidence is mixed when determining how volatility is related to future returns. In this paper, we examine this relation using a range-based measure of volatility, which is shown to be theoretically, numerically, and empirically superior to other measures of volatility. In a variety ...
Smoke-free prison policies are increasingly common, but few studies have investigated relapse to smoking after release from prison. This study investigated return to tobacco smoking and correlates of smoking at reduced levels after release among adults recently released from smoke-free prisons in Queensland, Australia.
Thirty-day hospital readmissions have become a measure of quality of care. Many readmissions enter through the emergency department. The purposes of this study were to determine the rate, risk factors, and costs of 30-day returns to the emergency department (30dEDRs) after head and neck surgery.