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NASA Airborne Mission Returns Africa Study Smoke Clouds PubMed articles on BioPortfolio. Our PubMed references draw on over 21 million records from the medical literature. Here you can see the latest NASA Airborne Mission Returns Africa Study Smoke Clouds articles that have been published worldwide.
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The sensitivity of NASA-TLX scale, modified Cooper-Harper (MCH) scale and the mean inter-beat interval (IBI) of successive heart beats, as measures of pilot mental workload (MWL), were evaluated in a flight training device (FTD). Operational F/A-18C pilots flew instrument approaches with varying task loads. Pilots' performance, subjective MWL ratings and IBI were measured. Based on the pilots' performance, three performance categories were formed; high-, medium- and low-performance. Values of the subjective...
This paper describes a Mission Definition System and the automated flight process it enables to implement measurement plans for discrete infrastructure inspections using aerial platforms, and specifically multi-rotor drones. The mission definition aims at improving planning efficiency with respect to state-of-the-art waypoint-based techniques, using high-level mission definition primitives and linking them with realistic flight models to simulate the inspection in advance. It also provides flight scripts an...
The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the NASA 70-day Bed Rest Study. The integrated complement of investigations and the standardized bed rest environment that served as the platform for this study complement are described. Outcomes of the studies will not be presented here, but will be reported in separate publications.
Secondhand smoke (SHS) in US casinos is common, but little is known about the residue of tobacco smoke pollutants left behind in dust and on surfaces, commonly referred to as thirdhand smoke (THS). We examined SHS and THS pollution and exposure before and during a casino smoking ban and after smoking resumed.
Effective and sustainable intervention programs are needed to promote physical activity (PA) in children.
Prenatal smoke exposure is known to be robustly associated with DNA methylation among offspring in early life, but whether the association persists into adulthood is unclear. This study aimed to investigate the long-term effect of maternal smoke exposure on DNA methylation in 754 women (mean age 30 years); to replicate findings in the same women 18 years later and in a cohort of 230 men (mean age 53 years); and to assess the extent to which a methylation score could predict prenatal smoke exposure.
Cigarette smokers are more likely to experience pain than nonsmokers, and experimental research indicates that pain is a potent motivator of smoking. Urge to smoke is a predictor of early relapse, yet associations between pain and urge to smoke have yet to be tested among daily smokers. This study aimed to conduct the first crosssectional test of associations between current pain intensity and urge to smoke, and to test the role of negative affect and pain catastrophizing in relations between pain intensity...
The extinction matrix for cirrus clouds has been calculated for the visible and infrared regions using the physical optics approximation. The cirrus clouds are modeled as a statistical ensemble of the hexagonal ice plates, distributed over their size and orientations by the gamma and Gaussian laws, respectively. Then, the extinction matrixes as the functions of the incident wavelength, incident direction, crystal size, and crystal orientation are numerically calculated for the first time. It is shown that t...
Interventions to encourage smoke-free homes in remote indigenous Australian communities: a study protocol to evaluate the effects of a community-inspired awareness-raising and motivational enhancement strategy.
Rates of secondhand smoke exposure are currently significantly higher among remote indigenous communities in the top end of Australia. By implementing a 'smoke-free home' rule, secondhand smoke exposure can be reduced. Smoke-free homes encourage quit attempts and improve the health of children. The prevalence of indigenous smoking rates in remote, discrete communities in Australia is elevated compared with their non-indigenous counterparts. The primary aim of this project is to examine the feasibility of co...
The prevention of airborne infections in emergency departments is a very important issue. This study investigated the effects of architectural features on airborne pathogen dispersion in emergency departments by using a CFD (computational fluid dynamics) simulation tool. The study included three architectural features as the major variables: increased ventilation rate, inlet and outlet diffuser positions, and partitions between beds. The most effective method for preventing pathogen dispersion and reducing ...
Although cigarette smoke is known to alter immune responses, whether and how CD4 T cells are affected is not well-described. We aimed to characterize how exposure to cigarette smoke extract impacts CD4 T cell effector generation in vitro under Th1-polarizing conditions. Our results demonstrate that cigarette smoke directly acts on CD4 T cells to impair effector expansion by decreasing division and increasing apoptosis. Furthermore, cigarette smoke enhances Th1-associated cytokine production and increases ex...
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This study was conducted to examine the influence of smoke exposure of variable duration on the ultrastructure of and histopathologic and morphologic alterations in the olfactory epithelium.
Having HIV/AIDS has been associated with a higher prevalence of smoking. Moreover, evidence suggests that people with HIV/AIDS who smoke have poorer treatment and survival outcomes. The HIV-smoking relationship is understudied in sub-Saharan Africa, where tobacco use patterns and HIV prevalence differ greatly from other world regions.
We examined prevalence and predictors of comprehensive smoke-free household rules (ie, smoke-free homes and cars) among smokers and nonsmokers in Minnesota. Data came from the 2014 Minnesota Adult Tobacco Survey; weighted analyses consisted of descriptive analyses and multivariate logistic regression analyses. Most adult smokers implemented home-only smoke-free rules (43%) while most nonsmokers implemented comprehensive smoke-free rules (home and car; 85%). Comprehensive smoke-free rules were more common am...
Trace levels of airborne hormones during the pharmaceutical compounding process are analyzed by air monitoring and surface sampling. This study is discussed in two parts: the first part discusses the analysis of particulates suspended in the air by using video particle counting; the second part discusses the analysis of particulates settled on the surface by using surface wipe sampling. One solution to the problem of airborne hormones is to incorporate the hormones into a vehicle like a semisolid cream with...
Inhalation of airborne isocyanates is associated with acute asthma attacks and inflammation in the respiratory tract as well as cancer. These highly reactive compounds are used as monomers in various applications such as foams for insulation materials and upholstery furniture and are therefore commonly found in fire smoke from insulation materials, such as rigid polyisocyanurate (PIR) foams. Consequently, there is an increasing concern regarding the potential adverse health effects they may cause during thi...
Surgical smoke is formed when energy-generating devices (ie, electrosurgery units, lasers, powered instruments) raise the intracellular temperature of tissue to at least 100º C (212º F), causing tissue vaporization in the form of surgical smoke. Surgical smoke contains components that are known health hazards, such as benzene, toluene, hydrogen cyanide, formaldehyde, volatile organic compounds, viruses, and bacteria. There have been case reports of human disease tied to the inhalation of surgical smoke;...
A higher proportion of people living with HIV (PLWH) smoke compared to the general population, but little information exists about the prevalence and correlates of smokeless tobacco use among PLWH. In South Africa, dry powdered tobacco is inhaled nasally as snuff.
The objective of this study is to perform a comprehensive review of the literature about thirdhand smoke (THS).
Surgical smoke resulting from electrocauterization is a health risk for operating room personnel. The U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health recommends the use of local exhaust ventilation such as a portable smoke evacuation system to reduce surgical smoke, but its efficiency has never been assessed under experimental conditions. In this study, particle filtration efficiencies of five commercially available smoke evacuation systems were investigated in a model operating room. Two cutting...
Smoke-free prison policies are increasingly common, but few studies have investigated relapse to smoking after release from prison. This study investigated return to tobacco smoking and correlates of smoking at reduced levels after release among adults recently released from smoke-free prisons in Queensland, Australia.
The San Diego 2007 wildfires and Medi-Cal emergency department presentations, inpatient hospitalizations, and outpatient visits: An observational study of smoke exposure periods and a bidirectional case-crossover analysis.
The frequency and intensity of wildfires is anticipated to increase as climate change creates longer, warmer, and drier seasons. Particulate matter (PM) from wildfire smoke has been linked to adverse respiratory and possibly cardiovascular outcomes. Children, older adults, and persons with underlying respiratory and cardiovascular conditions are thought to be particularly vulnerable. This study examines the healthcare utilization of Medi-Cal recipients during the fall 2007 San Diego wildfires, which exposed...
Honey bees (Apis mellifera) (Hymenoptera: Apidae) are social insects that have evolved a coordinated defensive response to ensure colony survival. Their nests may contain valuable resources such as pollen and nectar that are attractive to a range of insect and mammalian intruders and need protecting. With sufficient provocation, honey bees will mobilize and sting intruders, who are likely to incur additional stings. To inspect and manage their colonies, beekeepers apply smoke to decrease the likelihood of b...
this study aims to examine the different factors associated with exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS) between urban and rural areas and to facilitate a reduction in SHS exposure in Northeast China.