PubMed Journals Articles About "NASA Airborne Mission Returns Africa Study Smoke Clouds" RSS

03:23 EST 19th February 2018 | BioPortfolio

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Showing "NASA Airborne Mission Returns Africa Study Smoke Clouds" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 59,000+

Validity of self-reported intensity of exposure to second-hand smoke at home against environmental and personal markers.

The objective of this study was to assess the validity of two questions about the perception of intensity of exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) at home using as a reference environmental markers (airborne nicotine and benzene) and biomarkers of exposure (cotinine in saliva and urine). This was a cross-sectional study in a convenience sample of 49 non-smoking volunteers. We found a high correlation between self-reported SHS exposure and airborne nicotine (rsp=0.806, p

Molecular detection of airborne Emergomyces africanus, a thermally dimorphic fungal pathogen, in Cape Town, South Africa.

Emergomyces africanus is a thermally dimorphic fungus that causes a systemic mycosis in immunocompromised persons in South Africa. Infection is presumed to follow inhalation of airborne propagules. We developed a quantitative PCR protocol able to detect as few as 5 Es. africanus propagules per day. Samples were collected in Cape Town, South Africa over 50 weeks by a Burkard spore trap with an alternate orifice. We detected Es. africanus in air samples from 34 days (10%) distributed over 11 weeks. These resu...

Knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about the health hazards of biomass smoke exposure amongst commercial food vendors in Nigeria.

Exposure to biomass smoke is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Africa. Commercial food vendors in Nigeria and elsewhere in Africa are commonly exposed to biomass smoke from open fire cooking both at work and home. Little is known about the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of food vendors about the health hazards of biomass smoke exposure in Nigeria.

Forest understory trees can be segmented accurately within sufficiently dense airborne laser scanning point clouds.

Airborne laser scanning (LiDAR) point clouds over large forested areas can be processed to segment individual trees and subsequently extract tree-level information. Existing segmentation procedures typically detect more than 90% of overstory trees, yet they barely detect 60% of understory trees because of the occlusion effect of higher canopy layers. Although understory trees provide limited financial value, they are an essential component of ecosystem functioning by offering habitat for numerous wildlife s...

A Casino goes smoke free: a longitudinal study of secondhand and thirdhand smoke pollution and exposure.

Secondhand smoke (SHS) in US casinos is common, but little is known about the residue of tobacco smoke pollutants left behind in dust and on surfaces, commonly referred to as thirdhand smoke (THS). We examined SHS and THS pollution and exposure before and during a casino smoking ban and after smoking resumed.

Wildfire smoke exposure and human health: Significant gaps in research for a growing public health issue.

Understanding the effect of wildfire smoke exposure on human health represents a unique interdisciplinary challenge to the scientific community. Population health studies indicate that wildfire smoke is a risk to human health and increases the healthcare burden of smoke-impacted areas. However, wildfire smoke composition is complex and dynamic, making characterization and modeling difficult. Furthermore, current efforts to study the effect of wildfire smoke are limited by availability of air quality measure...

A Community Grows around the Geysering World of Enceladus.

The discovery by NASA's Cassini mission at Saturn in 2005 of a large plume of material erupting from the south polar terrain of Enceladus, sourced within a subsurface ocean of salty liquid water laced with organic compounds, has brought together scientists from a diverse range of disciplines over the last decade to evaluate this small moon's potential for extraterrestrial life. The collection of papers published today in Astrobiology, as the mission draws to a close, is the outcome of our most recent meetin...

Experimental study on fire smoke control using water mist curtain in channel.

The hazards of the spread of fire smoke in a channel have been recognized. This paper relates to the potential use of a water mist curtain (WMC) for preventing the spread of fire smoke, focusing particularly on smoke control at the early stage of a fire, with the aim of reducing the harm of fire smoke and allowing time for people to escape. Fatal factors for occupant evacuation in a fire, such as carbon monoxide concentration, smoke temperature, and visibility, were measured in the section controlled by the...

Allergy and immunology in Africa: Challenges and unmet needs.

The tremendous increase in allergy in the African continent cannot simply be explained by the change in public hygiene. There are many "prehygiene" communities with sewage-contaminated water supplies, helminth infestations, bare footedness, and poor housing, and still there is a high prevalence of allergic disease. Africans can be exposed to many risk factors facilitating severe asthma and wheezing, including airborne viruses, smoke, indoor dampness, cockroaches, and poor access to health care. Although the...

Automatic Registration of TLS-TLS and TLS-MLS Point Clouds Using a Genetic Algorithm.

Registration of point clouds is a fundamental issue in Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) remote sensing because point clouds scanned from multiple scan stations or by different platforms need to be transformed to a uniform coordinate reference frame. This paper proposes an efficient registration method based on genetic algorithm (GA) for automatic alignment of two terrestrial LiDAR scanning (TLS) point clouds (TLS-TLS point clouds) and alignment between TLS and mobile LiDAR scanning (MLS) point clouds (TL...

Evaluation of air samplers and filter materials for collection and recovery of airborne norovirus.

The aim of this study was to identify the most efficient sampling method for quantitative PCR-based detection of airborne human norovirus (NoV).

Cigarette Smoke Induces Activation of Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes.

Cigarette smoking is a major risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Exposure to cigarette smoke may stimulate inflammatory response and activate polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) thus resulting in secretion of cellular proteases. The aim of our study was to explore the effect of cigarette smoke extract (CSE) on the release of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) from PMN.

Airborne and food sensitization patterns in children and adults with eosinophilic esophagitis.

The pathogenesis of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is currently unknown, but evidence suggests that allergic sensitization to food and airborne allergens may play a key role. This retrospective study examines the rate of sensitization to both food and airborne allergens in EoE patients, and compares their sensitivity patterns to control groups.

Measuring mental workload with the NASA-TLX needs to examine each dimension rather than relying on the global score: An example with driving.

The distinction between several components of mental workload is often made in the ergonomics literature. However, measurements used are often established from a global score, notably with several questionnaires that originally reflect several dimensions. The present study tested the effect of driving situation complexity, experience and subjective levels of tension and alertness on each dimension of the NASA-TLX questionnaire of workload, in order to highlight the potential influence of intrinsic, extraneo...

Surgical smoke control with local exhaust ventilation: Experimental study.

This experimental study aimed to evaluate airborne particulates and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from surgical smoke when a local exhaust ventilation (LEV) system is in place. Surgical smoke was generated from human tissue in an unoccupied operating room using an electrocautery surgical device for 15 minutes with three different test settings; 1) without LEV control, 2) control with a wall irrigation suction unit with an in-line ultra-low penetration air filter and 3) control with a smoke evacuation sy...

A Mission-oriented Approach to Cancer in Europe: A Joint Mission/Vision 2030.

Key Factors Inhibiting Legislative Progress Toward Smoke-Free Coverage in Appalachia.

The Appalachian Region has among the highest rates of smoking and smoking-related illness in the United States. Strong smoke-free legislation could help protect nonsmoking residents from the harmful effects of secondhand smoke. However, there is a dearth of state, county, city, and subcounty smoke-free law coverage throughout Appalachia. As of July 2016, only 21% of Appalachian residents were covered by comprehensive smoke-free laws (i.e., 100% coverage for workplaces, restaurants, and bars). Only 46% of Ap...

Active microorganisms thrive among extremely diverse communities in cloud water.

Clouds are key components in Earth's functioning. In addition of acting as obstacles to light radiations and chemical reactors, they are possible atmospheric oases for airborne microorganisms, providing water, nutrients and paths to the ground. Microbial activity was previously detected in clouds, but the microbial community that is active in situ remains unknown. Here, microbial communities in cloud water collected at puy de Dôme Mountain's meteorological station (1465 m altitude, France) were fixed upon ...

Driver's Mental Workload Prediction Model Based on Physiological Indices.

Developing an early warning model to predict the driver's mental workload (MWL) is critical and helpful, especially for new or less experienced drivers. The present study aims to investigate the correlation between new driver's MWL and their work performance, regarding the number of errors. Additionally, the Group method of data handling (GMDH) is used to establish the driver's MWL predictive model based on subjective rating (NASA task load index (NASA-TLX)) and six physiological indices. The results indica...

Malondialdehyde-acetaldehyde protein adducts are found exclusively in the lungs of smokers with alcohol use disorders and are associated with systemic anti-MAA antibodies.

Malondialdehyde (MDA) and acetaldehyde (AA) exist following ethanol metabolism and tobacco pyrolysis. As such, lungs of individuals with alcohol use disorders (AUD) are a target for the effects of combined alcohol and cigarette smoke metabolites. MDA and AA form a stable protein adduct, malondialdehyde-acetaldehyde (MAA) adduct, known to be immunogenic, profibrotic, and proinflammatory. MAA adduct is the dominant epitope in anti-MAA antibody formation. We hypothesized that MAA-adducted protein forms in lung...

Awareness, treatment, and control of dyslipidemia in rural South Africa: The HAALSI (Health and Aging in Africa: A Longitudinal Study of an INDEPTH Community in South Africa) study.

Dyslipidemia is a primary driver for chronic cardiovascular conditions and there is no comprehensive literature about its management in South Africa. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of dyslipidemia in rural South Africa and how they are impacted by different behaviors and non-modifiable factors. To fulfill this objective we recruited for this cohort study adults aged ≥40 years residing in the Agincourt sub-district of Mpumalanga Province. Data co...

Equity in international health research collaborations in Africa: Perceptions and expectations of African researchers.

Africa is currently host to a number of international genomics research and biobanking consortia, each with a mandate to advance genomics research and biobanking in Africa. Whilst most of these consortia promise to transform the way international health research is done in Africa, few have articulated exactly how they propose to go about this. In this paper, we report on a qualitative interviewing study in which we involved 17 genomics researchers in Africa. We describe their perceptions and expectations of...

The impact of tobacco additives on cigarette smoke toxicity: a critical appraisal of tobacco industry studies.

Cigarette production involves a number of substances and materials other than just tobacco, paper and a filter. Tobacco additives include flavorings, enhancers, humectants, sugars, and ammonium compounds. Although companies maintain that tobacco additives do not enhance smoke toxicity and do not make cigarettes more attractive or addictive, these claims are questioned by independent researchers. This study reviewed the studies on the effects of tobacco additives on smoke chemistry and toxicity. Tobacco addi...

Neurosyphilis in Africa: A systematic review.

Neurological involvement is one of the most important clinical manifestations of syphilis and neurological disease occurs in both early and late syphilis. The impact of HIV co-infection on clinical neurosyphilis remains unclear. The highest prevalence of both syphilis and HIV is in Africa. Therefore it might be expected that neurosyphilis would be an important and not uncommon manifestation of syphilis in Africa and frequently occur in association with HIV co-infection; yet few data are available on neurosy...

An Electronic Health Record-Based Strategy to Address Child Tobacco Smoke Exposure.

A high proportion of children presenting to pediatric urgent cares are exposed to tobacco smoke. An electronic health record-based clinical decision support system for nurses to facilitate guideline-based tobacco smoke exposure screening and counseling for caregivers who smoke was designed and evaluated.

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