PubMed Journals Articles About "NASA Airborne Mission Returns Africa Study Smoke Clouds" RSS

19:22 EST 11th December 2018 | BioPortfolio

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Showing "NASA Airborne Mission Returns Africa Study Smoke Clouds" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 60,000+

OpenSpace: Bringing NASA Missions to the Public.

This viewpoint presents OpenSpace, an open-source astrovisualization software project designed to bridge the gap between scientific discoveries and their public dissemination. A wealth of data exists for space missions from NASA and other sources. OpenSpace brings together this data and combines it in a range of immersive settings. Through non-linear storytelling and guided exploration, interactive immersive experiences help the public to engage with advanced space mission data and models, and thus be bette...

Comparison of NASA-TLX scale, Modified Cooper-Harper scale and mean inter-beat interval as measures of pilot mental workload during simulated flight tasks.

The sensitivity of NASA-TLX scale, modified Cooper-Harper (MCH) scale and the mean inter-beat interval (IBI) of successive heart beats, as measures of pilot mental workload (MWL), were evaluated in a flight training device (FTD). Operational F/A-18C pilots flew instrument approaches with varying task loads. Pilots' performance, subjective MWL ratings and IBI were measured. Based on the pilots' performance, three performance categories were formed; high-, medium- and low-performance. Values of the subjective...

Should NASA Collect Astronauts' Genetic Information for Occupational Surveillance and Research?

Humans exploring beyond low-Earth orbit face environmental challenges coupled with isolation, remote operations, and extreme resource limitations in which personalized medicine, enabled by genetic research, might be necessary for mission success. With little opportunity to test personalized countermeasures broadly, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) will likely need to rely instead on collection of significant amounts of genomic and environmental exposure data from individuals. This ne...

Comparison of detection performance of near-, mid-, and far-infrared laser fuzes in clouds.

To compare the detection performance of near-, mid-, and far-infrared laser fuzes in clouds, we built a laser fuze detection model in a cloud environment based on the Monte Carlo method, and simulated the echoes of near- (0.86 μm), mid- (4.6 μm), and far-infrared (10 μm) pulsed laser fuzes in clouds under two scenarios: the cloud backscattering echo in the absence of a target in clouds and the target echo in the presence of a target in clouds. The echoes of laser fuzes at different wave bands under tw...

Airborne bacteria in a wastewater treatment plant: Emission characterization, source analysis and health risk assessment.

Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are major sources of airborne bacteria, which could pose health risks to WWTP workers and surrounding residents. In this study, air samples were collected from various treatment facilities of a typical WWTP. Community compositions of airborne bacteria were identified by high-throughput sequencing technique. SourceTracker was used to determine the percentages of airborne bacteria from wastewater, sludge, ambient air, and other environment. Health risks associated with airb...

DNA methylation as a marker for prenatal smoke exposure in adults.

Prenatal smoke exposure is known to be robustly associated with DNA methylation among offspring in early life, but whether the association persists into adulthood is unclear. This study aimed to investigate the long-term effect of maternal smoke exposure on DNA methylation in 754 women (mean age 30 years); to replicate findings in the same women 18 years later and in a cohort of 230 men (mean age 53 years); and to assess the extent to which a methylation score could predict prenatal smoke exposure.

Disseminating a Smoke Free Homes program to low SES households in the US through 2-1-1: Results of a national impact evaluation.

Given homes are now a primary source of secondhand smoke exposure (SHS) in the US, research-tested interventions that promote smoke-free homes should be evaluated in real-world settings to build the evidence-base for dissemination. This study describes outcome evaluation results from a dissemination and implementation study of a research-tested program to increase smoke-free home rules through US 2-1-1 helplines.

Extinction matrix for cirrus clouds in the visible and infrared regions.

The extinction matrix for cirrus clouds has been calculated for the visible and infrared regions using the physical optics approximation. The cirrus clouds are modeled as a statistical ensemble of the hexagonal ice plates, distributed over their size and orientations by the gamma and Gaussian laws, respectively. Then, the extinction matrixes as the functions of the incident wavelength, incident direction, crystal size, and crystal orientation are numerically calculated for the first time. It is shown that t...

A new method for detecting individual trees in aerial LiDAR point clouds using absolute height maxima.

Data acquired from aerial laser scanner systems are increasingly used for detecting individual trees in operational inventories. In conventional analyses, tree detection is often performed on raster models that use local height maxima filters; an option that is likely to accumulate important errors. In order to reduce errors and improve the detection of individual trees, a new method is proposed that uses an Absolute Height Maxima (AHM) filter applied on the original point clouds obtained from Aerial Laser ...

Correction: Molecular detection of airborne Emergomyces africanus, a thermally dimorphic fungal pathogen, in Cape Town, South Africa.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0006174.].

Surgical smoke: still an underestimated health hazard in the operating theatre.

Smoke generated from electrocautery dissection contains irritating and/or carcinogenic components. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a mobile smoke evacuation system (SES) in protecting surgical personnel from these hazardous fumes.

Cigarette smoke extract acts directly on CD4 T cells to enhance Th1 polarization and reduce memory potential.

Although cigarette smoke is known to alter immune responses, whether and how CD4 T cells are affected is not well-described. We aimed to characterize how exposure to cigarette smoke extract impacts CD4 T cell effector generation in vitro under Th1-polarizing conditions. Our results demonstrate that cigarette smoke directly acts on CD4 T cells to impair effector expansion by decreasing division and increasing apoptosis. Furthermore, cigarette smoke enhances Th1-associated cytokine production and increases ex...

Calorimetric Dark Matter Detection with Galactic Center Gas Clouds.

We demonstrate that dark matter heating of gas clouds, hundreds of parsecs from the Milky Way Galactic Center, provides a powerful new test of dark matter interactions. To illustrate, we set a new bound on nucleon scattering for 10-100 MeV mass dark matter. We also constrain millicharged dark matter models, including those proposed to match the recent EDGES 21 cm absorption anomaly. For Galactic Center gas clouds, the Galactic fields' magnetic deflection of electromagnetically charged dark matter is miti...

Trace Level Analysis of Airborne Hormone Particulates.

Trace levels of airborne hormones during the pharmaceutical compounding process are analyzed by air monitoring and surface sampling. This study is discussed in two parts: the first part discusses the analysis of particulates suspended in the air by using video particle counting; the second part discusses the analysis of particulates settled on the surface by using surface wipe sampling. One solution to the problem of airborne hormones is to incorporate the hormones into a vehicle like a semisolid cream with...

Does cigarette smoke exposure lead to histopathological alterations in the olfactory epithelium? An electron microscopic study on a rat model.

This study was conducted to examine the influence of smoke exposure of variable duration on the ultrastructure of and histopathologic and morphologic alterations in the olfactory epithelium.

Smoking and HIV in Sub-Saharan Africa: A 25 Country Analysis of the Demographic Health Surveys.

Having HIV/AIDS has been associated with a higher prevalence of smoking. Moreover, evidence suggests that people with HIV/AIDS who smoke have poorer treatment and survival outcomes. The HIV-smoking relationship is understudied in sub-Saharan Africa, where tobacco use patterns and HIV prevalence differ greatly from other world regions.

children: A pilot study.

Asthma, frequently associated with rhinitis, is the most common chronic disease in children, and a significant role is played by a range of environmental exposures. Among them, air pollution is of foremost concern. However, little is known about the impact of airborne pesticide exposure on children's respiratory health in rural areas. The objective of this study was to analyze the association between airborne pesticide exposure and asthma and rhinitis in children.

Inactivation of airborne bacteria using different UV sources: Performance modeling, energy utilization, and endotoxin degradation.

Airborne bacteria-containing bioaerosols have attracted increased research attention on account of their adverse effects on human health. Ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) is an effective method to inactivate airborne microorganisms. The present study models and compares the inactivation performance of three UV sources in the UVGI for aerosolized Escherichia coli. Inactivation efficiency of 0.5, 2.2 and 3.1 logarithmic order was obtained at an exposure UV dose of 370 J/m under UVA (365 nm), UVC ...

Stability of Isocyanates Sampled in Fire Smokes.

Inhalation of airborne isocyanates is associated with acute asthma attacks and inflammation in the respiratory tract as well as cancer. These highly reactive compounds are used as monomers in various applications such as foams for insulation materials and upholstery furniture and are therefore commonly found in fire smoke from insulation materials, such as rigid polyisocyanurate (PIR) foams. Consequently, there is an increasing concern regarding the potential adverse health effects they may cause during thi...

Prevalence and Correlates of Snuff Use, and its Association With Tuberculosis, Among Women Living With HIV in South Africa.

A higher proportion of people living with HIV (PLWH) smoke compared to the general population, but little information exists about the prevalence and correlates of smokeless tobacco use among PLWH. In South Africa, dry powdered tobacco is inhaled nasally as snuff.

Study of the mainstream cigarette smoke aerosols by Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry coupled to laser/desorption and electrospray ionization - Additional insights on the heteroaromatic components.

The chemical composition of particulate phase of cigarette smoke inhaled by the active smoker is still poorly known in spite of its importance on a health point of view. A non-targeted approach is applied on cigarette smoke particles collected on a quartz filter to obtain an as complete as possible description of this complex mixture.

Back to Basics: Protection From Surgical Smoke: 1.2

Surgical smoke is formed when energy-generating devices (ie, electrosurgery units, lasers, powered instruments) raise the intracellular temperature of tissue to at least 100º C (212º F), causing tissue vaporization in the form of surgical smoke. Surgical smoke contains components that are known health hazards, such as benzene, toluene, hydrogen cyanide, formaldehyde, volatile organic compounds, viruses, and bacteria. There have been case reports of human disease tied to the inhalation of surgical smoke;...

Update on thirdhand smoke: A comprehensive systematic review.

The objective of this study is to perform a comprehensive review of the literature about thirdhand smoke (THS).

Evaluating the impact of an international short-term medical mission through diabetic glycemic control.

This prospective observational study evaluated the impact of a primary care-based, international, short-term medical mission's (STMM) impact on diabetes disease burden as represented through reductions in hemoglobin A1C (HbA1c).

Efficiencies and noise levels of portable surgical smoke evacuation systems.

Surgical smoke resulting from electrocauterization is a health risk for operating room personnel. The U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health recommends the use of local exhaust ventilation such as a portable smoke evacuation system to reduce surgical smoke, but its efficiency has never been assessed under experimental conditions. In this study, particle filtration efficiencies of five commercially available smoke evacuation systems were investigated in a model operating room. Two cutting...

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