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PubMed Journals Articles About "Natural Selection Scientists Altering Genetically Engineer Forms Life" RSS

07:21 EDT 20th June 2018 | BioPortfolio

Natural Selection Scientists Altering Genetically Engineer Forms Life PubMed articles on BioPortfolio. Our PubMed references draw on over 21 million records from the medical literature. Here you can see the latest Natural Selection Scientists Altering Genetically Engineer Forms Life articles that have been published worldwide.

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Showing "Natural Selection Scientists Altering Genetically Engineer Forms Life" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 20,000+

Narrative and "anti-narrative" in science: How scientists tell stories, and don't.

Narratives are common to all branches of science, not only to the humanities. Scientists tell stories about how the things we study work, develop, and evolve, and about how we come to be interested in them. Here I add a third domain (Secularity) to Gould's two "non-overlapping magisteria" of Science and Religion, and I review previous work on the parallels in elements between story-telling in literature and science. The stories of each domain have different criteria for judging them valid or useful. In scie...


Habitat selection and seasonal movements of young bearded seals (Erignathus barbatus) in the Bering Sea.

The first year of life is typically the most critical to a pinniped's survival, especially for Arctic phocids which are weaned at only a few weeks of age and left to locate and capture prey on their own. Their seasonal movements and habitat selection are therefore important factors in their survival. During a cooperative effort between scientists and subsistence hunters in October 2004, 2005, and 2006, 13 female and 13 male young (i.e., age

Disparate patterns of thermal adaptation between life stages in temperate vs. tropical Drosophila melanogaster.

Many terrestrial ectothermic species exhibit limited variation in upper thermal tolerance across latitude. However, these trends may not signify limited adaptive capacity to increase thermal tolerance in the face of climate change. Instead, thermal tolerance may be similar among populations because behavioral thermoregulation by mobile organisms or life stages may buffer natural selection for thermal tolerance. We compared thermal tolerance of adults and embryos among natural populations of Drosophila melan...


Clinical Inquiries: How well do POLST forms assure that patients get the end-of-life care they requested?

Quite well, for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Most patients (91%-100%) who select "do not resuscitate" (DNR) on their physician's orders for life-sustaining treatment (POLST) forms are allowed a natural death without attempted CPR across a variety of settings (community, skilled nursing facilities, emergency medical services, and hospice). Few patients (6%) who select "comfort measures only" die in the hospital, whereas more (22%) who choose "limited interventions," and still more (34%) without a POL...

Family Matters: Measuring Impact Through One's Academic Descendants.

Scientific contributions take many forms, not all of which result in fame or are captured in traditional metrics of success (e.g., h factor). My focus is on one of the most lasting and important contributions a scientist can make: training scientists who go on to train scientists, who in turn train more scientists, etc. Academic genealogies provide many examples of scientists whose names might not be recognizable today but who trained psychologists that went on to publish very influential work. Of course su...

Leveraging GWAS for complex traits to detect signatures of natural selection in humans.

Natural selection can shape the genetic architecture of complex traits. In human populations, signals of positive selection at genetic loci have been detected through a variety of genome-wide scanning approaches without the knowledge of how genes affect traits or fitness. In the past decade, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have provided unprecedented insights into the genetic basis of quantitative variation in complex traits. Summary statistics generated from these GWAS have been shown to be an extra...

'More than a feeling': An empirical investigation of hedonistic accounts of animal welfare.

Many scientists studying animal welfare appear to hold a hedonistic concept of welfare -whereby welfare is ultimately reducible to an animal's subjective experience. The substantial advances in assessing animal's subjective experience have enabled us to take a step back to consider whether such indicators are all one needs to know if one is interested in the welfare of an individual. To investigate this claim, we randomly assigned participants (n = 502) to read one of four vignettes describing a hypothetica...

Evolution on the bright side of life: microorganisms and the evolution of mutualism.

Mutualistic interactions, where two interacting species have a net beneficial effect on each other's fitness, play a crucial role in the survival and evolution of many species. Despite substantial empirical and theoretical work in past decades, the impact of these interactions on natural selection is not fully understood. In addition, mutualisms between microorganisms have been largely ignored, even though they are ecologically important and can be used as tools to bridge the gap between theory and empirica...

Loss of Color Pigmentation Is Maintained at High Frequency in a Monkey Flower Population.

Color polymorphisms have long been of evolutionary interest for their diverse roles, including mate choice, predator avoidance, and pollinator attraction. While color variation is often under strong selection, some taxa demonstrate unexpectedly high frequencies of presumed deleterious color forms. Here we show that a genetic variant underlying complete loss of anthocyanin pigmentation has risen to an unexpectedly high frequency of >0.2 in a natural population of the plant Mimulus guttatus. Decreased express...

Amyloid fibrils: Versatile biomaterials for cell adhesion and tissue engineering applications.

Extracellular matrices (ECM) play an enormous role in any living system, controlling various factors and eventually fates of cells. ECM regulates cell fate by providing constant exogenous signals altering intracellular signal transduction for diverse pathways including proliferation, migration, differentiation and apoptosis. Biomaterial scaffolds are designed to mimic the natural extracellular matrix such that the cells could recapitulate natural events alike their natural niche. Therefore, the success of t...

Experiments in interdisciplinarity: Responsible research and innovation and the public good.

In Europe, responsible research and innovation (RRI) has emerged as a science policy measure that demands the early integration of a broad range of social actors and perspectives into research and development (R&D). More collaboration of the social sciences and humanities (SSH) with science and engineering appears within this policy framework as a crucial element that will enable better technological development. However, RRI is new to both natural scientists and SSH scholars, and interdisciplinary collabor...

Improving the selection efficiency of the counter-selection marker pheS* for the genetic engineering of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens.

Bacillus subtilis pheS was genetically modified to obtain a counter-selection marker with high selection efficiency in Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. The application of the new replication-thermosensitive integrative vector pNZTM1, containing this marker, pheS, with a two-step replacement recombination procedure provides an effective tool for the genetic engineering of industrially important Bacillus species.

Why does the microbiome affect behaviour?

Growing evidence indicates that the mammalian microbiome can affect behaviour, and several symbionts even produce neurotransmitters. One common explanation for these observations is that symbionts have evolved to manipulate host behaviour for their benefit. Here, we evaluate the manipulation hypothesis by applying evolutionary theory to recent work on the gut-brain axis. Although the theory predicts manipulation by symbionts under certain conditions, these appear rarely satisfied by the genetically diverse ...

The oviduct: from sperm selection to the epigenetic landscape of the embryo.

The mammalian oviduct is the place where life begins as it is the site of fertilization and preimplantation embryo development. Recent research has highlighted the important role played by the oviduct both in sperm selection for natural fertilization and in the genetic and epigenetic reprogramming of pre-implantation embryo development. This review examines oviduct fluid composition with a special emphasis on exosomes and the role played by the oviduct in sperm selection, early embryo development, and in re...

In silico approaches for predicting the half-life of natural and modified peptides in blood.

This paper describes a web server developed for designing therapeutic peptides with desired half-life in blood. In this study, we used 163 natural and 98 modified peptides whose half-life has been determined experimentally in mammalian blood, for developing in silico models. Firstly, models have been developed on 261 peptides containing natural and modified residues, using different chemical descriptors. The best model using 43 PaDEL descriptors got a maximum correlation of 0.692 between the predicted and t...

Assessing scientists for hiring, promotion, and tenure.

Assessment of researchers is necessary for decisions of hiring, promotion, and tenure. A burgeoning number of scientific leaders believe the current system of faculty incentives and rewards is misaligned with the needs of society and disconnected from the evidence about the causes of the reproducibility crisis and suboptimal quality of the scientific publication record. To address this issue, particularly for the clinical and life sciences, we convened a 22-member expert panel workshop in Washington, DC, in...

Evidence for Selection-by-Environment but Not Genotype-by-Environment Interactions for Fitness-Related Traits in a Wild Mammal Population.

How do environmental conditions influence selection and genetic variation in wild populations? There is widespread evidence for selection-by-environment interactions (S*E), but we reviewed studies of natural populations estimating the extent of genotype-by-environment interactions (G*E) in response to natural variation in environmental conditions, and found that evidence for G*E appears to be rare within single populations in the wild. Studies estimating the simultaneous impact of environmental variation on...

Hot off the press.

A personal selection of 32 recent papers is presented covering various aspects of current developments in bioorganic chemistry and novel natural products such as illisimonin A from Illicium simonsii.

Environmentally induced development costs underlie fitness tradeoffs.

Local adaptation can lead to genotype-by-environment interactions, which can create fitness tradeoffs in alternative environments, and govern the distribution of biodiversity across geographic landscapes. Exploring the ecological circumstances that promote the evolution of fitness tradeoffs requires identifying how natural selection operates and during which ontogenetic stages natural selection is strongest. When organisms disperse to areas outside their natural range, tradeoffs might emerge when organisms ...

AP-1 Transcription Factors and the BAF Complex Mediate Signal-Dependent Enhancer Selection.

Enhancer elements are genomic regulatory sequences that direct the selective expression of genes so that genetically identical cells can differentiate and acquire the highly specialized forms and functions required to build a functioning animal. To differentiate, cells must select from among the ∼106 enhancers encoded in the genome the thousands of enhancers that drive the gene programs that impart their distinct features. We used a genetic approach to identify transcription factors (TFs) required for enh...

Digest: Plants adapt under attack: genotypic selection and phenotypic plasticity under herbivore pressure.

Plant species adapt to changing environmental conditions through phenotypic plasticity and natural selection. Agrawal et al. (2018) found that dandelions responded to the presence of insect pests by producing higher levels of defensive compounds. This defensive response resulted both from phenotypic plasticity, with individual plants' defenses triggered by insect attack, and from evolution by natural selection acting on genetic variation in the plant population. This article is protected by copyright. All ...

Burkholderia pseudomallei natural competency and DNA catabolism: Identification and characterization of relevant genes from a constructed fosmid library.

Burkholderia spp. are genetically and physiologically diverse. Some strains are naturally transformable and capable of DNA catabolism. Burkholderia pseudomallei (Bp) strains 1026b and K96243 and B. thailandensis strain E264 are able to utilize DNA as a sole carbon source for growth, while only strains 1026b and E264 are naturally transformable. In this study, we constructed low-copy broad-host-range fosmid library, containing Bp strain 1026b chromosomal DNA fragments, and employed a novel positive selection...

Antibacterial and anti-TB tat-peptidomimetics with improved efficacy and half-life.

Non-natural antimicrobial peptides are ideal as next-generation antibiotics because of their ability to circumvent the problems of drug resistance and in vivo instability. We report novel all-α- and α,γ-mixed Tat peptide analogues as potential antibacterial and anti-TB agents. These peptides have broad spectrum antibacterial activities against Gram-positive (MICs 0.61 ± 0.03 to 1.35 ± 0.21 μM with the peptide γTatM4) and Gram-negative (MICs 0.71 ± 0.005 to 1.26 ± 0.02 μM with ...

Programming Biomaterial Interactions Using Engineered Living Cells.

We have developed a biomaterials interface that allows the properties of a functionalized surface to be controlled by a population of genetically engineered bacteria. This interface was engineered by linking a genetically modified E. coli strain with a chemically functionalized surface. Critically, the E. coli was engineered to upregulate the production of biotin when induced by a small signaling molecule. This biotin would then interact with the functionalized surface to modulate the surface's binding dyna...

Compensatory selection for roads over natural linear features by wolves in northern Ontario: Implications for caribou conservation.

Woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) in Ontario are a threatened species that have experienced a substantial retraction of their historic range. Part of their decline has been attributed to increasing densities of anthropogenic linear features such as trails, roads, railways, and hydro lines. These features have been shown to increase the search efficiency and kill rate of wolves. However, it is unclear whether selection for anthropogenic linear features is additive or compensatory to selection for ...


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