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PubMed Journals Articles About "Natural Selection Scientists Altering Genetically Engineer Forms Life" RSS

09:47 EST 16th December 2018 | BioPortfolio

Natural Selection Scientists Altering Genetically Engineer Forms Life PubMed articles on BioPortfolio. Our PubMed references draw on over 21 million records from the medical literature. Here you can see the latest Natural Selection Scientists Altering Genetically Engineer Forms Life articles that have been published worldwide.

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Showing "Natural Selection Scientists Altering Genetically Engineer Forms Life" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 21,000+

Selection and population health: Theory and typology of research.

Public health researchers may assume, based on the fetal origins literature, that "scarring" of birth cohorts describes the population response to modern-day stressors. We contend, based on extensive literature concerned with selection , that this assumption remains questionable. At least a third and likely many more of human conceptions fail to yield a live birth. Those that survive to birth, moreover, do not represent their conception cohort. Increasing data availability has led to an improved understandi...


Natural Selection: How Selection on Behavior Interacts with Selection on Morphology.

Can behavior accelerate or buffer morphological evolution? A recent experiment in a natural setting shows that selection acts on behavior and morphology, but acts on each trait independently of the other.

Relaxed natural selection contributes to global obesity increase more in males than in females due to more environmental modifications in female body mass.

Relaxed natural selection, measured by Biological State Index (Ibs), results in unfavourable genes/mutations accumulation in population. Obesity is partly heritable. We aim to examine and compare the effects of relaxed natural selection on male and female obesity prevalence.


Narrative and "anti-narrative" in science: How scientists tell stories, and don't.

Narratives are common to all branches of science, not only to the humanities. Scientists tell stories about how the things we study work, develop, and evolve, and about how we come to be interested in them. Here I add a third domain (Secularity) to Gould's two "non-overlapping magisteria" of Science and Religion, and I review previous work on the parallels in elements between story-telling in literature and science. The stories of each domain have different criteria for judging them valid or useful. In scie...

Altering Perceptions of Scientists among 5 graders by the Introduction of Female Role Models: A new opportunity for dermatologists?

Leveraging GWAS for complex traits to detect signatures of natural selection in humans.

Natural selection can shape the genetic architecture of complex traits. In human populations, signals of positive selection at genetic loci have been detected through a variety of genome-wide scanning approaches without the knowledge of how genes affect traits or fitness. In the past decade, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have provided unprecedented insights into the genetic basis of quantitative variation in complex traits. Summary statistics generated from these GWAS have been shown to be an extra...

Selection for synchronized cell division in simple multicellular organisms.

The evolution of multicellularity was a major transition in the history of life on earth. Conditions under which multicellularity is favored have been studied theoretically and experimentally. But since the construction of a multicellular organism requires multiple rounds of cell division, a natural question is whether these cell divisions should be synchronous or not. We study a population model in which there compete simple multicellular organisms that grow by either synchronous or asynchronous cell divis...

Global sex selection techniques for family planning: a narrative review.

To document the varying methods of sex selection, both primitive (traditional) as well as advanced forms available around the world.

Gene-Culture Coinheritance of a Behavioral Trait.

Many physical and behavioral traits in animals, including humans, are inherited both genetically and culturally. The presence of different inheritance systems affecting the same trait can result in complex evolutionary dynamics. Here, we present a general model that elucidates the distinct roles of cultural and genetic inheritance systems and their interaction in driving the evolution of complex phenotypes. In particular, we derive a Price equation that incorporates both cultural and genetic inheritance of ...

Evolution: Plasticity versus Selection, or Plasticity and Selection?

Whether phenotypic plasticity enables or hinders genetic adaptation has been debated for over a century. A study of lizard coloration uncovers the means by which plasticity can facilitate colonization of novel environments and enable eventual adaptation by natural selection.

In silico approaches for predicting the half-life of natural and modified peptides in blood.

This paper describes a web server developed for designing therapeutic peptides with desired half-life in blood. In this study, we used 163 natural and 98 modified peptides whose half-life has been determined experimentally in mammalian blood, for developing in silico models. Firstly, models have been developed on 261 peptides containing natural and modified residues, using different chemical descriptors. The best model using 43 PaDEL descriptors got a maximum correlation of 0.692 between the predicted and t...

Welcoming Deaf Students into STEM: Recommendations for University Science Education.

Scientists are shaped by their unique life experiences and bring these perspectives to their research. Diversity in life and cultural experiences among scientists, therefore, broadens research directions and, ultimately, scientific discoveries. Deaf individuals, for example, have successfully contributed their unique perspectives to scientific inquiry. However, deaf individuals still face challenges in university science education. Most deaf students in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STE...

Can writing poems and taking photos help the psychiatrist to improve his humanity and the mental health of his patients?

The relationship between the art forms of photography and poetry and mental wellbeing is described, both for the psychiatrist and for the patient. These, as well as other art forms, improve the experience of human persons interior life. It is suggested that these art forms, as well as music and dance, can be helpful in the treatment of Depression.

Niche differentiation among clones in asexual grass thrips.

Many asexual animal populations comprise a mixture of genetically different lineages, but to what degree this genetic diversity leads to ecological differences remains often unknown. Here, we test whether genetically different clonal lineages of Aptinothrips grass thrips differ in performance on a range of plants used as hosts in natural populations. We find a clear clone-by-plant species interactive effect on reproductive output, meaning that clonal lineages perform differently on different plant species a...

Environmentally induced development costs underlie fitness tradeoffs.

Local adaptation can lead to genotype-by-environment interactions, which can create fitness tradeoffs in alternative environments, and govern the distribution of biodiversity across geographic landscapes. Exploring the ecological circumstances that promote the evolution of fitness tradeoffs requires identifying how natural selection operates and during which ontogenetic stages natural selection is strongest. When organisms disperse to areas outside their natural range, tradeoffs might emerge when organisms ...

Genome-wide scans of selection highlight the impact of biotic and abiotic constraints in natural populations of the model grass Brachypodium distachyon.

Grasses are essential plants for ecosystem functioning. Quantifying the selective pressures that act on natural variation in grass species is therefore essential regarding biodiversity maintenance. In this study, we investigate the selection pressures that act on two distinct populations of the grass model Brachypodium distachyon without prior knowledge about the traits under selection. We took advantage of whole-genome sequencing data produced for 44 natural accessions of B. distachyon and used complementa...

Evolution of dispersal syndrome and its corresponding metabolomic changes.

Dispersal is one of the strategies for organisms to deal with climate change and habitat degradation. Therefore, investigating the effects of dispersal evolution on natural populations is of considerable interest to ecologists and conservation biologists. Although it is known that dispersal itself can evolve due to selection, the behavioral, life-history and metabolic consequences of dispersal evolution are not well understood. Here, we explore these issues by subjecting four outbred laboratory populations ...

Riboregulator elements as tools to engineer gene expression in cyanobacteria.

Cyanobacteria are an ideal host for biofuel production. Although efforts have been made to genetically engineer cyanobacteria for efficient production of biofuels and other important chemicals, the tools that can be applied to cyanobacteria are still limited. A new gene regulation tool, riboregulator, has been examined for application in cyanobacteria. A riboregulator is a nature-inspired RNA tool, which is composed of two artificially designed RNA fragments. Owing to its high specificity and efficacy, it i...

Programming Biomaterial Interactions Using Engineered Living Cells.

We have developed a biomaterials interface that allows the properties of a functionalized surface to be controlled by a population of genetically engineered bacteria. This interface was engineered by linking a genetically modified E. coli strain with a chemically functionalized surface. Critically, the E. coli was engineered to upregulate the production of biotin when induced by a small signaling molecule. This biotin would then interact with the functionalized surface to modulate the surface's binding dyna...

Antibacterial and anti-TB tat-peptidomimetics with improved efficacy and half-life.

Non-natural antimicrobial peptides are ideal as next-generation antibiotics because of their ability to circumvent the problems of drug resistance and in vivo instability. We report novel all-α- and α,γ-mixed Tat peptide analogues as potential antibacterial and anti-TB agents. These peptides have broad spectrum antibacterial activities against Gram-positive (MICs 0.61 ± 0.03 to 1.35 ± 0.21 μM with the peptide γTatM4) and Gram-negative (MICs 0.71 ± 0.005 to 1.26 ± 0.02 μM with ...

Synthesis of RNA Nucleotides in Plausible Prebiotic Conditions from ab initio Computer Simulations.

Understanding the mechanism of spontaneous formation of ribonucleotides under realistic prebiotic conditions is a key open issue of origins-of-life research. In cells, de novo and salvage nucleotide enzymatic synthesis combines 5-phospho-α-D-ribose-1-diphosphate (α-PRPP) and nucleobases. Interestingly, these reactants are also known as prebiotically plausible compounds. Combining ab initio molecular dynamics simulations with recently developed reaction exploration and enhanced sampling methods, we show th...

The left hand side of the Fundamental Theorem of Natural Selection.

The fundamental theorem of natural selection is explained here in very simple terms, suitable for students. The biological significance of the left hand side - the rate of change in mean fitness due to changes in gene frequencies, which is also described as the rate of change due to natural selection - has been regarded since 1972 as problematic, but here a simple graph is used to show that Fisher's poor explanation was of a robust and simple intuition. Simple numerical examples show the theorem at work wit...

Oxidative stress, redox stress or redox success?

The first life forms evolved in a highly reducing environment. This reduced state is still carried by cells today, which makes the concept of "reductive stress" somewhat redundant. When oxygen became abundant on the Earth, due to the evolution of photosynthesis, life forms had to adapt or become extinct. Living organisms did adapt, proliferated and an explosion of new life forms resulted, using reactive oxygen species (ROS) to drive their evolution. Adaptation to oxygen and its reduction intermediates neces...

Resources mediate selection on module longevity in the field.

The life histories of modular organisms are complicated, where selection and optimisation can occur at both organismal and modular levels. At a modular level, growth, reproduction, and death can occur in one module, independently of others. Across modular groups, there are no formal investigations of selection on module longevity. We used two field experiments to test if selection acts on module longevity in a sessile marine invertebrate, and if selection varies across successional gradients and resource re...

Sex-biased gene expression, sexual antagonism and levels of genetic diversity in the collared flycatcher (Ficedula albicollis) genome.

Theoretical work suggests that sexual conflict should promote the maintenance of genetic diversity by the opposing directions of selection on males and females. If such conflict is pervasive, it could potentially lead to genomic heterogeneity in levels of genetic diversity an idea that so far has not been empirically tested on a genome-wide scale. We used large-scale population genomic and transcriptomic data from the collared flycatcher (Ficedula albicollis) to analyse how sexual conflict, for which we use...


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