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PubMed Journals Articles About "Natural Selection Scientists Altering Genetically Engineer Forms Life" RSS

06:02 EDT 23rd September 2018 | BioPortfolio

Natural Selection Scientists Altering Genetically Engineer Forms Life PubMed articles on BioPortfolio. Our PubMed references draw on over 21 million records from the medical literature. Here you can see the latest Natural Selection Scientists Altering Genetically Engineer Forms Life articles that have been published worldwide.

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Showing "Natural Selection Scientists Altering Genetically Engineer Forms Life" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 21,000+

Selection and population health: Theory and typology of research.

Public health researchers may assume, based on the fetal origins literature, that "scarring" of birth cohorts describes the population response to modern-day stressors. We contend, based on extensive literature concerned with selection , that this assumption remains questionable. At least a third and likely many more of human conceptions fail to yield a live birth. Those that survive to birth, moreover, do not represent their conception cohort. Increasing data availability has led to an improved understandi...


Natural Selection: How Selection on Behavior Interacts with Selection on Morphology.

Can behavior accelerate or buffer morphological evolution? A recent experiment in a natural setting shows that selection acts on behavior and morphology, but acts on each trait independently of the other.

Relaxed natural selection contributes to global obesity increase more in males than in females due to more environmental modifications in female body mass.

Relaxed natural selection, measured by Biological State Index (Ibs), results in unfavourable genes/mutations accumulation in population. Obesity is partly heritable. We aim to examine and compare the effects of relaxed natural selection on male and female obesity prevalence.


Narrative and "anti-narrative" in science: How scientists tell stories, and don't.

Narratives are common to all branches of science, not only to the humanities. Scientists tell stories about how the things we study work, develop, and evolve, and about how we come to be interested in them. Here I add a third domain (Secularity) to Gould's two "non-overlapping magisteria" of Science and Religion, and I review previous work on the parallels in elements between story-telling in literature and science. The stories of each domain have different criteria for judging them valid or useful. In scie...

Habitat selection and seasonal movements of young bearded seals (Erignathus barbatus) in the Bering Sea.

The first year of life is typically the most critical to a pinniped's survival, especially for Arctic phocids which are weaned at only a few weeks of age and left to locate and capture prey on their own. Their seasonal movements and habitat selection are therefore important factors in their survival. During a cooperative effort between scientists and subsistence hunters in October 2004, 2005, and 2006, 13 female and 13 male young (i.e., age

Clinical Inquiries: How well do POLST forms assure that patients get the end-of-life care they requested?

Quite well, for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Most patients (91%-100%) who select "do not resuscitate" (DNR) on their physician's orders for life-sustaining treatment (POLST) forms are allowed a natural death without attempted CPR across a variety of settings (community, skilled nursing facilities, emergency medical services, and hospice). Few patients (6%) who select "comfort measures only" die in the hospital, whereas more (22%) who choose "limited interventions," and still more (34%) without a POL...

Leveraging GWAS for complex traits to detect signatures of natural selection in humans.

Natural selection can shape the genetic architecture of complex traits. In human populations, signals of positive selection at genetic loci have been detected through a variety of genome-wide scanning approaches without the knowledge of how genes affect traits or fitness. In the past decade, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have provided unprecedented insights into the genetic basis of quantitative variation in complex traits. Summary statistics generated from these GWAS have been shown to be an extra...

Selection for synchronized cell division in simple multicellular organisms.

The evolution of multicellularity was a major transition in the history of life on earth. Conditions under which multicellularity is favored have been studied theoretically and experimentally. But since the construction of a multicellular organism requires multiple rounds of cell division, a natural question is whether these cell divisions should be synchronous or not. We study a population model in which there compete simple multicellular organisms that grow by either synchronous or asynchronous cell divis...

'More than a feeling': An empirical investigation of hedonistic accounts of animal welfare.

Many scientists studying animal welfare appear to hold a hedonistic concept of welfare -whereby welfare is ultimately reducible to an animal's subjective experience. The substantial advances in assessing animal's subjective experience have enabled us to take a step back to consider whether such indicators are all one needs to know if one is interested in the welfare of an individual. To investigate this claim, we randomly assigned participants (n = 502) to read one of four vignettes describing a hypothetica...

Amyloid fibrils: Versatile biomaterials for cell adhesion and tissue engineering applications.

Extracellular matrices (ECM) play an enormous role in any living system, controlling various factors and eventually fates of cells. ECM regulates cell fate by providing constant exogenous signals altering intracellular signal transduction for diverse pathways including proliferation, migration, differentiation and apoptosis. Biomaterial scaffolds are designed to mimic the natural extracellular matrix such that the cells could recapitulate natural events alike their natural niche. Therefore, the success of t...

Global sex selection techniques for family planning: a narrative review.

To document the varying methods of sex selection, both primitive (traditional) as well as advanced forms available around the world.

Gene-Culture Coinheritance of a Behavioral Trait.

Many physical and behavioral traits in animals, including humans, are inherited both genetically and culturally. The presence of different inheritance systems affecting the same trait can result in complex evolutionary dynamics. Here, we present a general model that elucidates the distinct roles of cultural and genetic inheritance systems and their interaction in driving the evolution of complex phenotypes. In particular, we derive a Price equation that incorporates both cultural and genetic inheritance of ...

Experiments in interdisciplinarity: Responsible research and innovation and the public good.

In Europe, responsible research and innovation (RRI) has emerged as a science policy measure that demands the early integration of a broad range of social actors and perspectives into research and development (R&D). More collaboration of the social sciences and humanities (SSH) with science and engineering appears within this policy framework as a crucial element that will enable better technological development. However, RRI is new to both natural scientists and SSH scholars, and interdisciplinary collabor...

Improving the selection efficiency of the counter-selection marker pheS* for the genetic engineering of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens.

Bacillus subtilis pheS was genetically modified to obtain a counter-selection marker with high selection efficiency in Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. The application of the new replication-thermosensitive integrative vector pNZTM1, containing this marker, pheS, with a two-step replacement recombination procedure provides an effective tool for the genetic engineering of industrially important Bacillus species.

Why does the microbiome affect behaviour?

Growing evidence indicates that the mammalian microbiome can affect behaviour, and several symbionts even produce neurotransmitters. One common explanation for these observations is that symbionts have evolved to manipulate host behaviour for their benefit. Here, we evaluate the manipulation hypothesis by applying evolutionary theory to recent work on the gut-brain axis. Although the theory predicts manipulation by symbionts under certain conditions, these appear rarely satisfied by the genetically diverse ...

Assessing scientists for hiring, promotion, and tenure.

Assessment of researchers is necessary for decisions of hiring, promotion, and tenure. A burgeoning number of scientific leaders believe the current system of faculty incentives and rewards is misaligned with the needs of society and disconnected from the evidence about the causes of the reproducibility crisis and suboptimal quality of the scientific publication record. To address this issue, particularly for the clinical and life sciences, we convened a 22-member expert panel workshop in Washington, DC, in...

Welcoming Deaf Students into STEM: Recommendations for University Science Education.

Scientists are shaped by their unique life experiences and bring these perspectives to their research. Diversity in life and cultural experiences among scientists, therefore, broadens research directions and, ultimately, scientific discoveries. Deaf individuals, for example, have successfully contributed their unique perspectives to scientific inquiry. However, deaf individuals still face challenges in university science education. Most deaf students in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STE...

In silico approaches for predicting the half-life of natural and modified peptides in blood.

This paper describes a web server developed for designing therapeutic peptides with desired half-life in blood. In this study, we used 163 natural and 98 modified peptides whose half-life has been determined experimentally in mammalian blood, for developing in silico models. Firstly, models have been developed on 261 peptides containing natural and modified residues, using different chemical descriptors. The best model using 43 PaDEL descriptors got a maximum correlation of 0.692 between the predicted and t...

Environmentally induced development costs underlie fitness tradeoffs.

Local adaptation can lead to genotype-by-environment interactions, which can create fitness tradeoffs in alternative environments, and govern the distribution of biodiversity across geographic landscapes. Exploring the ecological circumstances that promote the evolution of fitness tradeoffs requires identifying how natural selection operates and during which ontogenetic stages natural selection is strongest. When organisms disperse to areas outside their natural range, tradeoffs might emerge when organisms ...

Genome-wide scans of selection highlight the impact of biotic and abiotic constraints in natural populations of the model grass Brachypodium distachyon.

Grasses are essential plants for ecosystem functioning. Quantifying the selective pressures that act on natural variation in grass species is therefore essential regarding biodiversity maintenance. In this study, we investigate the selection pressures that act on two distinct populations of the grass model Brachypodium distachyon without prior knowledge about the traits under selection. We took advantage of whole-genome sequencing data produced for 44 natural accessions of B. distachyon and used complementa...

Evolution of dispersal syndrome and its corresponding metabolomic changes.

Dispersal is one of the strategies for organisms to deal with climate change and habitat degradation. Therefore, investigating the effects of dispersal evolution on natural populations is of considerable interest to ecologists and conservation biologists. Although it is known that dispersal itself can evolve due to selection, the behavioral, life-history and metabolic consequences of dispersal evolution are not well understood. Here, we explore these issues by subjecting four outbred laboratory populations ...

Digest: Plants adapt under attack: genotypic selection and phenotypic plasticity under herbivore pressure.

Plant species adapt to changing environmental conditions through phenotypic plasticity and natural selection. Agrawal et al. (2018) found that dandelions responded to the presence of insect pests by producing higher levels of defensive compounds. This defensive response resulted both from phenotypic plasticity, with individual plants' defenses triggered by insect attack, and from evolution by natural selection acting on genetic variation in the plant population. This article is protected by copyright. All ...

Riboregulator elements as tools to engineer gene expression in cyanobacteria.

Cyanobacteria are an ideal host for biofuel production. Although efforts have been made to genetically engineer cyanobacteria for efficient production of biofuels and other important chemicals, the tools that can be applied to cyanobacteria are still limited. A new gene regulation tool, riboregulator, has been examined for application in cyanobacteria. A riboregulator is a nature-inspired RNA tool, which is composed of two artificially designed RNA fragments. Owing to its high specificity and efficacy, it i...

Programming Biomaterial Interactions Using Engineered Living Cells.

We have developed a biomaterials interface that allows the properties of a functionalized surface to be controlled by a population of genetically engineered bacteria. This interface was engineered by linking a genetically modified E. coli strain with a chemically functionalized surface. Critically, the E. coli was engineered to upregulate the production of biotin when induced by a small signaling molecule. This biotin would then interact with the functionalized surface to modulate the surface's binding dyna...

Antibacterial and anti-TB tat-peptidomimetics with improved efficacy and half-life.

Non-natural antimicrobial peptides are ideal as next-generation antibiotics because of their ability to circumvent the problems of drug resistance and in vivo instability. We report novel all-α- and α,γ-mixed Tat peptide analogues as potential antibacterial and anti-TB agents. These peptides have broad spectrum antibacterial activities against Gram-positive (MICs 0.61 ± 0.03 to 1.35 ± 0.21 μM with the peptide γTatM4) and Gram-negative (MICs 0.71 ± 0.005 to 1.26 ± 0.02 μM with ...


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