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Neural Substrates In Nicotine Withdrawal PubMed articles on BioPortfolio. Our PubMed references draw on over 21 million records from the medical literature. Here you can see the latest Neural Substrates In Nicotine Withdrawal articles that have been published worldwide.
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Chronic nicotine exposure produces neuroadaptations in brain reward systems and α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in the corticolimbic brain areas. We previously demonstrated opposite effects of nicotine exposure delivered by self-administration or pumps on brain reward thresholds that can be attributed to the different temporal pattern and contingency of nicotine exposure. We investigated the effects of these two factors on reward thresholds and somatic signs during nicotine withdrawal, and...
Varenicline, a partial agonist for α4β2* nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and a full agonist for α3β4 and α7 nAChRs, is approved for smoking cessation treatment. Although, partial agonism at α4β2* nAChRs is believed to be the mechanism underlying the effects of varenicline on nicotine reward, the contribution of other nicotinic subtypes to varenicline's effects on nicotine reward is currently unknown. Therefore, we examined the role of α5 and α7 nAChR subunits in the effects of vareniclin...
A retrospective analysis of the association between providing nicotine replacement therapy at admission and motivation to quit and nicotine withdrawal symptoms during an inpatient psychiatric hospitalization.
Psychiatric patients have high tobacco use prevalence, dependence, and withdrawal severity. A tobacco-free psychiatric hospitalization necessitates the management of nicotine withdrawal (NW) for tobacco using patients. NW management often requires the provision of approved nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) to patients, which may also motivate tobacco users towards cessation. However, few studies have examined the associations between providing NRT, motivation to quit, and NW among psychiatric patients.
This study investigated the influence of the rate of nicotine metabolism, as indicated by the nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR) on tobacco dependence. We stratified 136 smokers based on saliva NMR as fast (n=65) and slow (n=71) metabolizers. Two "loading cigarettes" were smoked after overnight, and a "reward cigarette" after six hours daytime abstinence. Blood nicotine concentrations, expired carbon monoxide, withdrawal/craving and reward questionnaires were collected before/after smoking and during daytime a...
Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) aims to temporarily replace much of the nicotine from cigarettes to reduce motivation to smoke and nicotine withdrawal symptoms, thus easing the transition from cigarette smoking to complete abstinence.
The objective of this study was to determine whether a novel α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor partial agonist improves cognition during nicotine withdrawal and improves abstinence rates. To do so, the effect of the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor partial agonist, encenicline, on cognition and abstinence was evaluated when given as monotherapy and when combined with transdermal nicotine patch (nicotine replacement therapy [NRT]).
Mandating a reduction in the nicotine content of cigarettes to a minimally addictive level could dramatically reduce smoking rates in the US. However, little is known about the effects of reduced nicotine content cigarettes in adolescents.
Exposure to early life adversity (ELA) is associated with increased subsequent risk for addiction and relapse. We examined changes in psychobiological responses to stress in dependent smokers and nonsmoking controls and evaluated how history of early adversity may exacerbate acute changes during nicotine withdrawal and acute stress. Smokers were randomly assigned to one of two conditions; 24 h withdrawal (66 smokers) from smoking and all nicotine-containing products or smoking ad libitum (46 smokers) prio...
Repeated nicotine administration has been associated with increased paradoxical sleep in rats and antinociceptive properties, whereas paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD) elicits pronociceptive and inflammatory responses. Thus, we aimed to evaluate the effect of repeated nicotine administration and its withdrawal combined with PSD on pain sensitivity and inflammatory markers. Sixty adult male Wistar rats were subjected to repeated injections of saline (SAL) or nicotine (NIC) for 12 days or 7 days of nicotine...
Understanding the stimulatory effects of nicotine on cardiovascular function in humans is of great interest given the wide-spread use of different forms of combustible and smokeless products that deliver nicotine. An intravenous nicotine infusion procedure was used to evaluate factors associated with the acute heart rate (HR) response to nicotine (0.5 mg per 70 kg bodyweight) in a sample of 213 smokers. We tested for differential response to nicotine based on demographic characteristics (race [European ...
Numerous studies have attributed the psychopathology of anxiety and stress disorders to maladaptive behavioral responses such as an inability to extinguish fear. Therefore, understanding neural substrates of fear extinction is imperative for developing more effective therapies for anxiety and stress disorders. Although several studies indicated a role for cholinergic transmission and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in anxiety and stress disorder symptomatology, very little is known about the spec...
Persistent attenuation of nicotine self-administration in rats by co-administration of chronic nicotine infusion with the dopamine D receptor antagonist SCH-23390 or the serotonin 5-HT agonist lorcaserin.
Tobacco addiction each year causes millions of deaths worldwide. Brain nicotinic acetylcholine receptors have been shown to be central to tobacco addiction. Nicotine replacement therapy aids tobacco cessation, but the success rate is still far too low. This may in part be due to the fact that neurons with nicotinic receptors are not the only neural systems involved in tobacco addiction. Interacting neural systems also play important roles in tobacco addiction. Nicotine increases the release of a variety of ...
Pregnancy-induced increases in nicotine metabolism may contribute to difficulties in quitting smoking during pregnancy. However, the time-course of changes in nicotine metabolism during early and late pregnancy are unclear. The present study investigated how pregnancy alters the nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR), a common biomarker of nicotine metabolism among non-pregnant smokers.
Research on cigarette smokers suggests cognitive and behavioral impairments. However, much remains unclear how the functional neurobiology of smokers is influenced by nicotine state. Therefore, we sought to determine which state, be it acute nicotine abstinence or satiety, would yield the most robust differences compared to non-smokers when assessing neurobiological markers of nicotine dependence.
Smokers can regulate their nicotine intake by altering the number of cigarettes smoked per day (CPD) and their smoking intensity. The current study aimed to compare the utility of self-reported CPD, total nicotine equivalents (TNE), and urinary cotinine to estimate nicotine intake during pregnancy.
Although it is well established that the direct action of cocaine on centrally located neural substrates is essential in mediating its reinforcing properties, cocaine induces very rapid immediate neural effects that imply cocaine's action on peripheral neural substrates. We employed oxygen sensors coupled with high-speed amperometery to examine the effects of standard cocaine HCl that easily enters the blood-brain barrier and its blood-brain barrier-impermeable methiodide analogue on oxygen levels in the nu...
Nicotine addiction is the proximate cause of disease and death from cigarette smoking. In 1994, we proposed reducing the nicotine content of cigarettes to non-addicting levels to reduce the risk of youth becoming addicted smokers and promoting quitting in established smokers. In 2009, the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act provided the authority to FDA to reduce nicotine levels as appropriate to benefit public health. Over the past 15 years, considerable research has determined that nicotin...
This article proposes an update and summary of current knowledge in the management of alcohol withdrawal, based on a review of recent literature. The issues open to debate and the areas whith new developments will be addressed, such as: the entry into treatment, the withdrawal setting, the withdrawal medications, the various possible protocols and the introduction of relapse prevention treatments.
Our previous studies showed that paternal nicotine exposure can lead to hyperactivity in the offspring. Nevertheless, the cross-generational effects of maternal and biparental nicotine exposure remain unclear. In this study, female and male mice were exposed respectively by nicotine before pregnancy. The maternal pre-pregnancy nicotine exposure led to depression-like behaviors in the F1 offspring. However, after biparental pre-pregnancy nicotine exposure, seventy percentage of the offspring exhibited a depr...
Smoking during pregnancy is strongly associated with negative pregnancy and perinatal outcomes. Some guidelines recommend nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) for smoking cessation during pregnancy but adherence with NRT is generally poor and could be partially-explained by nicotine-related safety concerns. We compared pregnant women's cotinine and nicotine exposures from smoking with those when they were abstinent from smoking and using NRT.
Nicotine is a major toxic alkaloid in wastes generated from tobacco production and cigarette manufacturing. In the present work, a nicotine-degrading bacterial strain was isolated from tobacco powdery waste. The isolate was identified as Pseudomonas sp. S-1 based on morphology, physiology, and 16S rRNA gene sequence. Suitable conditions of isolate S-1 for nicotine degradation were pH 7.0 and 30 C. Catabolic intermediates of nicotine were isolated with preparative-HPLC and characterized with LC-HRMS and N...
Benzodiazepine-resistant alcohol withdrawal (RAW), defined by a requirement of ≥ 40 mg of diazepam in 1 h, represents a severe form of withdrawal without predictive parameters. This study was designed to identify risk factors associated with RAW versus withdrawal without benzodiazepine resistance (nRAW).