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Showing "Neural Substrates Nicotine Withdrawal" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 5,700+

Differential effects of withdrawal from intermittent and continuous nicotine exposure on reward deficit and somatic aspects of nicotine withdrawal and expression of α4β2* nAChRs in Wistar male rats.

Chronic nicotine exposure produces neuroadaptations in brain reward systems and α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in the corticolimbic brain areas. We previously demonstrated opposite effects of nicotine exposure delivered by self-administration or pumps on brain reward thresholds that can be attributed to the different temporal pattern and contingency of nicotine exposure. We investigated the effects of these two factors on reward thresholds and somatic signs during nicotine withdrawal, and...

A retrospective analysis of the association between providing nicotine replacement therapy at admission and motivation to quit and nicotine withdrawal symptoms during an inpatient psychiatric hospitalization.

Psychiatric patients have high tobacco use prevalence, dependence, and withdrawal severity. A tobacco-free psychiatric hospitalization necessitates the management of nicotine withdrawal (NW) for tobacco using patients. NW management often requires the provision of approved nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) to patients, which may also motivate tobacco users towards cessation. However, few studies have examined the associations between providing NRT, motivation to quit, and NW among psychiatric patients.

The Network Structure of Tobacco Withdrawal in a Community Sample of Smokers Treated with Nicotine Patch and Behavioral Counseling.

Network theories of psychopathology highlight that, rather than being indicators of a latent disorder, symptoms of disorders can causally interact with one another in a network. The present study examined tobacco withdrawal from a network perspective.

Effects of Nicotine Metabolic Rate on withdrawal symptoms and response to cigarette smoking following abstinence.

This study investigated the influence of the rate of nicotine metabolism, as indicated by the nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR) on tobacco dependence. We stratified 136 smokers based on saliva NMR as fast (n=65) and slow (n=71) metabolizers. Two "loading cigarettes" were smoked after overnight, and a "reward cigarette" after six hours daytime abstinence. Blood nicotine concentrations, expired carbon monoxide, withdrawal/craving and reward questionnaires were collected before/after smoking and during daytime a...

Phase IIb Trial of an α7 Nicotinic Receptor Partial Agonist With and Without Nicotine Patch for Withdrawal-Associated Cognitive Deficits and Tobacco Abstinence.

The objective of this study was to determine whether a novel α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor partial agonist improves cognition during nicotine withdrawal and improves abstinence rates. To do so, the effect of the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor partial agonist, encenicline, on cognition and abstinence was evaluated when given as monotherapy and when combined with transdermal nicotine patch (nicotine replacement therapy [NRT]).

Resting-State Connectivity in Former, Current and Never Smokers.

Understanding the neural mechanisms that support successful smoking cessation is vital to the development of novel treatments for nicotine dependence.

Impact of early life adversity on the stress biobehavioral response during nicotine withdrawal.

Exposure to early life adversity (ELA) is associated with increased subsequent risk for addiction and relapse. We examined changes in psychobiological responses to stress in dependent smokers and nonsmoking controls and evaluated how history of early adversity may exacerbate acute changes during nicotine withdrawal and acute stress. Smokers were randomly assigned to one of two conditions; 24 h withdrawal (66 smokers) from smoking and all nicotine-containing products or smoking ad libitum (46 smokers) prio...

Nicotine and sleep deprivation: impact on pain sensitivity and immune modulation in rats.

Repeated nicotine administration has been associated with increased paradoxical sleep in rats and antinociceptive properties, whereas paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD) elicits pronociceptive and inflammatory responses. Thus, we aimed to evaluate the effect of repeated nicotine administration and its withdrawal combined with PSD on pain sensitivity and inflammatory markers. Sixty adult male Wistar rats were subjected to repeated injections of saline (SAL) or nicotine (NIC) for 12 days or 7 days of nicotine...

Biochemical, demographic, and self-reported tobacco-related predictors of the acute heart rate response to nicotine in smokers.

Understanding the stimulatory effects of nicotine on cardiovascular function in humans is of great interest given the wide-spread use of different forms of combustible and smokeless products that deliver nicotine. An intravenous nicotine infusion procedure was used to evaluate factors associated with the acute heart rate (HR) response to nicotine (0.5 mg per 70 kg bodyweight) in a sample of 213 smokers. We tested for differential response to nicotine based on demographic characteristics (race [European ...

Nicotine modulates contextual fear extinction through changes in ventral hippocampal GABAergic function.

Numerous studies have attributed the psychopathology of anxiety and stress disorders to maladaptive behavioral responses such as an inability to extinguish fear. Therefore, understanding neural substrates of fear extinction is imperative for developing more effective therapies for anxiety and stress disorders. Although several studies indicated a role for cholinergic transmission and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in anxiety and stress disorder symptomatology, very little is known about the spec...

Persistent attenuation of nicotine self-administration in rats by co-administration of chronic nicotine infusion with the dopamine D receptor antagonist SCH-23390 or the serotonin 5-HT agonist lorcaserin.

Tobacco addiction each year causes millions of deaths worldwide. Brain nicotinic acetylcholine receptors have been shown to be central to tobacco addiction. Nicotine replacement therapy aids tobacco cessation, but the success rate is still far too low. This may in part be due to the fact that neurons with nicotinic receptors are not the only neural systems involved in tobacco addiction. Interacting neural systems also play important roles in tobacco addiction. Nicotine increases the release of a variety of ...

Pregnancy-Induced Increases in the Nicotine Metabolite Ratio: Examining Changes During Antepartum and Postpartum.

Pregnancy-induced increases in nicotine metabolism may contribute to difficulties in quitting smoking during pregnancy. However, the time-course of changes in nicotine metabolism during early and late pregnancy are unclear. The present study investigated how pregnancy alters the nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR), a common biomarker of nicotine metabolism among non-pregnant smokers.

Cigarette Consumption and Biomarkers of Nicotine Exposure during Pregnancy and Postpartum.

Smokers can regulate their nicotine intake by altering the number of cigarettes smoked per day (CPD) and their smoking intensity. The current study aimed to compare the utility of self-reported CPD, total nicotine equivalents (TNE), and urinary cotinine to estimate nicotine intake during pregnancy.

Intravenous Cocaine Increases Oxygen Entry into Brain Tissue: Critical Role of Peripheral Drug Actions.

Although it is well established that the direct action of cocaine on centrally located neural substrates is essential in mediating its reinforcing properties, cocaine induces very rapid immediate neural effects that imply cocaine's action on peripheral neural substrates. We employed oxygen sensors coupled with high-speed amperometery to examine the effects of standard cocaine HCl that easily enters the blood-brain barrier and its blood-brain barrier-impermeable methiodide analogue on oxygen levels in the nu...

The relationship between nicotine metabolism and nicotine and carcinogen exposure among American Indian commercial cigarette smokers and electronic nicotine delivery system users.

In American Indian (AI) tobacco users from the southern plains region of the US, we examined the relationship between nicotine and carcinogen exposure and nicotine metabolism.

Nicotine Reduction Strategy: State of the science and challenges to tobacco control policy and FDA tobacco product regulation.

Nicotine addiction is the proximate cause of disease and death from cigarette smoking. In 1994, we proposed reducing the nicotine content of cigarettes to non-addicting levels to reduce the risk of youth becoming addicted smokers and promoting quitting in established smokers. In 2009, the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act provided the authority to FDA to reduce nicotine levels as appropriate to benefit public health. Over the past 15 years, considerable research has determined that nicotin...

Management of alcohol withdrawal.

This article proposes an update and summary of current knowledge in the management of alcohol withdrawal, based on a review of recent literature. The issues open to debate and the areas whith new developments will be addressed, such as: the entry into treatment, the withdrawal setting, the withdrawal medications, the various possible protocols and the introduction of relapse prevention treatments.

Comparison of nicotine exposure during pregnancy when smoking and abstinent with nicotine replacement therapy: systematic review and meta-analysis.

Smoking during pregnancy is strongly associated with negative pregnancy and perinatal outcomes. Some guidelines recommend nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) for smoking cessation during pregnancy but adherence with NRT is generally poor and could be partially-explained by nicotine-related safety concerns. We compared pregnant women's cotinine and nicotine exposures from smoking with those when they were abstinent from smoking and using NRT.

Characterization of Nicotine Catabolism through a Novel Pyrrolidine Pathway in Pseudomonas sp. S-1.

Nicotine is a major toxic alkaloid in wastes generated from tobacco production and cigarette manufacturing. In the present work, a nicotine-degrading bacterial strain was isolated from tobacco powdery waste. The isolate was identified as Pseudomonas sp. S-1 based on morphology, physiology, and 16S rRNA gene sequence. Suitable conditions of isolate S-1 for nicotine degradation were pH 7.0 and 30 C. Catabolic intermediates of nicotine were isolated with preparative-HPLC and characterized with LC-HRMS and N...

Dissociating the effect of flavor and nicotine in smokeless tobacco products using electroencephalography: The case of wintergreen flavors.

The increased consumption of tobacco products in recent years has been linked, among other factors, to the presence of added flavors. Although flavors are important in explaining consumption, their effects in the brain have until now been unexplored. In the present study, we investigated how electrophysiology can serve to dissociate the effects of nicotine and flavor. Participants attended 4 sessions (2-by-2 factorial design, with flavor and nicotine as within-subject factors), in each session an oddball ta...

The United States is not the World: Response to Zeller et al's Call for Discussion on Nicotine Regulation.

The Nicotine Continuum and Regulation: Additional Challenges to Converting an Important Concept into Policy: Commentary on Zeller.

Considerations for High-Risk Populations: Response to Zeller's The Future of Nicotine Regulation: Key Questions and Challenges.

The Debate About Nicotine Addiction and the Role of Medicinal Products: Commentary on Zeller.

Predictors of resistant alcohol withdrawal (RAW): A retrospective case-control study.

Benzodiazepine-resistant alcohol withdrawal (RAW), defined by a requirement of ≥ 40 mg of diazepam in 1 h, represents a severe form of withdrawal without predictive parameters. This study was designed to identify risk factors associated with RAW versus withdrawal without benzodiazepine resistance (nRAW).

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