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Amide proton transfer (APT) imaging is an emerging molecular magnetic resonance imaging technique based on chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST). APT imaging has shown promise in oncologic imaging, especially in the imaging of brain tumors. This review article illustrates the theory of CEST/APT imaging and describes the clinical utility, pitfalls, and potential for future development of APT imaging.
MR imaging is an indispensable instrument for the diagnosis of musculoskeletal diseases. In vivo MR imaging at 7T offers many advantages, including increased signal-to-noise ratio, higher spatial resolution, improved spectral resolution for spectroscopy, improved sensitivity for X-nucleus imaging, and decreased image acquisition times. There are also however technical challenges of imaging at a higher field strength compared with 1.5 and 3T MR imaging systems. We discuss the many potential opportunities a...
Contrast-enhanced MR imaging (CE-MR imaging) is recommended for diagnosis and monitoring of infectious and most inflammatory joint diseases. CE-MR imaging clearly differentiates soft and bony tissue from fluid collections and infectious debris. To improve imaging information, a dynamic CE-MR imaging sequence (DCE-MR imaging) sequence can be applied using fast T1-weighted sequential image acquisition during contrast injection. Use of DCE-MR imaging allows robust extraction of quantitative information regardi...
Cerenkov luminescence imaging (CLI) is a relatively new imaging modality that utilizes conventional optical imaging instrumentation to detect Cerenkov radiation derived from standard and often clinically approved radiotracers. Its research versatility, low cost, and ease of use have increased its popularity within the molecular imaging community and at institutions that are interested in conducting radiotracer-based molecular imaging research, but that lack the necessary resources and infrastructure. Here, ...
In this article, we discuss dynamic whole-body (DWB) positron emission tomography (PET) as an imaging tool with significant clinical potential, in relation to conventional standard uptake value (SUV) imaging.
Tumor proteases have been recognized as significant regulators in the tumor microenvironment, but the current strategies for in vivo protease imaging have tended to focus on the development of a probe design rather than the investigation of a novel imaging strategy by leveraging the imaging technique and probe. Herein, it is the first report to investigate the ability of multispectral photoacoustic imaging (PAI) to estimate the distribution of protease cleavage sites inside living tumor tissue by using an a...
The portal vein is the main vascular channel of the liver and is affected by many pathologies. Imaging plays an important role in the detection and characterization of these abnormalities, guiding the surgeon and the interventional radiologist in planning further management. We discuss the imaging appearances of various abnormalities affecting the portal vein and the imaging modalities used in their diagnosis. We also briefly discuss the radiological interventions done in some of these cases.
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has a dismal prognosis. To improve outcomes, there is a critical need for improved tools for detection, accurate staging, and resectability assessment. This could improve patient stratification for the most optimal primary treatment modality. Molecular imaging, used in combination with tumor-specific imaging agents, can improve established imaging methods for PDAC. These novel, tumor-specific imaging agents developed to target specific biomarkers have the potential to...
3 Technical Efficacy: Stage 2 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2018.
Proton postmastectomy radiation therapy (PMRT) patients are positioned daily using surface imaging with additional x-ray imaging for confirmation. This study aims to investigate whether weekly x-ray imaging with daily surface imaging, as performed for photon treatment, is sufficient to maintain PMRT patient positioning fidelity.
Imaging has a central role in the diagnosis, management, and follow-up of patients with axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA). For the early diagnosis of axSpA, magnetic resonance imaging is of utmost relevance. While no novel imaging techniques were developed during the past decade, improvements to the existing modalities have been introduced. This report provides an overview of the applications and limitations of the existing imaging modalities.
Bioorthogonal chemistry has developed significant over the past few decades, to the particular benefit of molecular imaging. Bioluminescence imaging (BLI) along with other imaging modalities have significantly benefitted from this chemistry. Here, we review bioorthogonal reactions that have been used to signific antly broaden the application range of BLI.
Musculoskeletal (MSK) radiology plays a crucial role in the diagnosis and management of MSK disorders and has rapidly expanded in tandem with advances in technology and improved access to imaging. Although anatomical imaging remains the mainstay of MSK radiology, significant progress has been made in functional and molecular imaging as well as in hybrid imaging with an expanding armament of technologies becoming available or in development. A vast array of research is occurring in MSK imaging, and this revi...
Nucleic acid aptamers are small three-dimensional structures of oligonucleotides selected to bind to a target of interest with high affinity and specificity. In vitro, aptamers already compete with antibodies to serve as imaging probes, e.g. for microscopy or flow cytometry. However, they are also increasingly used for in vivo molecular imaging. Accordingly, aptamers have been evaluated over the last twenty years in almost every imaging modality, including single photon emission computed tomography, positro...
Intravascular photoacoustic (IVPA) imaging has been developed in recent years as a viable imaging modality for the assessment of atherosclerotic plaques. Exogenous imaging contrast and therapeutic agents further enhance this imaging modality and provide significant benefits. Imaging contrast agents can significantly increase photoacoustic signal, resulting in enhanced plaque detection and characterization. The ability to use these particles to molecularly target markers of disease progression makes it possi...
Although diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) has been characterized as an alternative imaging modality for gallbladder (GB) lesions, it has not been routinely used in clinical practice because of relatively low signal-to-noise ratio.
To compare the applicability of fusion imaging between contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) and computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (CT/MRI-CEUS fusion imaging) and fusion imaging between CEUS and ultrasound (US-CEUS fusion imaging) in the assessment of treatment response during liver cancer ablation.
To evaluate, if clinically translatable ferumoxytol nanoparticles can be used for in vivo detection and quantification of stem cell transplants with magnetic particle imaging (MPI).
Screening mammography introduces low doses of radiation per examination and in regular intervals over decades for women who have annual screening. Further, advanced breast imaging modalities and follow-up imaging methods contribute to additional radiation exposure in radiosensitive breast tissue. This article reviews the effects of radiation on the breasts, summarizes dose measurements and estimates for breast imaging modalities, and discusses efforts to optimize dose in breast imaging.
Cancer remains a global killer alongside cardiovascular disease. A better understanding of cancer biology has transformed its management with an increasing emphasis on a personalized approach, so-called "precision cancer medicine." Imaging has a key role to play in the management of cancer patients. Imaging biomarkers that objectively inform on tumor biology, the tumor environment, and tumor changes in response to an intervention complement genomic and molecular diagnostics. In this review we describe the k...
Even though ghost imaging (GI), an unconventional imaging method, has received increased attention by researchers during the last decades, imaging speed is still not satisfactory. Once the data-acquisition method and the system parameters are determined, only the processing method has the potential to accelerate image-processing significantly. However, both the basic correlation method and the compressed sensing algorithm, which are often used for ghost imaging, have their own problems. To overcome these ch...
Conventional breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), including dynamic contrast-enhanced MR mammography, may lead to ambiguous diagnosis and unnecessary biopsies.
Neurotoxoplasmosis is a common opportunistic infection in HIV/AIDS patients. Imaging identification of neurotoxoplasmosis assists in timely treatment.
Coronary inflammation is related to atherosclerotic disease and, less frequently, systemic vasculitis. Regardless of the etiology, coronary inflammation is associated with adverse cardiac events. Molecular imaging with F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET/CT) allows in vivo assessment of coronary inflammation and evaluation of response to therapy. The aim of this review is to give an update on the recent development of FDG-PET/CT, discuss the potential roles of coronary inflammation ...
Sinonasal inflammatory conditions account for a major component of head and neck pathologies, whereas neoplasms involving the sinonasal region make up only 2-3% of all head and neck lesions. The symptoms of sinonasal tumors are nonspecific; imaging plays a critical role in distinguishing benign and malignant disease and may illustrate characteristic radiological features of specific sinonasal tumors.