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The cortical silent period is a transient suppression of electromyographic activity after a transcranial magnetic stimulation pulse, attributed to spinal and supraspinal inhibitory mechanisms. Electromyographic breakthrough activity has been observed in healthy adults as a result of a spinal reflex response within the cortical silent period.
This perspective describes predictive processing as a computational framework for understanding cortical function in the context of emerging evidence, with a focus on sensory processing. We discuss how the predictive processing framework may be implemented at the level of cortical circuits and how its implementation could be falsified experimentally. Lastly, we summarize the general implications of predictive processing on cortical function in healthy and diseased states.
This study seeks to define the role of predictive values of the motor speed, inhibition control, and fluid and crystallized intelligence in estimating the cortical thickness in healthy elderly. Forty-six older healthy subjects (37 women, 9 men) over 60 years of age were included in the study. The participants were examined on 3.0 T MRI scanners. The protocol included standard anatomical sequences, to exclude brain pathology, and a high-resolution T1-weighted sequence used to estimate the cortical thicknes...
Understanding how cortical activity generates sensory perceptions requires a detailed dissection of the function of cortical layers. Despite our relatively extensive knowledge of their anatomy and wiring, we have a limited grasp of what each layer contributes to cortical computation. We need to develop a theory of cortical function that is rooted solidly in each layer's component cell types and fine circuit architecture and produces predictions that can be validated by specific perturbations. Here we briefl...
Assessment of intelligence and executive function (EF) is common in complex neuropsychiatric practice. Although previous studies have shown that EF and intelligence are related, it is unknown whether these constructs relate to one another in a similar manner across different ability groups (mild intellectual disability, borderline intellectual disability and normal/high intelligence). This study therefore examines the relation between three EFs (inhibition, shifting and updating) and intelligence in a heter...
The classical theory of cortical systematic variation has been independently described in reptiles, monotremes, marsupials and placental mammals, including primates, suggesting a common bauplan in the evolution of the cortex. The Structural Model is based on the systematic variation of the cortex and is a platform for advancing testable hypotheses about cortical organization and function across species, including humans. The Structural Model captures the overall laminar structure of areas by dividing the co...
Isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) is a proven means to prevent tuberculosis (TB) disease among people living with HIV (PLHIV). However, there is a concern that patients often develop tuberculosis disease while receiving IPT, defined here as breakthrough tuberculosis, which may affect treatment outcome. In this study, we assessed the magnitude and determinants of breakthrough tuberculosis.
High separation efficiency is very important for process of pressure swing adsorption (PSA) in the industry. Herein, we propose a fine design of chemically stable porous coordination polymers (PCPs) with optimized nanochannel by strategy of inserting and shifting shortest alkyl group on T-shaped ligand. Remarkably, the synergistic effect of optimized nanochannel, unique crystal morphology and fitted channel enable sharply enhanced breakthrough efficiency of C2H6/4/CH4, 1.17 or 0.77 g CH4 can be separated fr...
Stroke occurrence while on antiplatelet therapy, i.e., a breakthrough stroke, is often conveniently attributed to antiplatelet resistance. However, undetected paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF) may underlie breakthrough strokes. We hypothesized that a breakthrough stroke may be a clinical marker for patients at risk of having AF detected after stroke (AFDAS).
The Wong and Law Emotional Intelligence Scale (WLEIS) is a self-report emotional intelligence scale based on the theoretical framework of Mayer & Salovey (1997). The aim of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the Wong and Law Emotional Intelligence Scale (WLEIS; Wong & Law, 2002) in a large sample of 1,460 adults (815 women and 645 men) ranging from 17 to 64 years old (M = 33.27, SD = 11.60).
Preschoolers can focus on the events that they are interested in and shield other information that may still be obvious and important, and this phenomenon is termed as inattentional blindness (IB). The present study investigated the developmental differences in IB and explored its relationship with fluid intelligence in 3-to-5-year-old preschoolers. With the involvement of one hundred and thirty-five preschoolers, it was found that the IB rates decreased with age during 3-to-5-year-olds. Fluid intelligence ...
The use of computers has become increasingly relevant to medical decision-making, and artificial intelligence methods have recently demonstrated significant advances in medicine. We therefore provide an overview of current artificial intelligence methods and their applications, to help the practicing ophthalmologist understand their potential impact on glaucoma care.
Titanium alloys (Ti-6Al-4V) are promising materials as bone implants in clinical surgeries owing to their excellent performances. However, wear debris caused by the tribological behavior of the cortical bone and titanium alloy interface were found to be paramount for implant stability. The contact environment between the cortical bone and Ti-6Al-4V in vivo has been considered to affect the tribological behavior. Currently, the tribological behaviors of bone and Ti-6Al-4V in different biolubricants remain el...
Intelligence, as measured by standardised tests of cognitive function, such as IQ-type tests, is predictive of psychiatric diagnosis and psychological wellbeing. Using genome-wide association study (GWAS) data, a measure of the shared genetic effect across traits, can be quantified; because this can be done across samples, the confounding effects of psychiatric diagnosis do not influence the magnitude of these relationships. It is now known that there are genetic effects that act across intelligence and psy...
Emotional intelligence was reported to help managers to effectively deal with conflicts in the workplace. However, the correlation between conflict management styles and emotional intelligence was still not fully conceptualized.
An investigation is presented to improve on the performances of the Basic DRASTIC Framework (BDF) and its variation by the Fuzzy-Catastrophe Framework (FCF), both of which provide an estimate of intrinsic aquifer vulnerabilities to anthropogenic contamination. BDF prescribes rates and weights for 7 data layers but FCF is an unsupervised learning framework based on a multicriteria decision theory by integrating fuzzy membership function and catastrophe theory. The challenges in the paper include: (i) the stu...
Behavioural investigation has become increasingly more focused on emotional intelligence as researchers strive to understand its influence on various social interactions. Recent research indicates that EI plays an integral role in adopting active and effective coping strategies. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between emotional intelligence and coping strategies in patients with schizophrenia.
Despite the great attention to the charge transport in organic semiconductors (OSC) over the last decades, the underlying mechanism is still in controversy. After our theoretical position in 2009, the quantum nuclear tunneling effect has been proven by more and more experiments to play essential role for charge transport in organic and polymeric materials. On another hand, back in the 1970s, it was proposed that the nature of charge transport could be analyzed by the isotope effect, which, however, has not ...
Cortical damage in areas such as the frontal lobe is reported in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). However, aside from executive dysfunction, the pathological significance of this cortical damage has yet to be clarified. The present study investigated the effects of cortical damage on vestibular function in ALS.
Artificial Intelligence (AI) is a branch of computer science that deals with the development of algorithms that seek to simulate human intelligence. We provide an overview of the basic principles in AI that are essential to the understanding of AI and its application to health care. We also present a descriptive analysis of the current state of AI in various fields of medicine, especially ophthalmology. Finally, we review the potential limitations and challenges that come along with the development and impl...
Life sciences researchers using Artificial Intelligence are under pressure to innovate faster than ever. Large, multilevel, and integrated datasets offer the promise of unlocking novel insights and accelerating breakthroughs. Although more data are available than ever, only a fraction is being curated, integrated, understood, and analyzed. Artificial Intelligence focuses on how computers learn from data and mimic human thought processes. Artificial Intelligence increases learning capacity and provides decis...
Understanding what factors contribute to NCLEX-RN success is critical to nursing programs. Emotional intelligence is one factor that warrants investigation.
Many factors modulate the state of cortical activity, but the importance of cortical state variability for sensory perception remains debated. We trained mice to detect spatially localized visual stimuli and simultaneously measured local field potentials and excitatory and inhibitory neuron populations across layers of primary visual cortex (V1). Cortical states with low spontaneous firing and correlations in excitatory neurons, and suppression of 3- to 7-Hz oscillations in layer 4, accurately predicted sin...
Associations between the varying levels of emotional intelligence in newly hired oncology nurses and their responses to stress and coping were examined. The secondary aim was to analyze whether emotional intelligence could moderate their choice of problem-focused or emotion-focused coping strategies.
Schizophrenia (SCZ) and bipolar disorder (BD) are severe mental disorders associated with cognitive impairment, which is considered a major determinant of functional outcome. Despite this, the etiology of the cognitive impairment is poorly understood, and no satisfactory cognitive treatments exist. Increasing evidence indicates that genetic risk for SCZ may contribute to cognitive impairment, whereas the genetic relationship between BD and cognitive function remains unclear. Here, we combined large genome-w...