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18:24 EST 21st February 2018 | BioPortfolio

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Showing "OXYGEN" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 3,900+

Pediatric Oxygen Therapy: A Clinical Update.

Oxygen therapy is a life-saving, medical intervention in the management of hospitalized children. The goal of oxygen therapy is to prevent or treat tissue hypoxia. Oxygen should be prescribed according to the principles of drug prescription, however, use of oxygen in clinical practice is often inappropriate without knowledge of its potential risks and benefits. This article summarizes practical aspects of clinical use of oxygen in terms of indication, administration, and monitoring, weaning, discontinuation...

Is Subsurface Oxygen Necessary for the Electrochemical Reduction of CO2 on Copper?

It has recently been proposed that subsurface oxygen is crucial for the adsorption and subsequent electroreduction of CO2 on copper. Using density functional theory, we have studied the stability and diffusion of subsurface oxygen in single crystals of copper exposing (111) and (100) facets. Oxygen is at least 1.5 eV more stable on the surface than beneath it for both crystal orientations; interstitial sites are too small to accommodate oxygen. The rate of atomic oxygen diffusion from one layer below a Cu(1...

Oxygen Sensing Based on the Yellowing of Newspaper.

Newspaper is known to turn yellow over time. We show here that this yellowing process is sensitive to oxygen when ex-posed to UV light, leading to oxygen sensing. Oxygen sensing is critical to many applications, including industrial process control and breath analysis, but the existing oxygen sensors have limitations, especially for breath analysis that operates at 100% humidity. The UV irradiation also triggers fluorescence emission from newspaper, and the fluorescence intensity depends on oxygen concentra...

Determining the venous oxygen reservoir: A novel, hypothetical approach to titration of supplemental oxygen in preterm newborns.

While normal oxygen saturation is commonly thought to be a marker of normal oxygenation, cutaneous saturation does not account for the sufficiency of oxygen within each cell or that of the system overall. Rather, cutaneous oximetry simply defines the saturation of haemoglobin (Hb) with oxygen in a pulsatile vessel. Assessment of sufficiency is best determined by measurement of the amount of oxygen left over following aerobic respiration. This left over oxygen is 'stored' on Hb in the venous compartment and ...

Performing under pressure: hypertension and the regulation of cerebral oxygen delivery.

Reductions in arterial oxygen content (CaO) elicit increases in cerebral blood flow (CBF) that are adequate to maintain convective delivery of oxygen to the brain in healthy humans (i.e. cerebral oxygen delivery, CDO). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Electronic structure of stoichiometric and oxygen-deficient ferroelectric Hf0.5Zr0.5O2.

The electronic structure of oxygen-deficient Hf<sub>0.5</sub>Zr<sub>0.5</sub>O<sub>2</sub> in the non-centrosymmetric orthorhombic (ferroelectric) phase was investigated by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and first-principle density functional theory calculations. It was established that a peak in photoelectron spectra observed at an energy above the valence band top of ferroelectric Hf<sub>0.5</sub>Zr<sub>0.5</sub>O<sub>2</sub&g...

Hyperbaric oxygen in patients with ischemic stroke following cardiac surgery: a retrospective observational trial.

Hyperbaric oxygenation (HBO₂) involves breathing 100% oxygen under elevated ambient pressure in a hyperbaric chamber, thereby dissolving oxygen in the plasma. This results in an increase of arterial partial pressure of oxygen (pO₂). Though well established in experimental studies, HBO₂ treatment for ischemic stroke is still under discussion.

Critical Contact Lens Oxygen Transmissibility and Tear Lens Oxygen Tension to Preclude Corneal Neovascularization.

The purpose of this study is to determine the peripheral oxygen transmissibility (pDk/t) and respective central oxygen transmissibility (cDk/t) in soft contact lenses (SCLs) which might preclude SCL-driven corneal neovascularization (NV) in healthy myopic SCL users.

Oxygen Exposure Resulting in Arterial Oxygen Tensions Above the Protocol Goal Was Associated With Worse Clinical Outcomes in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome.

High fractions of inspired oxygen may augment lung damage to exacerbate lung injury in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Participants enrolled in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Network trials had a goal partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood range of 55-80 mm Hg, yet the effect of oxygen exposure above this arterial oxygen tension range on clinical outcomes is unknown. We sought to determine if oxygen exposure that resulted in a partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood above ...

Acute Oxygen Therapy: An Audit of Prescribing and Delivery Practices in a Tertiary Hospital in Perth, Western Australia.

Oxygen is a widely used drug in the hospital setting. However, international audits suggest that oxygen administration practices are often not compliant with prescribed standards. This can place patients at risk and cause serious adverse events.

Impact of L-citrulline supplementation on oxygen uptake kinetics during walking.

Supplementation with L-citrulline (Cit) has been shown to improve muscle oxygenation and oxygen uptake (VO2) kinetics during moderate-to-high intensity cycling in young men. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis whether Cit would improve VO2 kinetics during walking in older and young adults. In a randomized, double-blind study, 26 (15 women, 11 men) adults between the ages of 20-35y (n = 15) and 64-86y (n = 11) completed 7 day periods of taking placebo and L-citrulline (6 g/day) in a crossover ma...

The effect of oxygen concentration and temperature on nitrogenase activity in the heterocystous cyanobacterium Fischerella sp.

Heterocysts are differentiated cells formed by some filamentous, diazotrophic (dinitrogen-fixing) cyanobacteria. The heterocyst is the site of dinitrogen fixation providing the oxygen-sensitive nitrogenase with a low-oxygen environment. The diffusion of air into the heterocyst is a compromise between the maximum influx of dinitrogen gas while oxygen is kept sufficiently low to allow nitrogenase activity. This investigation tested the hypothesis that the heterocyst is capable of controlling the influx of air...

Effect of localized hypoxia on Drosophila embryo development.

Environmental stress, such as oxygen deprivation, affects various cellular activities and developmental processes. In this study, we directly investigated Drosophila embryo development in vivo while cultured on a microfluidic device, which imposed an oxygen gradient on the developing embryos. The designed microfluidic device enabled both temporal and spatial control of the local oxygen gradient applied to the live embryos. Time-lapse live cell imaging was used to monitor the morphology and cellular migratio...

High oxygen facilitates wound-induced suberin polyphenolics formation in kiwifruit.

Rapid wound-healing would be critical for successful long-term storage of fruits and vegetables. However, there was no direct evidence for the requirement and efficiency of oxygen in fruit wound-healing process. This study was conducted to investigate the role of oxygen in wound-induced suberization by analyzing melanin, suberin polyphenolics (SPP) and related enzymes in half-cut kiwifruits exposed to 100%, 50%, 21% and 0% oxygen.

Comparison of normobaric vs. hyperbaric oxygen in the relief of carbon monoxide headache pain.

Headache is the most common symptom in carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning. While the mechanism of CO-induced headache is not well defined, it is felt that cerebral vasodilation plays a role. Clinical experience has demonstrated oxygen breathing is effective in resolving CO headache. However, the effectiveness of normobaric oxygen has never been compared to hyperbaric oxygen in this regard.

The Evolution of Structural and Electrical Properties of Oxygen-Deficient VO2 under Low Temperature Heating Process.

Structural stability and functional performances of Vanadium dioxide (VO2) are strongly influenced by oxygen vacancies. However, the mechanism of metal-insulator transition (MIT) influenced by defects is still under debate. Here, we study the evolution of structure and electrical property of oxygen-deficient VO2 by a low temperature annealing process (LTP) based on a truss-structured VO2 nanonet. The oxygenation process of the oxygen-deficient VO2 is greatly prolonged, which enable us to probe the gradual c...

Humidified High-Flow Nasal Cannula Oxygen-More Than Just Supplemental Oxygen.

Oxygen Saturation in the Dental Pulp of Maxillary Premolars in Different Age Groups - Part 1.

The aim of this study was to determine oxygen saturation levels in the dental pulp of maxillary premolars in different age groups. A total of 120 human maxillary premolars with normal dental pulps were selected covering the following age groups: 20-24, 25-29, 30-34, 35-39 and 40-44 years (n=24 each group). Oxygen saturation was assessed using pulse oximetry. Analysis of variance was used to assess differences in oxygen saturation levels and Tukey's test was used to identify the age groups that differed from...

Enhanced Electrocatalytic Oxygen Reduction on NiWOx Solid solution with induced oxygen defects.

The continuous solid solution NiWOx is successfully prepared by using precursor W18O49 with plenty of oxygen defects. The NiWOx nanoparticles are characterized by X-ray diffraction, High resolution transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. The crystallographic phase of NiWOx is stable and characterized by the same feature of the parent lattice W18O49 even with various concentration of dopant Ni which indicates the existence of oxygen defects. The NiWOx nanop...

Pulse oximetry values of neonates admitted for care and receiving routine oxygen therapy at a resource-limited hospital in Kenya.

There are 2.7 million neonatal deaths annually, 75% of which occur in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. Effective treatment of hypoxaemia through tailored oxygen therapy could reduce neonatal mortality and prevent oxygen toxicity.

Oxygen-Promoted Methane Activation on Copper.

The role of oxygen in the activation of C-H bonds in methane on clean and oxygen pre-covered Cu(111) and Cu2O(111) surfaces was studied with combined in situ ambient pressure scanning tunneling microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Activation of methane at 300 K and "moderate pressures" was only observed on oxygen pre-covered Cu(111) surfaces. Density functional theory calculations reveal that the lowest activation energy barrier of C-H on Cu(111) in the presence of chemisorbed oxygen is related ...

Post-mortem oxygen isotope exchange within cultured diatom silica.

Potential post-mortem alteration to the oxygen isotope composition of biogenic silica is critical to the validity of palaeoclimate reconstructions based on oxygen isotope ratios (δ(18) O values) from sedimentary silica. We calculate the degree of oxygen isotope alteration within freshly cultured diatom biogenic silica in response to heating and storing in the laboratory.

Oxygen therapies and their effects on wound healing.

Oxygen is an important factor for wound healing. Although several different therapies investigated the use of oxygen to aid wound healing, the results of these studies are not unequivocal. This systematic review summarizes the clinical and experimental studies regarding different oxygen therapies for promoting wound healing, and evaluates the outcomes according the methodological details. A systematic literature search was conducted using Embase, Medline, Web of Science, Cochrane, PubMed publisher, and Goog...

Effect of Routine Low-Dose Oxygen Supplementation on Death and Disability in Adults With Acute Stroke: The Stroke Oxygen Study Randomized Clinical Trial.

Hypoxia is common in the first few days after acute stroke, is frequently intermittent, and is often undetected. Oxygen supplementation could prevent hypoxia and secondary neurological deterioration and thus has the potential to improve recovery.

Initial use of high-flow oxygen did not reduce duration of oxygen therapy in infants with bronchiolitis.

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