PubMed Journals Articles About "Opinion Helped Develop Polygenic Score Help Individuals Gauge" RSS

17:23 EDT 21st September 2019 | BioPortfolio

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Showing "Opinion helped develop polygenic score help individuals gauge" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 15,000+

Polygenic Prediction of Weight and Obesity Trajectories from Birth to Adulthood.

Severe obesity is a rapidly growing global health threat. Although often attributed to unhealthy lifestyle choices or environmental factors, obesity is known to be heritable and highly polygenic; the majority of inherited susceptibility is related to the cumulative effect of many common DNA variants. Here we derive and validate a new polygenic predictor comprised of 2.1 million common variants to quantify this susceptibility and test this predictor in more than 300,000 individuals ranging from middle age to...

A polygenic resilience score moderates the genetic risk for schizophrenia.

Based on the discovery by the Resilience Project (Chen R. et al. Nat Biotechnol 34:531-538, 2016) of rare variants that confer resistance to Mendelian disease, and protective alleles for some complex diseases, we posited the existence of genetic variants that promote resilience to highly heritable polygenic disorders1,0 such as schizophrenia. Resilience has been traditionally viewed as a psychological construct, although our use of the term resilience refers to a different construct that directly relates to...

Polygenic Risk Scores Expand to Obesity.

Obesity is one of the most serious health challenges of our time. In this issue of Cell, Khera and co-authors demonstrate the striking ability of genetics, in the form of a polygenic risk score, to identify those individuals at high risk for obesity. This genetic risk expresses itself early as childhood obesity, reinforcing the notion that early prevention is essential to combatting the obesity epidemic.

Clinical relevance of genome-wide polygenic score may be less than claimed.

A recent study claimed that genome-wide polygenic scores (GPSs) for five common diseases could identify individuals with risk equivalent to monogenic mutations. Receiver operator curve analyses were reported to have areas under the curve (AUCs) ranging from 0.63 for inflammatory bowel disease up to 0.81 for coronary artery disease (CAD), but these models also included age and sex, themselves strong predictors of risk. The GPS for CAD identified 8% of the population at threefold increased risk, which was cla...

Association between polygenic risk for tobacco or alcohol consumption and liability to licit and illicit substance use in young Australian adults.

Co-morbid substance use is very common. Despite a historical focus using genetic epidemiology to investigate comorbid substance use and misuse, few studies have examined substance-substance associations using polygenic risk score (PRS) methods.

PRSice-2: Polygenic Risk Score software for biobank-scale data.

Polygenic risk score (PRS) analyses have become an integral part of biomedical research, exploited to gain insights into shared aetiology among traits, to control for genomic profile in experimental studies, and to strengthen causal inference, among a range of applications. Substantial efforts are now devoted to biobank projects to collect large genetic and phenotypic data, providing unprecedented opportunity for genetic discovery and applications. To process the large-scale data provided by such biobank re...

Genetic risk for Alzheimer's disease is distinct from genetic risk for amyloid deposition.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia and is responsible for a huge and growing health care burden in the developed and developing world. The Polygenic Risk Score (PRS) approach has shown 75%-84% prediction accuracy of identifying individuals with AD risk.

A polygenic score for body mass index is associated with depressive symptoms via early life stress: Evidence for gene-environment correlation.

Increasing childhood obesity rates are associated with not only adverse physical, but also mental health outcomes, including depression. These negative outcomes may be caused and/or exacerbated by the bullying and shaming overweight individuals experience. As body mass index (BMI) can be highly heritable, we hypothesized that a genetic risk for higher BMI, will predict higher early life stress (ELS), which in turn will predict higher depressive symptoms in adulthood. Such a process will reflect an evocative...

Monogenic, polygenic, and oligogenic familial hypercholesterolemia.

Familial hypercholesterolemia has long been considered a monogenic disorder. However, recent advances in genetic analyses have revealed various forms of this disorder, including polygenic and oligogenic familial hypercholesterolemia. We review the current understanding of the genetic background of this disease.

Association of Insulin Resistance With Schizophrenia Polygenic Risk Score and Response to Antipsychotic Treatment.

White matter microstructure is associated with hyperactive/inattentive symptomatology and polygenic risk for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in a population-based sample of adolescents.

Few studies have investigated the link between putative biomarkers of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptomatology and genetic risk for ADHD. To address this, we investigate the degree to which ADHD symptomatology is associated with white matter microstructure and cerebral cortical thickness in a large population-based sample of adolescents. Critically, we then test the extent to which multimodal correlates of ADHD symptomatology are related to ADHD polygenic risk score (PRS). Neuroimaging...

Contributions of an Internalizing Symptoms Polygenic Risk Score and Contextual Factors to Alcohol-Related Disorders in African American Young Adults.

Alcohol-related disorders (i.e., abuse and dependence) are significant problems that may result in numerous negative consequences. Although a number of studies have examined factors that predict alcohol abuse and dependence in European samples, only a few studies have examined whether genetic and environmental factors influence the pathogenesis of alcohol-related disorders among African Americans. The present study examined whether gene (internalizing symptoms polygenic risk score) by environment (parental ...

Pardon My French.

Cama et al's review of pneumothorax management was excellent, especially their elegant depiction of chest tube diameter in comparison to the intercostal space, as measured in French gauge. The use of gauge is medicine is confusing due to differing systems and seemingly random increments. This diagram neatly shows that French gauge (Fr) is directly proportional to diameter, as the external diameter of the tube in millimetres is the gauge multiplied by three. For example, a 15 Fr chest tube has an external di...

Polygenic risk scores for Alzheimer's disease, and academic achievement, cognitive and behavioural measures in children from the general population.

Several studies report a polygenic component of risk for Alzheimer's disease. Understanding whether this polygenic signal is associated with educational, cognitive and behavioural outcomes in children could provide an earlier window for intervention.

Comparison of 20-gauge Procore® and 22-gauge Acquire® needles for EUS-FNB of solid pancreatic masses: an observational study.

Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle biopsy (EUS-FNB) has been proposed to obtain high-quality tissue samples for pancreatic tumors. We performed an observational study to compare EUS-FNB with a 20-gauge Procore® needle versus a 22-gauge Acquire® needle. Our primary endpoint was the quantity of the obtained tissue, as defined by the mean cumulative length of tissue core biopsies per needle pass.

Identification of risk loci and a polygenic risk score for lung cancer: a large-scale prospective cohort study in Chinese populations.

Genetic variation has an important role in the development of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, genetic factors for lung cancer have not been fully identified, especially in Chinese populations, which limits the use of existing polygenic risk scores (PRS) to identify subpopulations at high risk of lung cancer for prevention. We therefore aimed to identify novel loci associated with NSCLC risk, and generate a PRS and evaluate its utility and effectiveness in the prediction of lung cancer risk in C...

The role of polygenic risk score gene-set analysis in the context of the omnigenic model of schizophrenia.

A recent development in the genetic architecture of schizophrenia suggested that an omnigenic model may underlie the risk for this disorder. The aim of our study was to use polygenic profile scoring to quantitatively assess whether a number of experimentally derived sets would contribute to the disorder above and beyond the omnigenic effect. Using the PGC2 secondary analysis schizophrenia case-control cohort (N = 29,125 cases and 34,836 controls), a robust polygenic signal was observed from gene sets ba...

One-year outcomes of 27-gauge versus 25-gauge pars plana vitrectomy for uncomplicated rhegmatogenous retinal detachment repair.

27-gauge (27G) and 25-gauge (25G) transconjunctival sutureless vitrectomy (TSV) were considered equal about safety, effectiveness and vitrectomy time for the treatment of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD), although larger and long-term comparative studies are needed to confirm previous knowledge. Furthermore, a combined comparison of time duration of surgery and vitreous removal was never performed. Our purpose was to compare the safety and efficacy of 27G versus 25G TSV for the treatment of uncomplic...

Age estimation at death by the study of chest plate radiographs: establishing a Tunisian male score.

We aim to establish a Tunisian score for age estimation through the study of chest plate's radiographs of a Tunisian male sample. We have focused on the study of 128 chest plate radiographs of Tunisian male individuals. We have established a score of eight criteria. The total score ranges from 8 to 32. Three observers scored double-blind the X-ray films. We studied the correlation of each criterion as well as the total score with chronological age for each observer. We also tested the reproducibility and th...

The Family Check-up Intervention Moderates Polygenic Influences on Long-Term Alcohol Outcomes: Results from a Randomized Intervention Trial.

Alcohol problems are influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. Evidence from twin models and measured gene-environment interaction studies has demonstrated that the importance of genetic influences changes as a function of the environment. Research has also shown that family-centered interventions may protect genetically susceptible youth from developing substance use problems. In this study, we brought large-scale gene identification findings into an intervention study to examine gene-by-interv...

Evaluation of Coronary Artery Calcium Progression in Asymptomatic Individuals with an Initial Score of Zero.

Coronary artery calcium (CAC) scoring in the asymptomatic population can improve cardiovascular risk prediction. We aimed to assess CAC progression and the impact of coronary risk factors on the CAC progression rate in asymptomatic Korean individuals with a baseline CAC score of zero.

Correction: Identification of 613 new loci associated with heel bone mineral density and a polygenic risk score for bone mineral density, osteoporosis and fracture.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0200785.].

Clinical use of current polygenic risk scores may exacerbate health disparities.

Polygenic risk scores (PRS) are poised to improve biomedical outcomes via precision medicine. However, the major ethical and scientific challenge surrounding clinical implementation of PRS is that those available today are several times more accurate in individuals of European ancestry than other ancestries. This disparity is an inescapable consequence of Eurocentric biases in genome-wide association studies, thus highlighting that-unlike clinical biomarkers and prescription drugs, which may individually wo...

Polygenic Score of Subjective Well-Being Is Associated with the Brain Morphology in Superior Temporal Gyrus and Insula.

Subjective well-being (SWB) is closely related to our physical and mental health. Existing studies show that neural or genetic basis underpin individual difference in SWB. Moreover, researchers have found high enrichment of SWB-related mutations in the central nervous system, but the relationship between the genetic architecture of SWB and brain morphology has not been explored. Considering the polygenic nature of SWB, in this study, we aim to establish a measure of additive genetic effect on SWB and explor...

Using Polygenic Profiles to Predict Variation in Language and Psychosocial Outcomes in Early and Middle Childhood.

Purpose Children with poor language tend to have worse psychosocial outcomes compared to their typically developing peers. The most common explanations for such adversities focus on developmental psychological processes whereby poor language triggers psychosocial difficulties. Here, we investigate the possibility of shared biological effects by considering whether the same genetic variants, which are thought to influence language development, are also predictors of elevated psychosocial difficulties during ...

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