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PubMed Journals Articles About "Opinion Proposal Would Promote Transparency Power Back Into" RSS

18:47 EDT 17th September 2019 | BioPortfolio

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Showing "Opinion proposal would promote transparency power back into" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 9,700+

Power and status across cultures.

This article synthesizes recent psychological research at the intersection of power, status, and culture. Our review shows that culture affects how status and power are conceptualized, who attains them, and what their consequences are. In individualistic cultures (and particularly vertical ones that emphasize hierarchical arrangements), power is conceptualized in personalized terms (i.e. focus on self-benefits), competence drives status attainment, norm violations increase power, and individuals strive prim...


Social power and the self.

Separate literatures exist on social power, status, and hierarchy on the one hand, and the self on the other, but important points of intersection have emerged over the past several decades. This paper reviews recent developments at the interface between social power (and related constructs) and the self. These developments orbit around two broad questions. First, how does social power influence self-expression (e.g. does power enhance or diminish subjective feelings of authenticity)? And second, does socia...

Power and social information processing.

We review the scientific evidence concerning the relation between power and social information processing. Does having or obtaining power affect how we perceive and judge our social interaction partners and how accurately we do this? High power individuals perceive others as more agentic and tend to project characteristics of themselves onto others. People in power tend to stereotype others more and see them as less human and generally in a more negative way. Powerholders are not more or less accurate in as...


Effects of wearable power assist device on low back fatigue during repetitive lifting tasks.

A wearable power assist device was developed to reduce the stress on the lower back by using pneumatic muscles. The purpose of this study was to explore whether the assist device could reduce the activity or fatigue of lower back muscles during a repetitive lifting task.

Power struggles: when and why the benefits of power for individuals paradoxically harm groups.

Research on the dysfunctions of power for group interactions is covered in this review. While individuals generally benefit from possessing power, groups often are plagued by power struggles when one or more individuals within the group possess power, such as in groups with high intra-group power dispersion (e.g. a clear job title hierarchy or differences in salary levels) or a high average level of member power (e.g. management teams, all-star sports teams). In such groups with at least one powerful member...

Power Point Therapy: An Effective and Simple Treatment for Subacute Back Pain - A Randomized Controlled Trial.

Subacute low back pain is a frequent problem with the danger of chronification. Conventional treatment options are not always effective. Power Point therapy (PPT) is a novel approach that uses reflexological insights and can be easily applied by practitioners and patients.

Power and social distance.

Magee and Smith (2013) theorized that asymmetric dependence creates asymmetric social distance in power relations, and that high-power individuals feel more distant than their low-power counterparts. I review research consistent with, and in some cases possibly inspired by, the social distance theory of power. Four findings emerge from the review. First, in dyadic relationships, the goals of the high-power partner are privileged over those of the low-power partner. Second, higher power reduces attunement an...

Power and cognitive functioning.

Because powerful people's thinking is impactful, it is critical to understand how power affects cognition. We detail how recent empirical findings reveal that power often improves cognitive functioning. First, power increases controlled processing, in particular intentionality. Second, power improves executive functioning, leading individuals to exhibit better inhibition, working memory, and cognitive flexibility. Third, power increases abstract thinking. Synthesizing these last two points, we propose that ...

Power and negotiation: review of current evidence and future directions.

This review synthesizes the impact of power on individual and joint negotiation performance. Although power generally has positive effects on negotiators' individual performance (value claiming), recent work suggests that more power is not always beneficial. Taking a dyadic perspective, we also find mixed evidence for how power affects joint performance (value creation); some studies show that equal-power dyads create more value than unequal-power dyads, but others find the opposite. We identify the source ...

Power in economic games.

Economic games offer an analytic tool to examine strategic decision-making in social interactions. Here we identify four sources of power that can be captured and studied with economic games - asymmetric dependence, the possibility to reduce dependence, the ability to punish and reward, and the use of knowledge and information. We review recent studies examining these distinct forms of power, highlight that the use of economic games can benefit our understanding of the behavioral and neurobiological underpi...

Power and moral thinking.

This review synthesizes research on how feelings of power affect the processing of moral information. Although power is typically viewed as a potentially corruptive force that reduces our morality, we propose that power amplifies moral thinking - but does so in different ways that potentially run in opposite directions. Building on the Moral Orientation Scale framework [1], we propose that power increases the tendency to deliberate about moral questions, increases the tendency to integrate feelings and cogn...

Power, status, and social judgment.

Power (reflecting control over resources and the capacity to influence others through reward and punishment) and status (reflecting the capacity to influence others through respect and admiration) both represent central aspects of social hierarchy and both exert important influences on social judgment. This article reviews recent evidence regarding the effects power and status have on social judgment. In reviewing that evidence, we focus on the enhanced goal pursuit and social distance experienced by those ...

Power and decision making: new directions for research in the age of artificial intelligence.

Throughout history, the experience of power has occurred within the context of human-human interactions. Such power can influence decision making through at least two primary mechanisms: (1) increased goal-orientation, and (2) increased activation of social role expectations. Importantly, new advances in artificial intelligence (AI) are creating the potential to experience power in human-AI interactions. To the extent that some forms of AI can be made to seem like low-power humans (e.g. autonomous digital a...

Power and leadership.

Social collectives often grant power to leaders so they can facilitate collective performance. At present, there is no comprehensive overview of how power influences the effectiveness of different influence mechanisms leaders use to achieve this goal. To help develop such an overview, I review recent research on the positive and negative effects of power on some of these influence mechanisms: leaders' punishment of norm transgressions, concern for followers, and procedural fairness enactment. I also highlig...

What lurks in the shadows of the openness hyperbole for biopharmaceuticals?

Recent advances in transparency initiative signify laudable developments. Yet, a closer look on the legal developments indicates that commercially confidential information and personal data will continue to pose persisting challenges for clinical trial transparency and drug development. This article depicts these developments with a particular focus on European Medicines Agency (EMA) and Biologics. We argue that in order to promote the development of innovative biologics and biosimilars, the EMA will need t...

Comment on "Post-Hoc Power: A Surgeons's First Assistant in Interpreting 'Negative' Studies" and "A Proposal to Mitigate the Consequences of Type 2 Error in Surgical Science".

Exploiting Self-capacitances for Wireless Power Transfer.

Conventional approaches for wireless power transfer rely on the mutual coupling (near-field or far-field) between the transmitter and receiver transducers. As a result, the power-transfer efficiency of these approaches scales non-linearly with the cross-sectional area of the transducers and with the relative distance and respective alignment between the transducers. In this paper we show that when the operational power-budget requirements are in the order of microwatts, a self-capacitance (SC) based power d...

Still a matter of dialogue: A response to Potter's, Augoustinos's, and Jovchelovitch's commentaries.

In their insightful and challenging commentaries, Potter, Augoustinos, and Jovchelovitch interestingly contributed to the debate we sought to promote. They allowed us to further reflect on our proposal of bringing together some strands of theory of social representations and discursive psychology for forging a stronger social psychology, that is, one more prepared to understand social change by better comprehending how meaning is constructed and transformed in discourse and communication. Through the presen...

Power's mission: impact and the quest for goal achievement.

This article discusses evidence linking power to purpose: that of having an impact in the social environment and carrying out individual or collective aims and desires. First, it highlights the role of goals during the emergence and the exercise of power. Accordingly, it suggests that typical power's mission is to strive for social or personal objectives in social contexts. This includes social influence goals, organizational or personal agendas. Secondly, the article describes how power affects goal-relate...

EEG signals during mouth breathing in a working memory task.

Continuous mouth breathing results not only morphological deformations but also poor learning outcomes. However, there were few studies that observed correlations between mouth breathing and cognition. This study aimed at investigating the changes in brain activity during mouth breathing while the study subject simultaneously performed a cognitive task using electroencephalography (EEG). Twenty subjects participated in this study, and EEG electrodes (32 channels, 256-Hz sampling rate) were placed on their s...

Inequality is in the air: contextual psychosocial effects of power and social class.

Social class and power inequalities are defining features of current societies and tend to influence several social psychological processes. Two types of consequences of social class and power inequalities can be differentiated: mechanical and contextual. Mechanical effects occur when inequality strengthens the relation between social class or power and a given outcome; conversely, contextual effects occur when inequality creates a social context that changes the relationship between social class or power a...

Communicating About Animal Research with the Public.

Animals play a key role in biomedical research and other areas of scientific inquiry. But public opinion plays a key role in influencing how this area of science is regulated and funded. Nevertheless, scientists have historically been reticent to speak openly about their animal research or to open their animal facilities to the public in any way. Consequently, most of the available information has come from those opposed to animal research. This imbalance has led to suspicion and lagging public support for ...

Return to self-reported physical activity level after an event of acute low back pain.

Regular physical activity participation is known to promote better mobility and coordination. Although previous research has established that lack of physical activity participation may increase the risk of developing low back pain, the role of physical activity as a predictor of recovery among symptomatic individuals remains unclear.

Do You See What I See? Reflections on the Relationship Between Transparency and Trust.

The prospect of a more transparent society sounds promising. Advocates of transparency envision a future in which public trust in institutions and peoples' trust in one another run high because all information worth viewing is readily available and open to scrutiny. As health professionals, administrators, and educators work to enact this vision, careful consideration must be given to complex processes through which transparency occurs. Using examples from the 2019 Academic Medicine trainee-authored letters...

Women in Health Academia: Power Dynamics in Nursing, Higher Education and Research.

Power - or the wielding of power - is an evitable and necessary component of the way organisations function. This is because power forms the basis of 'getting things done', 'making a difference' and achieving outcomes - the common goal of all organisations (Blake & Mouton, 1968; Vine, 2004). Power is further broken down into two types: 'power to' or the ability to achieve objectives; and 'power over' or the influence one has over the behaviours and actions of others (Hawks, 1991, p. 755). This article is pr...


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