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PubMed Journals Articles About "Optical Quality, Threshold Target Identification, And Military Target Task Performance After Advanced Keratorefractive Surgery" RSS

12:03 EST 17th December 2018 | BioPortfolio

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Showing "Optical Quality Threshold Target Identification Military Target Task" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 28,000+

When a word is worth more than a picture: Words lower the threshold for object identification in 3-year-old children.

A large literature shows strong developmental links between early language abilities and later cognitive abilities. We present evidence for one pathway by which language may influence cognition and development: by influencing how visual information is momentarily processed. Children were asked to identify a target in clutter and either saw a visual preview of the target or heard the basic-level name of the target. We hypothesized that the name of the target should activate category-relevant information and,...


Emergent features in the crowding zone: When target-flanker grouping surmounts crowding.

Crowding is the impairment of target identification when the target is surrounded by nearby flankers. Two hallmarks of crowding are that it is stronger when the flankers are close to the target and when the target strongly groups with the flankers. Here we show the opposite of both. A chevron target (pointing up or down) was presented at 8° eccentricity in the right visual field. It was surrounded by four flankers. Three of the flankers varied (pointing left or right). The fourth, the critical flanker (CF)...

The power of combining phenotypic and target-focused drug discovery.

A fierce dispute has arisen between the supporters of phenotypic and target-focused screening regarding which path grants the higher probability of successful drug development. A chance to reconcile these two approaches lies in successful target deconvolution (TD) after phenotypic screens. But, despite the panoply of available in vitro TD methods, the task of matching a phenotypically active compound with a biomolecular target remains challenging. Consequently, this review details the latest developments of...


The emotional attentional blink is robust to divided attention.

The emotional attentional blink (EAB) refers to a temporary impairment in the ability to identify a target when it is preceded by an emotional distractor. It is thought to occur because the emotional salience of the distractor exogenously captures attention for a brief duration, rendering the target unattended and preventing it from reaching awareness. Here we tested the extent to which the EAB can be attenuated by inducing a diffuse top-down attentional state, which has been shown to improve target identif...

Target Probability Modulates Fixation-Related Potentials in Visual Search.

This study investigated the influence of target probability on the neural response to target detection in free viewing visual search. Participants were asked to indicate the number of targets (one or two) among distractors in a visual search task while EEG and eye movements were co-registered. Target probability was manipulated by varying the set size of the displays between 10, 22, and 30 items. Fixation-related potentials time-locked to first target fixations revealed a pronounced P300 at the centro-parie...

The confounding effect of background odors on olfactory sensitivity testing.

Human olfactory sensitivity is known to vary significantly across subjects. Furthermore, environmental factors such as background noise and odor are known to affect target odor threshold scores but have not yet been fully delineated. We aimed to determine whether congruent and non-congruent background odor impaired target odor threshold scores.

Task errors contribute to implicit aftereffects in sensorimotor adaptation.

Perturbations of sensory feedback evoke sensory prediction errors (discrepancies between predicted and actual sensory outcomes of movements), and reward prediction errors (discrepancies between predicted rewards and actual rewards). When our task is to hit a target, we expect to succeed in hitting the target, and so we experience a reward prediction error if the perturbation causes us to miss it. These discrepancies between intended task outcomes and actual task outcomes, termed "task errors", are thought t...

Military Service and Decision Quality in the Management of Knee Osteoarthritis.

Decision quality measures the degree to which care decisions are knowledge-based and value-aligned. Because military service emphasizes hierarchy, command, and mandates some healthcare decisions, military service may attenuate patient autonomy in healthcare decisions and lower decision quality. VA is the nation's largest provider of orthopedic care. We compared decision quality in a sample of VA and non-VA patients seeking care for knee osteoarthritis.

Statistical learning of anomalous regions in complex faux X-ray images does not transfer between detection and discrimination.

The visual environment contains predictable information - "statistical regularities" - that can be used to aid perception and attentional allocation. Here we investigate the role of statistical learning in facilitating search tasks that resemble medical-image perception. Using faux X-ray images, we employed two tasks that mimicked two problems in medical-image perception: detecting a target signal that is poorly segmented from the background; and discriminating a candidate anomaly from benign signals. In th...

Quality of life as a target criterion in schizophrenia therapy.

Consideration of quality of life has developed into an important concept of a patient-oriented medicine in the last 50 years. With it, it should be possible to capture the subjective experience of the patients and describe its different dimensions. Today, the quality of life as a patient-reported endpoint is also an integral part of the early benefit assessment under the German Drug Market Reorganization Act. In the treatment of schizophrenic patients, however, improvement in quality of life as an accepted ...

Inferotemporal cortex multiplexes behaviorally-relevant target match signals and visual representations in a manner that minimizes their interference.

Finding a sought visual target object requires combining visual information about a scene with a remembered representation of the target to create a "target match" signal that indicates when a target is in view. Target match signals have been reported to exist within high-level visual brain areas including inferotemporal cortex (IT), where they are mixed with representations of image and object identity. However, these signals are not well understood, particularly in the context of the real-world challenge ...

Searching for Invariance: Geographical and Optical Slant.

When we move through rigid environments, surface orientations of static objects do not appear to change. Most studies have investigated the perception of optical slant which is dependent on the perspective of the observer. We investigated the perception of geographical slant, which is invariant across different viewing perspectives, and compared it to optical slant. In Experiment 1, participants viewed a 3D triangular target surface with triangular phosphorescent texture elements presented at eye level at o...

Priming of Pop-out does not provide reliable measures of target activation and distractor inhibition in selective attention: Evidence from a large-scale online study.

Lamy, Antebi, Aviani, and Carmel (2008) reported that in a simple search task where participants located an odd coloured circle, the inter-trial relations could be used to derive robust and independent measures of target activation and distractor inhibition. When a target feature repeated there was a benefit, and when the previous target feature became the distractor feature there was a cost. These two measures correlated and were taken to reflect a measure of target activation. When the distractor feature ...

Open Targets Platform: new developments and updates two years on.

The Open Targets Platform integrates evidence from genetics, genomics, transcriptomics, drugs, animal models and scientific literature to score and rank target-disease associations for drug target identification. The associations are displayed in an intuitive user interface (https://www.targetvalidation.org), and are available through a REST-API (https://api.opentargets.io/v3/platform/docs/swagger-ui) and a bulk download (https://www.targetvalidation.org/downloads/data). In addition to target-disease associ...

Identification of Carbonic Anhydrase IX as a Novel Target for Endoscopic Molecular Imaging of Human Bladder Cancer.

Emerging novel optical imaging techniques with cancer-specific molecular imaging agents offer a powerful and promising platform for cancer detection and resection. White-light cystoscopy and random bladder biopsies remain the most appropriate but nonetheless suboptimal diagnostic technique for bladder cancer, which is associated with high morbidity and recurrence. However, white-light cystoscopy has intrinsic shortcomings. Although current optical imaging technologies hold great potential for improved diagn...

Differential brain mechanisms for processing distracting information in task-relevant and -irrelevant dimensions in visual search.

A crucial function of our goal-directed behavior is to select task-relevant targets among distractor stimuli, some of which may share properties with the target and thus compete for attentional selection. Here, by applying functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to a visual search task in which a target was embedded in an array of distractors that were homogeneous or heterogeneous along the task-relevant (orientation or form) and/or task-irrelevant (color) dimensions, we demonstrate that for both (orie...

Contrasting the Effects of Task Difficulty and Perceptual Load on Auditory Detection Sensitivity in Individuals with Autism.

To test a central assumption of the increased perceptual capacity account in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), the effects of perceptual load and target-stimulus degradation on auditory detection sensitivity were contrasted. Fourteen adolescents with ASD and 16 neurotypical controls performed a visual letter search task under three conditions: low perceptual load, high perceptual load and low perceptual load with a degraded target while simultaneously detecting an auditory tone in noise. For ...

LncRNA2Target v2.0: a comprehensive database for target genes of lncRNAs in human and mouse.

Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play crucial roles in regulating gene expression, and a growing number of researchers have focused on the identification of target genes of lncRNAs. However, no online repository is available to collect the information on target genes regulated by lncRNAs. To make it convenient for researchers to know what genes are regulated by a lncRNA of interest, we developed a database named lncRNA2Target to provide a comprehensive resource of lncRNA target genes in 2015. To update the da...

Proprioceptive identification of joint position versus kinaesthetic movement reproduction.

Regarding our voluntary control of movement, if identification of joint position, that is independent of the starting condition, is stronger than kinaesthetic movement reproduction, that implies knowledge of the starting position and movement's length for accuracy, is still a matter of debate in motor control theories and neuroscience. In the present study, we examined the mechanisms that individuals seem to prefer/adopt when they locate spatial positions and code the amplitude of movements. We implemented ...

A Combined In Vitro/In Silico Approach to Identifying Off-Target Receptor Toxicity.

Many xenobiotics can bind to off-target receptors and cause toxicity via the dysregulation of downstream transcription factors. Identification of subsequent off-target toxicity in these chemicals has often required extensive chemical testing in animal models. An alternative, integrated in vitro/in silico approach for predicting toxic off-target functional responses is presented to refine in vitro receptor identification and reduce the burden on in vivo testing. As part of the methodology, mathematical mo...

Attending to behaviorally relevant moments enhances incidental relational memory.

Memory for the items one has recently encountered is sometimes enhanced in divided attention tasks: Attending to behaviorally relevant items, such as a target in a detection task, boosts memory for unrelated background items (e.g., scenes or words). However, a central feature of episodic memory is memory for the spatiotemporal relationship between items and other elements of an event (relational memory), not just the item itself. Three experiments examined whether attending to a behaviorally relevant target...

The costs and benefits of temporal predictability: impaired inhibition of prepotent responses accompanies increased activation of task-relevant responses.

While the benefit of temporal predictability on sensorimotor processing is well established, it is still unknown whether this is due to efficient execution of an appropriate response and/or inhibition of an inappropriate one. To answer this question, we examined the effects of temporal predictability in tasks that required selective (Simon task) or global (Stop-signal task) inhibitory control of prepotent responses. We manipulated temporal expectation by presenting cues that either predicted (temporal cues)...

The Impact of Military and Nonmilitary Experiences on Marriage: Examining the Military Spouse's Perspective.

There has been conflicting research regarding direct association between deployments and marital quality, particularly from the military spouse's perspective. In the current study, we sought to extend past research by examining the direct association between both military and nonmilitary experiences and military spouse marital quality using 2011-2013 baseline data from the Millennium Cohort Family Study, a large sample of military couples representing all U.S. service branches and components. Military exper...

Feedback of action outcome retrospectively influences sense of agency in a continuous action task.

Here, we investigated whether explicit feedback on the result of the action (success or failure) modified sense of agency (SoA) in a continuous action task. Participants carried a white dot with a delay to a target square while avoiding obstacle squares. The color of the target changed unpredictably between white and blue. A trial was considered as successful or failed if the dot reached the target while it was white or blue. Thus, actions during the task resulted in almost identical experiences of successf...

Multiple attentional control settings at distinct locations without the confounding of repetition priming.

An attentional control setting (ACS), which is based on the task goal, induces involuntary attentional capture by a stimulus possessing a target-defining feature. It is unclear whether ACSs are maintained for multiple targets defined as conjunctions of a color and location. In the present study we examined the possibility of local ACSs for dual targets defined as combinations of color and location, using different paradigms: visual search in Experiment 1, and spatial cueing in Experiment 2. In Experiment 1,...


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