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14:19 EST 22nd January 2020 | BioPortfolio

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Showing "Oxford researchers German study warning insect declines lacks" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 63,000+

Eco-evolutionary processes underlying early warning signals of population declines.

1.Environmental change can impact the stability of ecological systems and cause rapid declines in populations. Abundance-based early warning signals have been shown to precede such declines, but detection prior to wild population collapses has had limited success, leading to the development of warning signals based on shifts in distribution of fitness-related traits such as body size. 2.The dynamics of population abundances and traits in response to external environmental perturbations are controlled by a r...

Insect Declines in the Anthropocene.

Insect declines are being reported worldwide for flying, ground, and aquatic lineages. Most reports come from western and northern Europe, where the insect fauna is well-studied and there are considerable demographic data for many taxonomically disparate lineages. Additional cases of faunal losses have been noted from Asia, North America, the Arctic, the Neotropics, and elsewhere. While this review addresses both species loss and population declines, its emphasis is on the latter. Declines of abundant speci...

Consumers' opinions on warning labels on food packages: A qualitative study in Brazil.

This study aimed to assess consumers' uses of and opinions on the current Brazilian food label and their reaction to the introduction of a front-of-package warning label. We conducted 12 focus groups among a diverse sample of adult consumers, to broadly assess: (1) uses of and perceptions about the current food label, and (2) opinions about implementing a front-of-package warning label to guide food purchases. Data was analyzed with a triangulation of researchers using an exploratory content analysis, which...

Validation of the group tasks uncertainty model (MITAG) in a German sample.

Task uncertainty is a key factor in teamwork research. This study analyzed the psychometric characteristics of the Spanish Model of Group Tasks Uncertainty (MITAG) in two German samples. The participants (501 team members and 104 team leaders from a German research organization) answered the MITAG together with selected items from the German Job Diagnostic Survey (JDS) and the instrument Ambiguity facets of work (Ambiguitätsfacetten der Arbeit, AfA). Confirmatory factor analysis did not reproduce the origi...

Awareness of obstetric warning signs in Ecuador: a cross-sectional study.

In Ecuador, the reported maternal death rate was 45.71 per 100,000 live births in 2013. This may be partly due to a lack of maternal knowledge of obstetric warning signs during pregnancy, delivery and the post-partum period. This study sought to evaluate awareness of obstetric warning signs among pregnant women in relation to individual demographic and area-level socio-economic indicators.

Forward collision warning based on a driver model to increase drivers' acceptance.

Systems that can warn the driver of a possible collision with a vulnerable road user (VRU) have significant safety benefits. However, incorrect warning times can have adverse effects on the driver. If the warning is too late, drivers might not be able to react; if the warning is too early, drivers can become annoyed and might turn off the system. Currently, there are no methods to determine the right timing for a warning to achieve high effectiveness and acceptance by the driver. This study aims to validate...

Butterfly abundance declines over 20 years of systematic monitoring in Ohio, USA.

Severe insect declines make headlines, but they are rarely based on systematic monitoring outside of Europe. We estimate the rate of change in total butterfly abundance and the population trends for 81 species using 21 years of systematic monitoring in Ohio, USA. Total abundance is declining at 2% per year, resulting in a cumulative 33% reduction in butterfly abundance. Three times as many species have negative population trends compared to positive trends. The rate of total decline and the proportion of sp...

Re: Erectile Dysfunction in 45-Year-Old Heterosexual German Men and Associated Lifestyle Risk Factors and Comorbidities: Results from the German Male Sex Study.

Compulsory organ donation-a controversial topic.

The number of organ donations in Germany has continuously fallen in recent years. The proposed Transplantation Act stipulates that every German citizen is considered an organ donor if he/she has not objected during his/her lifetime. This proposal has received wide approval, but also much criticism. The German Society for Urology, the German Society for Surgery, the German Society for Nephrology and the German Transplantation Society have all spoken out in press releases in favor of the introduction of an op...

Time Tracking of Standard Ultrasound Examinations in Pediatric Hospitals and Pediatric Medical Practices - A Multicenter Study by the Pediatric Section of the German Society of Ultrasound in Medicine (DEGUM).

 Ultrasonography is the primary imaging modality in pediatrics but still lacks sufficient reimbursement in Germany. In this multicenter study, national data for the duration of standard ultrasound in pediatrics were systematically documented in order to specify the actual time required.

Refining animal research: The Animal Study Registry.

The Animal Study Registry (ASR; was launched in January 2019 for preregistration of animal studies in order to increase transparency and reproducibility of bioscience research and to promote animal welfare. The registry is free of charge and is designed for exploratory and confirmatory studies within applied science as well as basic and preclinical research. The registration form helps scientists plan their study thoroughly by asking detailed questions concerning study design, m...

Front-of-pack nutritional labels: Understanding by low- and middle-income Mexican consumers.

Front-of-pack labeling is a cost-effective strategy to decrease population consumption of sodium, sugar, saturated fat, total fat, and trans-fatty acids, considered critical nutrients for chronic disease. Our main objective was to explore the subjective understanding of labels that are currently used internationally among low- and middle-income Mexican consumers. We performed two phases of 10 focus groups with adolescents (13-15 y), young adults (21-23 y), mothers of children 3-12 y, fathers of children 3-1...

Validating the Xerostomia Inventory in a radiation-induced xerostomia population in German language.

Though xerostomia is a frequent oral symptom, there is no validated disease-specific questionnaire in German. The purpose of this study was to translate and validate versions of the Xerostomia Inventory and the Summated Xerostomia Inventory in a German speaking population.

Prescribing trend of pioglitazone after safety warning release in Korea.

This study was conducted to determine the number of pioglitazone users before and after the issue of the pioglitazone safety warning (intervention) by South Korea's Ministry of Food and Drug Safety on June 10, 2011.

The case for emulating insect brains using anatomical "wiring diagrams" equipped with biophysical models of neuronal activity.

Developing whole-brain emulation (WBE) technology would provide immense benefits across neuroscience, biomedicine, artificial intelligence, and robotics. At this time, constructing a simulated human brain lacks feasibility due to limited experimental data and limited computational resources. However, I suggest that progress toward this goal might be accelerated by working toward an intermediate objective, namely insect brain emulation (IBE). More specifically, this would entail creating biologically realist...

Incidence of Normal versus Support Trot in the Healthy Adult German Shepherd Dog.

 Current sports medicine textbooks suggest German Shepherd dogs leave a forelimb on the ground longer than other breeds for support because of angulated joints eliminating a true suspension phase (support trot). The objective of this study was to characterize the trot of healthy, adult German Shepherd dogs and describe morphometric relationships. The hypothesis was that all German Shepherd dogs have a standard trot that does not correlate with morphometric measurements.

Hospital nurses' professional accountability while using the National Early Warning Score: A qualitative study with a hermeneutic design.

To explore general hospital ward nurses' experiences with the National Early Warning Score and to determine its impacts on their professionalism.

ChroniSense National Early Warning Score Study (CHESS): a wearable wrist device to measure vital signs in hospitalised patients-protocol and study design.

The National Early Warning Score is used as standard clinical practice in the UK as a track and trigger system to monitor hospitalised patients. Currently, nurses are tasked to take routine vital signs measurements and manually record these on a clinical chart. Wearable devices could provide an easier, reliable, more convenient and cost-effective method of monitoring. Our aim is to evaluate the clinical validity of Polso (ChroniSense Medical, Yokneam Illit, Israel), a wrist-based device, to provide National...

Validity of the Pediatric Early Warning Score and the Bedside Pediatric Early Warning Score in Classifying Patients Who Require the Resources of a Higher Level Pediatric Hospital.

The pediatric early warning score (PEWS) and the bedside pediatric early warning score (BPEWS) are validated tools that help determine the need for critical care in children with acute medical conditions. These tools could be used by EMS and have not been evaluated outside of the hospital. This study retrospectively tested the validity of these tools in the prehospital setting to identify children who needed a hospital with higher level pediatric resources.

BgFas1: A fatty acid synthase gene required for both hydrocarbon and cuticular fatty acid biosynthesis in the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.).

Insect cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs), the evolutionary products of aquatic hexapod ancestors expanding to terrestrial environment, are deposited on the surface of insect integument and originally functioned primarily as waterproofing agents. CHCs are derived from the conserved fatty acid synthesis pathway in insects. However, the pivotal fatty acid synthase (FAS) involved in hydrocarbon (HC) biosynthesis remains unknown in many insect orders including the primitive Blattodea. Here, we investigated functiona...

MetumpX - A Metabolomics Support Package for Untargeted Mass Spectrometry.

Metabolomics is a data analysis and interpretation field aiming to study functions of small molecules within the organism. Consequently Metabolomics requires researchers in life sciences to be comfortable in downloading, installing and scripting of software that are mostly not user friendly and lack basic GUIs. As the researchers struggle with these skills, there is a dire need to develop software packages that can automatically install software pipelines truely speeding up the learning curve to build softw...

Progress in the use of genetic methods to study insect behavior outside Drosophila.

In the span of a decade we have seen a rapid progress in the application of genetic tools and genome editing approaches in 'non-model' insects. It is now possible to target sensory receptor genes and neurons, explore their functional roles and manipulate behavioral responses in these insects. In this review, we focus on the latest examples from Diptera, Lepidoptera and Hymenoptera of how applications of genetic tools advanced our understanding of diverse behavioral phenomena. We further discuss genetic meth...

Research Resource Identifiers (RRID) for Core Facilities and Research Equipment.

The reproducibility of research results is one of the key tenets of scientific discovery. These results are often generated using equipment located in a scientific research laboratory. Thus, it would stand to reason that sufficient, detailed, and transparent reporting of equipment is key to allowing researchers to assess the validity of previous findings. The cost of irreproducible studies has been well documented and the lack of specific and unambiguous reference to research tools contributes significantly...

Insight Medicine Lacks - The Continuing Relevance of Henrietta Lacks.

Recent neurogenetic findings in insect courtship behaviour.

Insect courtship parades consist of series of innate and stereotyped behaviours that become hardwired-in during the development of the nervous system. As such, insect courtship behaviour provides an excellent model for probing the principles of neuronal assembly, which underlie patterns of behaviour. Here, we present the main advances of recent studies - in species all the way from flies to planthoppers - and we envisage how these could lead to further propitious findings.

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