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This supplement includes 11 research papers accepted by the 2018 Research in Medical Education Committee. In this Commentary, the authors draw the attention of medical educators and researchers to questions about the researcher's philosophical paradigm. Such questions fundamentally guide research-the choice of conceptual frameworks, methods, and methodology. The authors provide a brief overview of research paradigms and the related concept of axiology and praxeology in medical education research. The author...
Indirect carbon emissions account for a large ratio of the total carbon emissions in processes to make the final products, and this implies indirect carbon emission flow across industries. Understanding these flows is crucial for allocating a carbon allowance for each industry. By combining input-output analysis and complex network theory, this study establishes an indirect carbon emission flow network (ICEFN) for 41 industries from 2005 to 2014 to investigate the interrelationships among different industri...
A number of new time critical medical interventions are highly specialised. As such, they are not available in many hospitals and EDs. This necessitates transfer to another facility, which is often associated with some degree of delay. Processes to facilitate timely access to these interventions should aim to replicate or improve on that which would have been available should the patient have been in the community, and responded to, primarily, by an emergency medical service.
Nearly one in five US employees reports having used cannabis in the past year. As policies and laws regarding cannabis use rapidly change, concerns have arisen over employees' use of cannabis, for both medical and recreational purposes. While extant workplace research has not distinguished between types of cannabis users, other studies have found that medical users are clinically and socio-demographically different from non-medical users. This study utilized a sample of employed National Survey on Drug Use ...
Anecdotes abound regarding the decline of basic research in industrial and governmental settings, but very little empirical evidence exists about the phenomenon. This article provides a systematic and historical analysis of the contribution of various institutional sectors to knowledge production at the world and country levels across the past four decades. It highlights a dramatic decline in the diffusion of basic research by industrial and governmental sectors across all countries-with a corresponding inc...
Most of the industrial sectors of India have undergone major changes in the post-liberalization period. During this period, India has become self-reliant in drugs; however, still, 75% of the medical devices are imported in India. According to WHO, almost all devices present in the developing countries have been designed for use in the industrialized countries. With the increase in incidence of non-communicable diseases and decrease in communicable diseases; increase in survival rates and decrease in mortali...
A conflict of interest (COI) exists when a physician's professional responsibilities are compromised by personal or financial relationships. COIs between physicians and the pharmaceutical or medical device industry (Industry) are common. Collaborations with Industry have many potential benefits, but also raise potential ethical pitfalls. Industry-related COIs have widespread influence on medical education, research, and clinical practice, and therefore have profound implications for the integrity of the fie...
The goal of Open Payments and the Physician Payments Sunshine Act is to foster transparency and accountability to help stakeholders better understand financial ties between physicians and teaching hospitals and the pharmaceutical and medical device industries.
The Canadian federal government has committed to legalizing non-medical cannabis use by adults in 2018. Medical use was legalized in 2001; however, not all people reporting medical use have medical authorization. To prepare for monitoring the effects of the policy change, a greater understanding of the prevalence of cannabis use and the characteristics of all cannabis users is needed.
Following an aversive experience, fears often generalize across contexts. Contextual fear generalization is modeled in a laboratory paradigm in which one context (CTX+) is paired with an aversive unconditional stimulus (US), while the other context (CTX-) is not. The current study sought to validate a novel paradigm assessing contextual fear generalization, and to determine the extent to which stress and anxiety symptoms enhanced contextual fear generalization.
Marijuana use is clinically problematic in depression, and non-medical and medical use may both contribute to barriers to care in this population. Among outpatients with depression, we examined the differential impact of medical or non-medical marijuana use, relative to no-use, on psychopathology and service use over time.
A scientific paradigm typically embraces research norms and values, such as truth-seeking, critical thinking, disinterestedness, and good scientific practice. These values should prevent a paradigm from introducing defective assumptions. But sometimes, scientists who are also physicians develop clinical norms that are in conflict with the scientific enterprise. As an example of such a conflict, we have analyzed the genesis and development of the shaken baby syndrome (SBS) paradigm. The point of departure of...
Medical humanity is the soul of health education. Beginning medical students are taught various aspects of basic medicine, such as biochemistry, anatomy, and immunology. However, cultivation of the humanistic aspects of medicine has received increasing attention in recent decades. We performed a comparison study based on a literature search and our experience with medical humanistic courses in Western and Chinese medical colleges. We found both similarities and disparities in humanities courses offered in W...
In a typical eye tracking study using the visual world paradigm, participants' eye movements to objects or pictures in the visual workspace are recorded via an eye tracker as the participant produces or comprehends a spoken language describing the concurrent visual world. This paradigm has high versatility, as it can be used in a wide range of populations, including those who cannot read and/or who cannot overtly give their behavioral responses, such as preliterate children, elderly adults, and patients. Mo...
Parents routinely access young children's medical records, but medical societies strongly recommend confidential care during adolescence, and most medical centers restrict parental records access during the teen years. We sought to assess public opinion about adolescent medical privacy.
The use of computer simulation is arguably more widespread in other industries than in medicine. However, it has filtered into mainstream use in radiation therapy via a commercial product born from collaborative research partnership based in a radiation therapy department .The benefits and potentials of simulation training is discussed in this editorial from the perspective of an experienced radiation therapy physicist.
To characterize the socio-demographic characteristics, medical conditions, and psychiatric comorbidities of users of marijuana for medical and non-medical purposes.
Medical deontology is increasingly important, owing to the interests and rights which the medical profession involves. This paper focuses on the relationships of the Italian Code of Medical Deontology (CMD) with both the ethical and legal dimensions, in order to clarify the role of medical ethics within the medical profession, society and the overall system of the sources of law.
The current praxis of diagnosing prostate cancer, with systematic prostate biopsies in men with raised serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels, leads to considerable over-diagnosis and over-treatment of indolent cancer. Recent research has opened up for a paradigm shift to risk stratified, sequential and targeted prostate cancer diagnostics, which will reduce over-diagnosis. Sweden now moves towards organised PSA testing for those men who, after proper counselling, wish to be tested. Organised PSA test...
The construction industry is one of the largest and also most hazardous industries in the USA. It is affected more severely by the business cycle than most other industries. We examined industry trends during the last decade including the severe recession. During 2008 to 2010, as a result of the recession, 2.7 million workers and 20% of all employers left the industry. By 2010, the number and rate of traumatic fatalities had reached its lowest point ever, only to gradually increase again as the industry rec...
The article considers phenomenon of medical activity as a determinant of population demand for medical services and needs in medical care. The medical activity is determined as both a criterion of formation of health of patients by force of active using medical care and a criterion of efficiency of functioning of physicians in satisfaction of needs of patients in medical care. The results are presented related to phenomenon of medical activity using methodology of analysis of opinions of patients and level ...
To compare the quality of sleep between medical and non-medical undergraduate students.
This study examines the use of the medical risk/resource ratio (RRR) and need for medical resources (NMR) as new indicators of the imbalance in medical demand and supply in disasters. These indicators are used to quantify the medical demand-supply imbalance per disaster base hospital, examine the demand-supply imbalance in the region, and verify the need for medical support.
The extent of medical trainees' engagement in scholarly medical education publication is not well described. This study sought to quantify the prevalence of medical student- and resident-authored medical education publications over 15 years, a benchmark essential for understanding current and future trends in trainee scholarship.