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PubMed Journals Articles About "Pattern Stressor Evoked Brain Activity Predict Reactivity" RSS

02:05 EDT 25th June 2018 | BioPortfolio

Pattern Stressor Evoked Brain Activity Predict Reactivity PubMed articles on BioPortfolio. Our PubMed references draw on over 21 million records from the medical literature. Here you can see the latest Pattern Stressor Evoked Brain Activity Predict Reactivity articles that have been published worldwide.

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Showing "Pattern stressor evoked brain activity predict reactivity" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 30,000+

The cortisol reactivity threshold model: Direction of trait rumination and cortisol reactivity association varies with stressor severity.

Various internalizing risk factors predict, in separate studies, both augmented and reduced cortisol responding to lab-induced stress. Stressor severity appears key: We tested whether heightened trait-like internalizing risk (here, trait rumination) predicts heightened cortisol reactivity under modest objective stress, but conversely predicts reduced reactivity under more robust objective stress. Thus, we hypothesized that trait rumination would interact with a curvilinear (quadratic) function of stress sev...


Impact of baseline COon Blood-Oxygenation-Level-Dependent MRI measurements of cerebrovascular reactivity and task-evoked signal activation.

Neurovascular coupling describes the cascade between neuronal activity and subsequent Blood-Oxygenation-Level-Dependent (BOLD) signal increase. Based on this premise, the correlation of this BOLD signal increase with a particular task, such as finger-tapping, is used to map neuronal activation. This signal increase may be dampened in brain areas exhibiting impaired cerebrovascular reactivity (BOLD-CVR), leading to false negative activation. Blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR...

Bessel-like functional distributions in brain average evoked potentials.

Average evoked potential data recorded as impulse responses of brains to electric shocks show Bessel-like functional distributions which we analyze in terms of couples of damped/amplified oscillators. This reproduces results obtained in terms of ordinary differential equations (Freeman K-sets) and offers the possibility of a direct connection with the dissipative model of brain in the quantum gauge field theory paradigm. We study the control mechanism by fine tuning the model parameters and the brain proper...


Frontoparietal Activity Interacts With Task-Evoked Changes in Functional Connectivity.

Flexible interactions between brain regions enable neural systems to adaptively transfer and process information. However, the neural substrates that regulate adaptive communications between brain regions are understudied. In this human fMRI study, we investigated this issue by tracking time-varying, task-evoked changes in functional connectivity between localized occipitotemporal regions while participants performed different tasks on the same visually presented stimuli. We found that functional connectivi...

Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) gene is associated with adolescents' cortisol reactivity and anxiety.

Emerging evidence points to interactions between inflammatory markers and stress reactivity in predicting mental health risk, but underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor (MIF) is a pleiotropic cytokine involved in inflammatory signaling and Hypothalamus Pituitary Adrenal (HPA) axis stress-response, and has recently been identified as a candidate biomarker for depression and anxiety risk. We examined polymorphic variations of the MIF gene in association with base...

Effects of Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior on Brain Response to High-Calorie Food Cues in Young Adults.

Physical activity (PA) promotes weight maintenance, potentially because of its beneficial effects on feeding behavior regulation via diminished food cue reactivity within brain reward regions. This study examined how levels of PA and sedentary behavior (SB) relate to brain responses to food cues.

Noninvasive measurement of dynamic brain signals using light penetrating the brain.

Conventional techniques for the noninvasive measurement of brain activity involve critical limitations in spatial or temporal resolution. Here, we propose the method for noninvasive brain function measurement with high spatiotemporal resolution using optical signals. We verified that diffused near-infrared light penetrating through the upper jaw and into the skull, which we term as optoencephalography (OEG), leads to the detection of dynamic brain signals that vary concurrently with the electrophysiological...

Characterising the frequency response of impedance changes during evoked physiological activity in the rat brain.

<i>Objective</i>. Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) can image impedance changes associated with evoked physiological activity in the cerebral cortex using an array of epicortical electrodes. An impedance change is observed as the externally applied current, normally confined to the extracellular space is admitted into the conducting intracellular space during neuronal depolarisation. The response is largest at DC and decreases at higher frequencies due to capacitative transfer of current acr...

Expanding the Armory: Predicting and Tuning Covalent Warhead Reactivity.

Targeted covalent inhibition is an established approach for increasing the potency and selectivity of potential drug candidates, as well as identifying potent and selective tool compounds for target validation studies. It is evident that identification of reversible recognition elements is essential for selective covalent inhibition, but this must also be achieved with the appropriate level of inherent reactivity of the reactive functionality (or 'warhead'). Structural changes that increase or decrease warh...

Does inhibition cause forgetting after selective retrieval? A reanalysis and failure to replicate.

Retrieval practice can produce forgetting, but it remains unclear using only behavioral data whether this forgetting is caused by targeted inhibition versus interference. Therefore, Wimber et al. (2015) used pattern classifier analyses of fMRI data to track individual memories in a novel variant of retrieval induced forgetting. After initial learning, people recalled target images across selective retrieval practice trials, and cortical activity patterns gradually became more similar to those evoked by the...

Electrophysiological Measurement of Noxious-evoked Brain Activity in Neonates Using a Flat-tip Probe Coupled to Electroencephalography.

Pain is an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience. In non-verbal patients, it is very difficult to measure pain, even with pain assessment tools. Those tools are subjective or determine secondary physiological indicators which also have certain limitations particularly when exploring the effectiveness of analgesia. As cortical processing is essential for pain perception, brain activity measures may provide a useful approach to assess pain in infants. Here we present a method to assess nociception with ...

Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Adolescents with Elevated Externalizing Symptoms Show Heightened Emotion Reactivity to Daily Stress: An Experience Sampling Study.

Numerous theories assert that youth with externalizing symptomatology experience intensified emotion reactivity to stressful events; yet scant empirical research has assessed this notion. Using in-vivo data collected via experience sampling methodology, we assessed whether externalizing symptoms conditioned adolescents' emotion reactivity to daily stressors (i.e. change in emotion pre-post stressor) among 206 socioeconomically disadvantaged adolescents. We also assessed whether higher externalizing symptomo...

Carbonic anhydrase related protein expression in astrocytomas and oligodendroglial tumors.

Carbonic anhydrase related proteins (CARPs) VIII, X and XI functionally differ from the other carbonic anhydrase (CA) enzymes. Structurally, they lack the zinc binding residues, which are important for enzyme activity of classical CAs. The distribution pattern of the CARPs in fetal brain implies their role in brain development. In the adult brain, CARPs are mainly expressed in the neuron bodies but only weaker reactivity has been found in the astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. Altered expression patterns of C...

Optogenetic noise-photostimulation on the brain increases somatosensory spike firing responses.

We examined whether the optogenetic noise-photostimulation (ONP) of the barrel cortex (BC) of anesthetized Thy1-ChR2-YFP transgenic mice increases the neuronal multiunit-activity response evoked by whisker mechanical stimulation (whisker-evoked MUA). In all transgenic mice, we found that the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of such whisker-evoked MUA signals exhibited an inverted U-like shape as a function of the ONP level. Numerical simulations of a ChR2-expressing neuron model qualitatively support our experim...

Feasibility of imaging evoked activity throughout the rat brain using electrical impedance tomography.

Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) is an emerging technique which has been used to image evoked activity during whisker displacement in the cortex of an anaesthetised rat with a spatiotemporal resolution of 200 μm and 2 ms. The aim of this work was to extend EIT to image not only from the cortex but also from deeper structures active in somatosensory processing, specifically the ventral posterolateral (VPL) nucleus of the thalamus. The direct response in the cortex and VPL following 2 Hz forepaw s...

1 mA cathodal tDCS shows excitatory effects in children and adolescents: Insights from TMS evoked N100 potential.

In children and adolescents, 1 mA transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) may cause "paradoxical" effects compared with adults: both 1 mA anodal and cathodal tDCS increase amplitude of the motor evoked potential (MEP) as revealed by a single pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the motor cortex. Here, EEG based evoked potentials induced by a single pulse TMS, particularly the N100 component as marker of motor cortex inhibition, were investigated in order to explain effects of tDCS on ...

Multiple pathways of reserve simultaneously present in cognitively normal older adults.

To examine neural correlates of intellectual activity underlying multiple pathways imparting reserve by testing that higher intellectual activity is associated with lower brain amyloid pathology, greater gray matter (GM) volume, and differential task-evoked brain activation levels as a function of amyloid positivity status among clinically intact older adults.

Late heartbeat-evoked potentials are associated with survival after cardiac arrest.

Cardiac arrest (CA) is a serious condition characterized by high mortality rates, even after initial successful resuscitation, mainly due to neurological damage. Whether brain-heart communication is associated with outcome after CA is unknown. Heartbeat-evoked brain potentials (HEPs) represent neurophysiological indicators of brain-heart communication. The aim of this study was to address the association between HEPs and survival after CA.

Stress up-regulates oxidative burst in juvenile Chinook salmon leukocytes.

When fish perceive stressful scenarios, their hypothalamus-pituitary-interrenal axis is activated resulting in the release of corticotropin releasing hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and finally cortisol. The physiologic stress response of fish has most often been linked to the reduced performance of the immune system, with a few exceptions where the immune system is activated. In this report, we tested the hypothesis that oxidative burst activity levels in juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus ...

Spontaneous activity forms a foundation for odor-evoked activation maps in the rat olfactory bulb.

Fluctuations in spontaneous activity have been observed by many neuroimaging techniques, but because these resting-state changes are not evoked by stimuli, it is difficult to determine how they relate to task-evoked activations. We conducted multi-modal neuroimaging scans of the rat olfactory bulb, both with and without odor, to examine interaction between spontaneous and evoked activities. Independent component analysis of spontaneous fluctuations revealed resting-state networks, and odor-evoked changes re...

The Effects of Sleep on the Neural Correlates of Pattern Separation.

Effective memory representations must be specific to prevent interference between episodes that may overlap in terms of place, time, or items present. Pattern separation, a computational process performed by the hippocampus, overcomes this interference by establishing non-overlapping memory representations. Although it is widely accepted that declarative memories are consolidated during sleep, the effects of sleep on pattern separation have yet to be elucidated. We used whole-brain, high-resolution function...

Changes in brain morphology and microstructure in relation to early brain activity in extremely preterm infants.

To investigate the relation of early brain activity with structural (growth of the cortex and cerebellum) and white matter microstructural brain development.

MULTIDIMENSIONAL BRAIN ACTIVITY DICTATED BY WINNER-TAKE-ALL MECHANISMS.

A novel demon-based architecture is introduced to elucidate brain functions such as pattern recognition during human perception and mental interpretation of visual scenes. Starting from the topological concepts of invariance and persistence, we introduce a Selfridge pandemonium variant of brain activity that takes into account a novel feature, namely, demons that recognize short straight-line segments, curved lines and scene shapes, such as shape interior, density and texture. Low-level representations of o...

Cortical associates of emotional reactivity and regulation in childhood stuttering.

This study sought to determine the cortical associates of emotional reactivity and emotion regulation (as indexed by the amplitude of evoked response potentials [ERP]) in young children who do and do not stutter during passive viewing of pleasant, unpleasant and neutral pictures.

Regional GABA Concentrations Modulate Inter-network Resting-state Functional Connectivity.

Coordinated activity within and differential activity between large-scale neuronal networks such as the default mode network (DMN) and the control network (CN) is a critical feature of brain organization. The CN usually exhibits activations in response to cognitive tasks while the DMN shows deactivations; in addition, activity between the two networks is anti-correlated at rest. To address this issue, we used functional MRI to measure whole-brain BOLD signal during resting-state and task-evoked conditions, ...


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