PubMed Journals Articles About "Pattern Stressor Evoked Brain Activity Predict Reactivity" RSS

00:21 EDT 22nd March 2018 | BioPortfolio

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Showing "Pattern stressor evoked brain activity predict reactivity" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 30,000+

A Brain Phenotype for Stressor-Evoked Blood Pressure Reactivity.

The cortisol reactivity threshold model: Direction of trait rumination and cortisol reactivity association varies with stressor severity.

Various internalizing risk factors predict, in separate studies, both augmented and reduced cortisol responding to lab-induced stress. Stressor severity appears key: We tested whether heightened trait-like internalizing risk (here, trait rumination) predicts heightened cortisol reactivity under modest objective stress, but conversely predicts reduced reactivity under more robust objective stress. Thus, we hypothesized that trait rumination would interact with a curvilinear (quadratic) function of stress sev...

Reading Minds: Brain-Decoding Scientists Move Closer to Discovering the Keys to Unlock the Brain.

When you see or think about an object, your brain engages in a unique pattern of activity tied specifically to that object. That's how you know a cat is a cat, and not a dog or a house or a cloud. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and other techniques, scientists are not only able to measure those activity patterns but are also deciphering what each pattern means. Essentially, they are beginning to read minds.

Impact of baseline COon Blood-Oxygenation-Level-Dependent MRI measurements of cerebrovascular reactivity and task-evoked signal activation.

Neurovascular coupling describes the cascade between neuronal activity and subsequent Blood-Oxygenation-Level-Dependent (BOLD) signal increase. Based on this premise, the correlation of this BOLD signal increase with a particular task, such as finger-tapping, is used to map neuronal activation. This signal increase may be dampened in brain areas exhibiting impaired cerebrovascular reactivity (BOLD-CVR), leading to false negative activation. Blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR...

Epidermal electrode technology for detecting ultrasonic perturbation of sensory brain activity.

We aim to demonstrate the in vivo capability of a wearable sensor technology to detect localized perturbations of sensory-evoked brain activity.

Pattern component modeling: A flexible approach for understanding the representational structure of brain activity patterns.

Representational models specify how complex patterns of neural activity relate to visual stimuli, motor actions, or abstract thoughts. Here we review pattern component modeling (PCM), a practical Bayesian approach for evaluating such models. Similar to encoding models, PCM evaluates the ability of models to predict novel brain activity patterns. In contrast to encoding models, however, the activity of individual voxels across conditions (activity profiles) are not directly fitted. Rather, PCM integrates ove...

Bessel-like functional distributions in brain average evoked potentials.

Average evoked potential data recorded as impulse responses of brains to electric shocks show Bessel-like functional distributions which we analyze in terms of couples of damped/amplified oscillators. This reproduces results obtained in terms of ordinary differential equations (Freeman K-sets) and offers the possibility of a direct connection with the dissipative model of brain in the quantum gauge field theory paradigm. We study the control mechanism by fine tuning the model parameters and the brain proper...

Frontoparietal Activity Interacts With Task-Evoked Changes in Functional Connectivity.

Flexible interactions between brain regions enable neural systems to adaptively transfer and process information. However, the neural substrates that regulate adaptive communications between brain regions are understudied. In this human fMRI study, we investigated this issue by tracking time-varying, task-evoked changes in functional connectivity between localized occipitotemporal regions while participants performed different tasks on the same visually presented stimuli. We found that functional connectivi...

Effects of Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior on Brain Response to High-Calorie Food Cues in Young Adults.

Physical activity (PA) promotes weight maintenance, potentially because of its beneficial effects on feeding behavior regulation via diminished food cue reactivity within brain reward regions. This study examined how levels of PA and sedentary behavior (SB) relate to brain responses to food cues.

Characterising the frequency response of impedance changes during evoked physiological activity in the rat brain.

<i>Objective</i>. Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) can image impedance changes associated with evoked physiological activity in the cerebral cortex using an array of epicortical electrodes. An impedance change is observed as the externally applied current, normally confined to the extracellular space is admitted into the conducting intracellular space during neuronal depolarisation. The response is largest at DC and decreases at higher frequencies due to capacitative transfer of current acr...

Noninvasive measurement of dynamic brain signals using light penetrating the brain.

Conventional techniques for the noninvasive measurement of brain activity involve critical limitations in spatial or temporal resolution. Here, we propose the method for noninvasive brain function measurement with high spatiotemporal resolution using optical signals. We verified that diffused near-infrared light penetrating through the upper jaw and into the skull, which we term as optoencephalography (OEG), leads to the detection of dynamic brain signals that vary concurrently with the electrophysiological...

Intraoperative Functional Ultrasound Imaging of Human Brain Activity.

The functional mapping of brain activity is essential to perform optimal glioma surgery and to minimize the risk of postoperative deficits. We introduce a new, portable neuroimaging modality of the human brain based on functional ultrasound (fUS) for deep functional cortical mapping. Using plane-wave transmissions at an ultrafast frame rate (1 kHz), fUS is performed during surgery to measure transient changes in cerebral blood volume with a high spatiotemporal resolution (250 µm, 1 ms). fUS identifies,...

Electrophysiological Measurement of Noxious-evoked Brain Activity in Neonates Using a Flat-tip Probe Coupled to Electroencephalography.

Pain is an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience. In non-verbal patients, it is very difficult to measure pain, even with pain assessment tools. Those tools are subjective or determine secondary physiological indicators which also have certain limitations particularly when exploring the effectiveness of analgesia. As cortical processing is essential for pain perception, brain activity measures may provide a useful approach to assess pain in infants. Here we present a method to assess nociception with ...

Expanding the Armory: Predicting and Tuning Covalent Warhead Reactivity.

Targeted covalent inhibition is an established approach for increasing the potency and selectivity of potential drug candidates, as well as identifying potent and selective tool compounds for target validation studies. It is evident that identification of reversible recognition elements is essential for selective covalent inhibition, but this must also be achieved with the appropriate level of inherent reactivity of the reactive functionality (or 'warhead'). Structural changes that increase or decrease warh...

Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Adolescents with Elevated Externalizing Symptoms Show Heightened Emotion Reactivity to Daily Stress: An Experience Sampling Study.

Numerous theories assert that youth with externalizing symptomatology experience intensified emotion reactivity to stressful events; yet scant empirical research has assessed this notion. Using in-vivo data collected via experience sampling methodology, we assessed whether externalizing symptoms conditioned adolescents' emotion reactivity to daily stressors (i.e. change in emotion pre-post stressor) among 206 socioeconomically disadvantaged adolescents. We also assessed whether higher externalizing symptomo...

Divergent effects of oxytocin on (para-)limbic reactivity to emotional and neutral scenes in females with and without borderline personality disorder.

Borderline personality disorder (BPD) patients' hypersensitivity for emotionally relevant stimuli has been suggested be due to abnormal activity and connectivity in (para-)limbic and prefrontal brain regions during stimulus processing. The neuropeptide oxytocin has been shown to modulate activity and functional connectivity in these brain regions, thereby optimizing the processing of emotional and neutral stimuli. To investigate whether oxytocin would be capable of attenuating BPD patients' hypersensitivity...

Optogenetic noise-photostimulation on the brain increases somatosensory spike firing responses.

We examined whether the optogenetic noise-photostimulation (ONP) of the barrel cortex (BC) of anesthetized Thy1-ChR2-YFP transgenic mice increases the neuronal multiunit-activity response evoked by whisker mechanical stimulation (whisker-evoked MUA). In all transgenic mice, we found that the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of such whisker-evoked MUA signals exhibited an inverted U-like shape as a function of the ONP level. Numerical simulations of a ChR2-expressing neuron model qualitatively support our experim...

Diffuse gliomas exhibit whole brain impaired cerebrovascular reactivity.

Cerebral diffuse gliomas exhibit perilesional impaired cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR), yet the degree of impairment as well as its full spatial extent in the brain remains unknown. With quantitative fMRI, we studied twelve subjects with untreated brain diffuse glioma and twelve healthy controls to assess CVR impairment and determine its distribution throughout the brain.

Neural correlates of tobacco cue reactivity predict duration to lapse and continuous abstinence in smoking cessation treatment.

It has been hypothesized that neural reactivity to drug cues in certain limbic/paralimbic regions of the brain is an indicator of addiction severity and a marker for likelihood of success in treatment. To address this question, in the current study, 32 participants (44 percent female) completed a functional magnetic resonance imaging cigarette cue exposure paradigm 2 hours after smoking, and then enrolled in a 9-week smoking cessation treatment program. Neural activation to smoking cues was measured in fiv...

Different patterns of neuronal activity trigger distinct responses of oligodendrocyte precursor cells in the corpus callosum.

In the developing and adult brain, oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) are influenced by neuronal activity: they are involved in synaptic signaling with neurons, and their proliferation and differentiation into myelinating glia can be altered by transient changes in neuronal firing. An important question that has been unanswered is whether OPCs can discriminate different patterns of neuronal activity and respond to them in a distinct way. Here, we demonstrate in brain slices that the pattern of neuronal ...

Multiple pathways of reserve simultaneously present in cognitively normal older adults.

To examine neural correlates of intellectual activity underlying multiple pathways imparting reserve by testing that higher intellectual activity is associated with lower brain amyloid pathology, greater gray matter (GM) volume, and differential task-evoked brain activation levels as a function of amyloid positivity status among clinically intact older adults.

Cortisol and salivary alpha-amylase trajectories following a group social-evaluative stressor with adolescents.

Intraindividual variability in stress responsivity and the interrelationship of multiple neuroendocrine systems make a multisystem analytic approach to examining the human stress response challenging. The present study makes use of an efficient social-evaluative stress paradigm - the Group Public Speaking Task for Adolescents (GPST-A) - to examine the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA)-axis and Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) reactivity profiles of 54 adolescents with salivary cortisol and salivary ...

Amygdala volume and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis reactivity to social stress.

The amygdala plays a central role in emotional processing and has an activating influence on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Structural changes in the amygdala have been associated with early adversity and, in principle, may contribute to the later emergence of emotional pathologies by influencing the way that the brain responds to stress provocation. The present study examined the relationship between amygdala volumes and cortisol secretion in response to a social stressor among young adults...

Late heartbeat-evoked potentials are associated with survival after cardiac arrest.

Cardiac arrest (CA) is a serious condition characterized by high mortality rates, even after initial successful resuscitation, mainly due to neurological damage. Whether brain-heart communication is associated with outcome after CA is unknown. Heartbeat-evoked brain potentials (HEPs) represent neurophysiological indicators of brain-heart communication. The aim of this study was to address the association between HEPs and survival after CA.

Psychophysiology of Proactive and Reactive Relational Aggression.

This study investigated the joint effects of parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous system reactivity to social and non-social stressors on proactive (i.e., goal-directed, unemotional) and reactive (i.e., emotional, impulsive) functions of relational aggression. Two hundred and forty-seven (Mage=18.77years) participants completed a series of stressor tasks while their sympathetic arousal (i.e., skin conductance) and parasympathetic arousal (i.e., respiratory sinus arrhythmia) were assessed. Participants al...

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