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HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a daily pill that prevents HIV acquisition. In March 2018, New Zealand became one of the first countries in the world to publicly fund PrEP for individuals at high risk. PrEP promises significantly improved HIV control but is unfamiliar to most health practitioners here, compromising its potential. In this article we review the rationale for PrEP and identify barriers to rapid implementation. The latter include: consumer and health practitioner awareness; acceptability...
PrEP uptake has lagged among US women. PrEP stigma is a recognized barrier to uptake among MSM but remains largely unexplored among women. This study examined the pervasiveness of PrEP stigma among US women and its implications for uptake. Setting/Methods: In a 2017 online survey of Planned Parenthood patients drawn from the three cities with the highest numbers of new HIV infections in Connecticut, 597 heterosexually-active, HIV-negative, PrEP-inexperienced women reported background characteristics, two di...
HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has likely contributed to large decreases in HIV incidence among men who have sex with men (MSM) in several major cities. Berlin has seen a smaller decline, and affordable PrEP has been accessible through formal channels in Germany only since autumn 2017. We aimed to investigate knowledge and use of PrEP among MSM in Berlin, and factors predictive of a desire to use PrEP and history of PrEP use.
Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is an effective strategy to prevent HIV. However, low uptake of daily oral PrEP since Food and Drug Administration approval and low medication adherence among users have stimulated the investigation of other modalities for delivery, such as injectable PrEP and on-demand PrEP. The objective of this study was to determine the demographic and behavioral predictors of willingness to try alternative PrEP delivery mechanisms among young men who have sex with men (YMSM) who stated t...
To establish whether undertaking cross-sector pharmacy apprenticeship training to become a pharmacy assistant equally split across the two main pharmacy sectors improves training experience and cross-sector understanding.
Currently, HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is not covered by health insurance in the Netherlands. We examined time trends in use of PrEP, characteristics of PrEP users, PrEP eligibility and intention to use PrEP among HIV-negative men who have sex with men (MSM) participating in the Amsterdam Cohort Studies (ACS).
Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with antiretroviral medication is an effective, evidence-based option for HIV prevention. In England, issues of cost-effectiveness and of responsibility for commissioning prevention services have so far led National Health Service (NHS) England to decide not to commission PrEP. Given the significant lag between the awareness of PrEP efficacy and the opportunity to obtain PrEP through traditional health care routes, many gay and other men who have sex with men (MSM) have turne...
Daily and event-driven Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) are efficacious in reducing HIV transmission among men who have sex with men (MSM). We analysed baseline data from a PrEP demonstration project 'Be-PrEP-ared' in Antwerp, Belgium to understand preferences for daily or event-driven PrEP among MSM at high risk for HIV, and factors influencing their initial choice.
(i) To provide a preliminary indication of the performance of pharmacy undergraduate students and pre-registration pharmacy trainees in the Prescribing Safety Assessment (PSA). (ii) To determine the feasibility of administering and delivering the PSA in schools of pharmacy. (iii) To examine the potential relevance of the PSA and associated training materials to pharmacy education. (iv) To assess the attitudes of the cohort towards the PSA and their readiness to prescribe.
The United States Public Health Service released clinical practice guidelines for daily oral preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in May 2014. Local health departments (LHDs) are expected to play a critical role in PrEP implementation. We surveyed LHDs to assess awareness of and interest in supporting PrEP implementation, what roles they were taking, or believed they should take, in supporting PrEP, and what resources would be required to do so.
Qualitative studies suggest that social relationships play an important role in HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) use, but there have been few quantitative assessments of the role of social relationships in PrEP uptake or adherence. We examined the association between disclosure of study participation or LGBT identity and PrEP use in the 1603 HIV-negative participants enrolled in the iPrEx OLE study. We also evaluated the association between LGBT social group involvement and PrEP use. Study participation ...
Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) reduces risk of HIV infection for many gay and bisexual men (GBM); however, bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STIs) associated with decreasing condom use among users is of concern. Center for Disease Control and Prevention's guidelines for PrEP use recommend bacterial STI screening every six months. We sought to investigate comprehensive PrEP care, defined as: 1) discussion of sexual behavior, 2) blood sample, 3) urine sample, 4) rectal sample (rectal swab), and 5) t...
Programmatic approaches for delivering PrEP to pregnant and postpartum women in settings with high HIV burden are undefined. The PrEP Implementation for Young Women and Adolescents (PrIYA) Program developed approaches for delivering PrEP in maternal child health (MCH) clinics.
Timely pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) initiation is critical in at-risk populations given that HIV acquisition risk persists during delays. Time to treatment initiation, a key metric in HIV care, has not been explored among PrEP users. Interventions that reduce time to PrEP initiation could prevent HIV infections.
HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is being adopted by members of key populations, such as gay and bisexual men (GBM). Since adherence to a daily PrEP regimen ensures a maximum protection, it is critical to understand GBM's behavioral responses to having missed PrEP doses. We report on qualitative interviews with GBM taking PrEP. We identified three behavioral responses: (1) 59% continued with their next scheduled dose; (2) 49% described "making up" for a missed dose by taking medication as soon as possibl...
The HIV epidemic among Black men who have sex with men (BMSM) demands urgent public health attention. Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) is a highly efficacious option for preventing HIV, but characteristics of PrEP use among community samples of BMSM are not well-understood.
Phase III trials of long-acting injectable (LAI) PrEP, currently underway, have great potential for expanding the menu of HIV prevention options. Imagining a future in which multiple PrEP modalities are available to potential users of biomedical HIV prevention, we investigated which factors might help direct a patient-physician shared-decision making process to optimize the choice of biomedical HIV prevention method.
The Amsterdam PrEP project is a prospective, open-label demonstration study at a large sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinic. We examined the uptake of PrEP; the baseline characteristics of men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender persons initiating PrEP; their choices of daily versus event-driven PrEP and the determinants of these choices.
Since the 2012 FDA approval of HIV Pre-exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) as a method to prevent HIV, its uptake among gay and bisexual men has been met with conflict. Drawing on discussions of PrEP from focus groups with gay and bisexual men in New York City (N = 5 groups, n = 32 participants), we sought to make meaning of the moral debate surrounding the implementation of biomedical HIV prevention medications. Grounded in the constructionist perspective on social problems, this case study focuses on the comp...
This study examined HIV testing and use, familiarity, and attitudes toward pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) among HIV-negative gay and bisexual men in the United States. A national probability sample (N = 470) of three age cohorts (18-25, 34-41, and 52-59 years) completed a survey between March, 2016 and March, 2017. Most men did not meet CDC recommendations for HIV testing, and 25.2% of men in the younger cohort had never tested. Only 4.1% used PrEP across cohorts. Visiting an LGBT clinic and searching for ...
Low adherence can undermine the efficacy of daily oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). Mental health conditions, particularly depression, could be associated with low PrEP adherence, especially for women.
Daily emtricitabine/tenofovor is effective at preventing HIV acquisition and is approved for HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). Blacks in the United States have a disproportionately high rate of HIV, and uptake of PrEP has been very low in this population. We conducted a pilot study in a high-prevalence city to test whether a culturally-tailored counseling center for young Black men who have sex with men (BMSM) positively impacted their access and uptake of PrEP. 50 young BMSM were randomized to either a ...
Oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) prevents HIV infection in men who have sex with men (MSM); however, adherence is an ongoing concern. Long-acting injectable PrEP is being tested in phase 3 trials and could address challenges associated with adherence. We examined the potential effectiveness of long-acting injectable PrEP compared with oral PrEP in MSM.
Despite the promise of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), PrEP remains underutilized, often due to clinician factors. Academic or public health detailing is a process by which university and/or government groups employ the marketing practices of pharmaceutical companies to improve clinical practice. We describe the novel application of detailing to increase PrEP prescribing and related care in New York City and New England. Detailing can play a crucial role in PrEP implementation.
Daily PrEP is highly effective at preventing HIV-1 acquisition, but risks of long-term tenofovir disoproxil fumarate plus emtricitabine (TDF-FTC) include renal decline and bone mineral density decrease in addition to initial gastrointestinal side effects. We investigated the impact of TDF-FTC on the enteric microbiome using rectal swabs collected from healthy MSM before PrEP initiation and after 48 to 72 weeks of adherent PrEP use. The V4 region of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing showed that Streptoc...