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Among all the discoveries of Hahnemann, potentisation was the most important, though controversial. The curative effect of individualised homeopathic potencies is empirical but inexplicable by the conventional principles of science. This paradox is a highly contentious topic of debate between rationalists and homeopaths. Recent discoveries relating to the nano-particulate nature of homeopathic ultra-high potencies and their potential effect on individual gene expression give new insights into this complex i...
Asthma is a common complex disease of the airways. Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of asthma have identified many risk alleles and loci that have been replicated in worldwide populations. Although the risk alleles identified by GWAS have small effects and explain only a small portion of prevalence, the discovery of asthma loci can provide an understanding of its genetic architecture and the molecular pathways involved in disease pathogenesis. These discoveries can translate into advances in clinical...
Key discoveries in aging research have been made possible with the use of model organisms. Caenorhabditis elegans is a short-lived nematode that has become a well-established system to study aging. The practicality and powerful genetic manipulations associated with this metazoan have revolutionized our ability to understand how organisms age. 25 years after the publication of the discovery of the daf-2 gene as a genetic modifier of lifespan, C. elegans remains as relevant as ever in the quest to understand ...
Background The process of technology validation and transfer of new molecular diagnostic tests towards the clinic faces challenges and needs to be improved. There is no empirical measure of the chronology and pace of technology transfer of molecular genetic discoveries. Methods We studied these for 29 molecular genetic test discoveries in order to (1) provide estimates of the timeframe between discovery of a clinical application and complete clinical implementation, and (2) compare the trajectories between ...
Membranous nephropathy (MN) is the most common cause of a nephrotic syndrome in Caucasian adults. The identification of target antigens in MN in the last decade has had a major impact on the clinical approach to these patients. Areas covered: Since the discoveries in animal models in the 1980s that circulating autoantibodies induce disease upon in situ binding to glomerular podocytes, many attempts have been undertaken to define the human antigens responsible for disease induction. Only in 2009 was Phosphol...
Indole-containing compounds demonstrate an array of biological activities relevant to numerous human diseases. The biological activities of diverse indole-based agents are driven by molecular interactions between indole agent and critical therapeutic target. The chemical inventory of medicinally useful or promising indole compounds spans the entire structural spectrum, from simple synthetic indoles to highly complex indole alkaloids. In an analogous fashion, the chemistry behind the indole heterocycle is un...
Chronic pruritus remains a difficult condition to treat with many non-specific therapeutic options. Recent scientific discoveries have elucidated the physiology associated with pruritus. Combined with clinical and experimental trials with immune-modulatory agents, chronic pruritus now has novel treatment options with known mechanisms of action. This review goes over recent scientific progress in understanding the molecular mechanisms governing pruritus, the cross-talk between the immune and nervous systems ...
Cell lines are important tools for biological and preclinical investigation, and establishing their relationship to genomic alterations in tumors could accelerate functional and therapeutic discoveries. We conducted integrated analyses of genomic and transcriptomic profiles of 15 human papillomavirus (HPV)-negative and 11 HPV-positive head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) lines to compare with 279 tumors from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). We identified recurrent amplifications on chromosomes 3q22-...
Science, in the popular imagination, is about finding answers to questions. Scientists make discoveries, develop theories, and deliver those discoveries and theories to audiences with an interest in the truth as backed up by science. Well-designed data visualization (dataviz), by contrast, can generate and address not only new questions but new kinds of questions. It has the particular quality of allowing its viewers, users and makers the ability to generate new inquiries, and to put them in a better place ...
The increasing throughput and sharing of proteomics mass spectrometry data have now yielded over one-third of a million public mass spectrometry runs. However, these discoveries are not continuously aggregated in an open and error-controlled manner, which limits their utility. To facilitate the reusability of these data, we built the MassIVE Knowledge Base (MassIVE-KB), a community-wide, continuously updating knowledge base that aggregates proteomics mass spectrometry discoveries into an open reusable forma...
The aim of this narrative review is to summarize important findings from biochemical marker studies relevant to osteoarthritis (OA) in the context of new discoveries and clinical and scientific need.
The goal of this review is to provide updates on the causes, manifestations and therapies IFALD in adults with an emphasis on recent discoveries on pathways of pathogenesis and interventions to reduce the incidence of IFALD.
This review summarizes the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM), with a focus on recent discoveries of clinical relevance.
Though sphingolipids are ubiquitously present in eukaryotic cells, but until the last decade, they were merely considered as a structural component of the plasma membrane with limited function. However, over the last decade, numerous functions have been ascribed to sphingolipids after the seminal discoveries on the bioactivities of several sphingolipids.
The mentioning of gene names in the body of the scientific literature 1901-2017 and their fractional counting was used as a proxy to assess the level of biological function discovery. We define a literature score of one as full publication equivalent (FPE), the amount of literature necessary to achieve one publication solely dedicated to a gene. We find that less than 5000 human genes have each at least 100 FPEs in the available literature corpus. This group of elite genes (4817 protein-coding genes, 119 no...
Erythromelalgia is a condition characterized by episodic pain, erythema and temperature of the extremities, which is relieved by cooling and aggravated by warming. It is useful to review this topic in light of recent discoveries of the genetic mutations that now define primary erythromelalgia, as opposed to secondary erythromelalgia, which is often associated with underlying medical disorders.
Genetic discoveries about human brain development and neuropsychiatric syndromes have changed the landscape of psychiatric research. The genotyping of hundreds of thousands of individuals has identified many hundreds of genomic regions that are associated with psychiatric diagnoses, and progress is being made in uncovering the specific genes that underlie these statistical associations, although most are still undetermined. While there are great expectations that such genetic discoveries will lead to novel ...
Overcoming the widening "Valley of Death" between stem cell laboratory discoveries and clinical translation is imperative to develop the next generation of effective therapies. We asked 9 clinical experts to share their perspectives on how to bridge this gap and increase the clinical impact of basic research.
The ability of animals to replace injured body parts has been a subject of fascination for centuries. The emerging importance of regenerative medicine has reinvigorated investigations of innate tissue regeneration, and the development of powerful genetic tools has fueled discoveries into how tissue regeneration occurs. Here, we present an overview of the armamentarium employed to probe regeneration in vertebrates, highlighting areas where further methodology advancement will deepen mechanistic findings.
The last half century of paleornithological research has transformed the way that biologists perceive the evolutionary history of birds. This transformation has been driven, since 1969, by a series of exciting fossil discoveries combined with intense scientific debate over how best to interpret these discoveries. Ideally, as evidence accrues and results accumulate, interpretive scientific agreement forms. But this has not entirely happened in the debate over avian origins: the accumulation of scientific evi...
Building on Canada's strong traditions in neuroscience and ethics, neuroethics provides a backbone for the evolving Canadian Brain Research Strategy (CBRS) that, from the outset, incorporates ethically responsible discoveries in brain science into clinical, societal, educational, and commercial innovation.
Due to historically low uptake of genetic testing, the mutational spectrum of Asians with Hereditary Breast Cancer (HBC) is not well understood. This study sought to understand the incidence and spectrum of germline mutations in Asian patients with suspected HBC in a clinic setting.