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Point-of-care ultrasound is emerging as an important adjunct to the clinical examination. Ultrasonography has long been seen as a modality for experts but this is changing and it is hoped that, with appropriate training, point-of-care ultrasound will become a modern-day diagnostic necessity.
We present 2 cases of patients with abdominal trauma who were found to have hydronephrosis on point-of-care ultrasound secondary to previously undiagnosed ureteropelvic junction obstructions. We review the ultrasound findings, technique, and relevant literature regarding renal point-of-care ultrasound and ureteropelvic junction obstruction.
Transabdominal point-of-care ultrasound may be a helpful tool during the evaluation of children with suspected vaginal foreign bodies. We discuss the case of an 11-year-old girl presenting after having placed a pen into her vagina. The patient attempted to remove the pen, but there was concern the cap may have been retained in the vagina. Point-of-care ultrasound findings confirmed a retained pen cap that was subsequently removed by pediatric surgery. We discuss the role of transabdominal point-of-care ultr...
We report a case of a patient presenting with abdominal pain after cardiac surgery who was noted on point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) to have pericardial and pleural effusion, in addition to ascites. The most notable findings were pleural and pericardial effusions, which combined with symptomatology met criteria for postpericardiotomy syndrome. Point-of-care ultrasound expedited the diagnosis of a pericardial effusion with impending tamponade and transfer for pericardiocentesis and placement of pericardial d...
The effect of point-of-care ultrasound (US) training on clinical reasoning in undergraduate medical education remains largely unknown, with concerns arising about possible confusion among learners when such clinical tools are introduced too early. We studied the effect of a urology point-of-care US module on the performance of questions designed to assess clinical reasoning in urinary tract obstruction and voiding dysfunction.
The aims of the study were to assess the overall reduction of pain in patients undergoing ultrasound-guided shoulder injections and to characterize the preinjection point-of-care ultrasound findings and use of clinical services postinjection including the use of magnetic resonance imaging and surgeries.
Acute lower extremity ischemia from septic emboli is a surgical emergency. Timely diagnosis and management are critical to improve patient outcome. However, traditional diagnostic modalities such as intraoperative angiogram are time-consuming, require special equipment and personnel, and introduce contrast exposure for critically ill patients. There are limited reports of utilization of point-of-care ultrasound to detect peripheral septic emboli. We present a case where femoral occlusive septic emboli were ...
Management of the critically ill patient requires rapid assessment and differentiation. Point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) improves diagnostic accuracy and guides resuscitation. This study sought to describe the use of critical care related POCUS amongst different specialties.
Point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) detects extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) in HIV-infected adults but has not been evaluated in children despite their higher risk of EPTB. This study's aims were to investigate feasibility of POCUS for EPTB in children, frequency of POCUS findings suggestive of EPTB, and time to sonographic resolution of findings with treatment.
The first presentation of congenital heart disease can be a diagnostic challenge in the emergency department. We report on 2 cases where point-of-care ultrasound identified gross cardiac abnormalities in 2 children and expedited disposition and downstream care.
The presentation of a pediatric patient to the emergency department for a malfunctioning or dislodged gastrostomy tube (G-tube) is not uncommon. As such, these tubes are often replaced at the bedside. Improper placement can result in a number of complications, including perforation, fistula tract formation, peritonitis, and sepsis. The current criterion standard method to confirm proper G-tube placement is contrast-enhanced radiography. However, point-of-care ultrasound may be an alternative method to guide...
We present a case of an adolescent patient with multiple mandibular fractures diagnosed by point-of-care ultrasound in the pediatric emergency department. Sonographic findings consistent with fracture were identified in our patient, and early consultation expedited interdepartmental coordination and disposition. The role of ultrasound in identifying various traumatic orthopedic and maxillofacial injuries is discussed.
The aim of this study was to evaluate whether point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) for intussusception screening streamlines the workflow of clinically nonspecific intussusception (CNI), an intussusception presenting with only 1 manifestation of the classic triad, and/or vomiting.
Point-of-care ocular ultrasound can provide the clinician with more information about potential intraorbital and extraocular pathology, especially in cases when direct visualization of the eye is limited. This case report describes the findings in a pediatric patient who presented with a 1-month history of eye injection and worsening blurry vision. After point-of-care ultrasound demonstrated abnormal debris in the posterior vitreous cavity, subsequent evaluation revealed a diagnosis of pars planitis.
The implementation of motion management techniques in radiation therapy can aid in mitigating uncertainties and reducing margins. For motion management to be effective, it is necessary to track key structures both accurately and at a real-time speed. Therefore, the focus of this work was to develop a 2D algorithm for the real-time tracking of ultrasound features to aid in radiation therapy motion management.
The diagnostic capability, efficiency and versatility of point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) have enabled its use in paediatric emergency medicine (PEM) and paediatric critical care (PICU). This review highlights the current applications of POCUS for the critically ill child across PEM and PICU to identify areas of progress and standardized practice and to elucidate areas for future research.
Pediatric emergency physicians at Kaplan Medical Center regularly reduce forearm fractures under point-of-care ultrasound guidance in the pediatric emergency department. We present 3 children who arrived at our department with shortened, angulated forearm fractures within the span of a single week. We report on the successful reduction of these fractures under point-of-care ultrasound and on the maintenance of anatomic alignment at follow-up 1 week postreduction.
Intra-abdominal hypertension is a common complication in critically ill patients. Recently the Abdominal Compartment Society (WSACS) developed a medical management algorithm with a stepwise approach according to the evolution of the intra-abdominal pressure and aiming to keep IAP ≤ 15 mm Hg. With the increased use of ultrasound as a bedside modality in both emergency and critical care patients, we hypothesized that ultrasound could be used as an adjuvant point-of-care tool during IAH management. This may ...
About 92.1 million Americans suffer from at least one type of cardiovascular disease. Worldwide, cardiovascular diseases are the number one cause of death (about 31% of all global deaths). Recent technological advancements in cardiac ultrasound imaging are expected to aid in the clinical diagnosis of many cardiovascular diseases. This article provides an overview of such recent technological advancements, specifically focusing on tissue Doppler imaging, strain imaging, contrast echocardiography, 3D echocard...
Point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) has been gaining greater traction in recent years as a way to quickly (and cost-effectively) assess for conditions including systolic dysfunction, pleural effusion, abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA), and deep vein thrombosis (DVT). It involves limited and specific ultrasound protocols performed at the bedside by the health care provider who is trying to answer a specific question and, thus, help guide treatment of the patient. In this article, we will review the evidence for ...
Translation of photoacoustic imaging into the clinic is a major challenge. Handheld real-time clinical photoacoustic imaging systems are very rare. Here, we report a combined photoacoustic and clinical ultrasound imaging system by integrating an ultrasound probe with light delivery for small animal imaging. We demonstrate this by showing sentinel lymph node imaging in small animals along with minimally invasive real-time needle guidance. A clinical ultrasound platform with access to raw channel data allows ...
With the continuous progress in active debris-removal technology, scientists are increasingly concerned about the concept of space-net capturing system. The space-net capturing system is a long-range-launch flexible capture system, which has great potential to capture non-cooperative targets such as inactive satellites and upper stages. In this work, the launch scheme is studied by experiment and simulation, including two-step ejection and multi-point-traction analyses. The numerical model of the tether/net...
Ultrasound has become readily available in the perioperative area. In this review, we aim to bring forth some uses of ultrasound beyond that in regional anesthesia.
Pediatric emergency medicine physicians may be able to use point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) as a tool to evaluate abdominal wall masses. We present a case of a 2-month-old infant with a lower abdominal mass identified as a hernia sac by POCUS. It was initially thought to represent a Spigelian-type abdominal wall hernia but subsequently determined to be an unusual presentation of an inguinal hernia with testicular entrapment. We review each of these diagnoses in addition to relevant POCUS findings.