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PubMed Journals Articles About "Polygenic Patterns Adaptive Introgression Modern Humans Mainly Shaped" RSS

01:02 EDT 1st April 2020 | BioPortfolio

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Showing "Polygenic patterns adaptive introgression modern humans mainly shaped" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 12,000+

Polygenic patterns of adaptive introgression in modern humans are mainly shaped by response to pathogens.

Anatomically modern humans carry many introgressed variants from other hominins in their genomes. Some of them affect their phenotype and can thus be negatively or positively selected. Several individual genes have been proposed to be the subject of adaptive introgression, but the possibility of polygenic adaptive introgression has not been extensively investigated yet. In this study, we analyze archaic introgression maps with refined functional enrichment methods to find signals of polygenic adaptation of ...


Divergence-based introgression polarization.

Introgressive hybridization results in the transfer of genetic material between species, often with fitness implications for the recipient species. The development of statistical methods for detecting the signatures of historical introgression in whole-genome data has been a major area of focus. While existing techniques are able to identify the taxa that exchanged genes during introgression using a four-taxon system, most methods do not explicitly distinguish which taxon served as donor and which as recipi...

Selective sweeps on novel and introgressed variation shape mimicry loci in a butterfly adaptive radiation.

Natural selection leaves distinct signatures in the genome that can reveal the targets and history of adaptive evolution. By analysing high-coverage genome sequence data from 4 major colour pattern loci sampled from nearly 600 individuals in 53 populations, we show pervasive selection on wing patterns in the Heliconius adaptive radiation. The strongest signatures correspond to loci with the greatest phenotypic effects, consistent with visual selection by predators, and are found in colour patterns with geog...


The study of the lower limb entheses in the Neanderthal sample from El Sidrón (Asturias, Spain): How much musculoskeletal variability did Neanderthals accumulate?

Entheses have rarely been systematically studied in the field of human evolution. However, the investigation of their morphological variability (e.g., robusticity) could provide new insight into their evolutionary significance in the European Neanderthal populations. The aim of this work is to study the entheses and joint features of the lower limbs of El Sidrón Neanderthals (Spain; 49 ka), using standardized scoring methods developed on modern samples. Paleobiology, growth, and development of both juvenil...

Massive introgression of MHC genes in newt hybrid zones.

Variation in the vertebrate major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes is crucial for fighting pathogen assault. Because new alleles confer a selective advantage, MHC should readily introgress between species, even under limited hybridization. Using replicated transects through two hybrid zones between strongly reproductively isolated European newts, Lissotriton montandoni and L. vulgaris, we demonstrated recent and ongoing MHC class I and II introgression in the Carpathian region. The extent of introgres...

Inbreeding, Allee effects and stochasticity might be sufficient to account for Neanderthal extinction.

The replacement of Neanderthals by Anatomically Modern Humans has typically been attributed to environmental pressure or a superiority of modern humans with respect to competition for resources. Here we present two independent models that suggest that no such heatedly debated factors might be needed to account for the demise of Neanderthals. Starting from the observation that Neanderthal populations already were small before the arrival of modern humans, the models implement three factors that conservation ...

Evolutionary selection and morphological integration in the vertebral column of modern humans.

The main objective is to quantify integration, modularity, and response to selection in the presacral vertebral column of modern humans.

Identifying and Interpreting Apparent Neanderthal Ancestry in African Individuals.

Admixture has played a prominent role in shaping patterns of human genomic variation, including gene flow with now-extinct hominins like Neanderthals and Denisovans. Here, we describe a novel probabilistic method called IBDmix to identify introgressed hominin sequences, which, unlike existing approaches, does not use a modern reference population. We applied IBDmix to 2,504 individuals from geographically diverse populations to identify and analyze Neanderthal sequences segregating in modern humans. Strikin...

Symbiosis genes show a unique pattern of introgression and selection within a species complex.

Rhizobia supply legumes with fixed nitrogen using a set of symbiosis genes. These can cross rhizobium species boundaries, but it is unclear how many other genes show similar mobility. Here, we investigate inter-species introgression using assembly of 196 sv. genomes. The 196 strains constituted a five-species complex, and we calculated introgression scores based on gene-tree traversal to identify 171 genes that frequently cross species boundaries. Rather than relying on the gene order of a single referen...

Polygenic risk for Alzheimer's disease shapes hippocampal scene-selectivity.

Preclinical models of Alzheimer's disease (AD) suggest APOE modulates brain function in structures vulnerable to AD pathophysiology. However, genome-wide association studies now demonstrate that AD risk is shaped by a broader polygenic architecture, estimated via polygenic risk scoring (AD-PRS). Despite this breakthrough, the effect of AD-PRS on brain function in young individuals remains unknown. In a large sample (N = 608) of young, asymptomatic individuals, we measure the impact of both (i) APOE and ...

A Bayesian implementation of the multispecies coalescent model with introgression for phylogenomic analysis.

Recent analyses suggest that cross-species gene flow or introgression is common in nature, especially during species divergences. Genomic sequence data can be used to infer introgression events and to estimate the timing and intensity of introgression, providing an important means to advance our understanding of the role of gene flow in speciation. Here we implement the multispecies-coalescent-with-introgression (MSci) model, an extension of the multispecies-coalescent (MSC) model to incorporate introgressi...

Anatomical variations of maxillary lateral incisors: A comparative analysis of archaeological and modern populations from the Yucatan peninsula.

The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of anatomical variants of maxillary lateral incisors in archaeological and modern populations from the Maya region. Both populations were derived from the state of Yucatan, Mexico. The archaeological sample consisted of human remains representing 122 individuals from the ancient Maya archaeological site of Xcambo (AD 250-700). The modern sample consisted of 475 dental models from the municipality of Tahdziú, Yucatan. The anatomical variants evaluated incl...

Training-Free Bayesian Self-Adaptive Classification for sEMG Pattern Recognition Including Motion Transition.

A direct, ready-to-use surface electromyogram (sEMG) pattern classification algorithm that does not require prerequisite training, regardless of the user, is proposed herein. In addition to data collection, conventional supervised learning approaches for sEMG require labeling and segmenting the data and additional time for the learning algorithm. Consequently, these approaches cannot cope well with sEMG patterns during motion transitions of various movement speeds. The proposed unsupervised and self-adaptiv...

Lessons from radiochemotherapy and modern image-guided adaptive brachytherapy followed by hysterectomy.

To analyze the clinical outcomes and the safety of radiochemotherapy (RCT) and image-guided adaptive brachytherapy (IGABT) and to evaluate the impact of hysterectomy (HT) as completion of treatment for cervical cancer.

Design optimization of transducer arrays for uniform distribution of guided wave energy in arbitrarily shaped domains.

The use of an array of transducers to excite guided Lamb waves, within a plate or any complex structure, usually leads to a variation in the energy on the propagation direction. In this study, an optimization model is proposed to design an array of transducers to provide uniform energy distribution in a domain of an arbitrary shape. The model is based on finding the optimal placements of the transducers and the optimal time delay for excitation by using a genetic algorithm. The efficiency of the model was t...

Glutamate receptors in domestication and modern human evolution.

There has been a recent resurgence of interest in the hypothesis that anatomically modern humans and domesticated species have followed convergent evolutionary paths. Here, we review results from domestication and modern-human evolutionary studies in order to evaluate evidence for shared changes to neurotransmission across these species. We compare genomic and, where available, brain-expression differences across 488 neurotransmitter receptor genes in 14 domesticated species and modern humans relative to th...

Spatial variations and socioeconomic determinants of modern contraceptive use in Ghana: A Bayesian multilevel analysis.

The literature on spatial patterns and contextual factors affecting modern contraceptive use is not well-documented in Ghana. This study describes the spatial variations and estimates the socioeconomic determinants of modern contraception among women in reproductive age in Ghana. Using data from the 2014 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey, both global and local Moran's I test were performed to show spatial autocorrelation and Bayesian multilevel models estimated to determine socioeconomic factors affecting...

Evolutionary Physiology and Genomics in the Highly Adaptable Killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus).

By investigating evolutionary adaptations that change physiological functions, we can enhance our understanding of how organisms work, the importance of physiological traits, and the genes that influence these traits. This approach of investigating the evolution of physiological adaptation has been used with the teleost fish Fundulus heteroclitus and has produced insights into (i) how protein polymorphisms enhance swimming and development; (ii) the role of equilibrium enzymes in modulating metabolic flux; (...

Humans Use Similar Posture Sequences in a Whole-Body Tracing Task.

Humans have elegant bodies that allow gymnastics, piano playing, and tool use, but understanding how they do this in detail is difficult because their musculoskeletal systems are extremely complicated. Previous studies have shown that common movements such as reaching for a coffee cup, cycling a bicycle, or playing the piano have common patterns across subjects. This paper shows that an arbitrary set of whole-body movements used to trace large closed curves have common patterns both in the trajectory of the...

Comparing Adaptive Radiations Across Space, Time, and Taxa.

Adaptive radiation plays a fundamental role in our understanding of the evolutionary process. However, the concept has provoked strong and differing opinions concerning its definition and nature among researchers studying a wide diversity of systems. Here, we take a broad view of what constitutes an adaptive radiation, and seek to find commonalities among disparate examples, ranging from plants to invertebrate and vertebrate animals, and remote islands to lakes and continents, to better understand processes...

Bridging the Process-Pattern Divide to Understand the Origins and Early Stages of Adaptive Radiation: A Review of Approaches With Insights From Studies of Anolis Lizards.

Understanding the origins and early stages of diversification is one of the most elusive tasks in adaptive radiation research. Classical approaches, which aim to infer past processes from present-day patterns of biological diversity, are fraught with difficulties and assumptions. An alternative approach has been to study young clades of relatively few species, which may represent the putative early stages of adaptive radiation. However, it is difficult to predict whether those groups will ever reach the eco...

A-to-I RNA editing uncovers hidden signals of adaptive genome evolution in animals.

In animals, the most common type of RNA editing is the deamination of adenosines (A) into inosines (I). Because inosines base-pair with cytosines (C), they are interpreted as guanosines (G) by the cellular machinery and genomically encoded G alleles at edited sites mimic the function of edited RNAs. The contribution of this hardwiring effect on genome evolution remains obscure. We looked for population genomics signatures of adaptive evolution associated with A-to-I RNA edited sites in humans and Drosophila...

The Combined Effect of Polygenic Risk from FTO and ADRB2 Gene Variants, Odds of Obesity, and Post-Hipcref Diet Differences.

Computing polygenic risk scores (PRS) to predict the degree of risk for obesity may contribute to weight management programs strategically.

Using ancestry-informative SNPs to quantify introgression of European alleles into North American red foxes.

A recent study demonstrated that British red foxes introduced to the mid-Atlantic coastal plain (ACP) of the eastern US during the late 18th century successfully interbred with indigenous American red foxes despite half a million year's divergence. However, a large disparity in frequency of European mitochondria (27%) versus Y chromosomes (1%) left unclear the magnitude of genetic exchange. We sought to quantify genomic introgression using 35 autosomal and 5 X chromosome ancestry-informative markers (AIMs) ...

Ginsenoside Rd Ameliorates High Fat Diet-Induced Obesity by Enhancing Adaptive Thermogenesis in a cAMP-Dependent Manner.

With the discovery of thermogenic adipocytes in humans, it has been hypothesized that enhancing adaptive thermogenesis may improve obesity. Although many studies have found that ginseng can improve obesity, the beneficial effects of ginsenoside Rd on obesity and its mechanisms have not been studied.


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