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PubMed Journals Articles About "Predators Fear Humans Ripples Through Wildlife Communities Emboldening" RSS

04:14 EDT 30th March 2020 | BioPortfolio

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Showing "Predators fear humans ripples through wildlife communities emboldening" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 4,200+

Amygdalar and hippocampal beta rhythm synchrony during human fear memory retrieval.

Fear, as one of the basic emotions, is crucial in helping humans to perceive hazards and adapt to social activities. Clinically, fear memory is also involved in a wide spectrum of psychiatric disorders. A better understanding of the neural mechanisms of fear thereby has both neuroscientific and clinical significance. In recent years, data from animal models have demonstrated the key role of the amygdala-hippocampal circuit in the development of fear. However, the neural processing of fear memory remains unc...


A skew-based method for identifying intracranial EEG channels with epileptic activity without detecting spikes, ripples, or fast ripples.

To develop a method for identifying intracranial EEG (iEEG) channels with epileptic activity without the need to detect spikes, ripples, or fast ripples.

Antibiotic Resistance of Escherichia coli from Humans and Black Rhinoceroses in Kenya.

Upsurge of antibiotic resistance in wildlife poses unprecedented threat to wildlife conservation. Surveillance of antibiotic resistance at the human-wildlife interface is therefore needed. We evaluated differences in antibiotic resistance of Escherichia coli isolates from human and the endangered black rhinoceros in Lambwe Valley, Kenya. We used standard microbiological techniques to carry out susceptibility assays using eight antibiotics of clinical and veterinary importance. Standard PCR method was used t...


Fertility Control in Wildlife: Review of Current Status, Including Novel and Future Technologies.

Wildlife conservation requires varying degrees of management of endangered species as well as management of their potential predators and competitors. Conservation also depends on ameliorating human-wildlife conflict, especially where there is a threat to the safety of people and of their pets and livestock. In addition, sustainability of wildlife populations can be affected by feral domestic animals or invasive species, that require removal or control. With the increasing concern for animal welfare, non-le...

Evidence for impaired extinction learning in humans after distal stress exposure.

Stressful or traumatic events can be risk factors for anxiety or trauma- and stressor-related disorders. In this regard, it has been shown that stress affects aversive learning and memory processes. In rodents, stress exposure 10 days prior to fear acquisition impairs fear extinction. However, in humans the effect of distal stress on fear conditioning is sparse. Therefore, we examined the influence of distal stress on fear memory in humans in two studies. In Study 1, participants underwent either socially e...

Anthropogenic landscapes increase Campylobacter jejuni infections in urbanizing banded mongoose (Mungos mungo): A one health approach.

Campylobacter is a common, but neglected foodborne-zoonotic pathogen, identified as a growing cause of foodborne disease worldwide. Wildlife and domestic animals are considered important reservoirs, but little is known about pathogen infection dynamics in free-ranging mammalian wildlife particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. In countries like Botswana, there is significant overlap between humans and wildlife, with the human population having one of the highest HIV infection rates in the world, increasing vulne...

Initial conditioning and re-conditioning recruit different populations of 'fear neurons' in the basal amygdala of rats.

'Fear neurons' in the basal amygdala (Ba) acquire excitatory responsiveness to conditioned stimuli (CS) after fear conditioning and are believed to encode aversive valence of conditioned fear. However, it is unclear whether identical fear conditioning sessions given at different times engage the same population of 'fear neurons'. Here, we recorded electrical activity from single neurons in the Ba while the same fear conditioning paradigm was performed at two different times. Conditioned fear was monitored d...

Making translation work: Harmonizing cross-species methodology in the behavioural neuroscience of Pavlovian fear conditioning.

Translational neuroscience bridges insights from specific mechanisms in rodents to complex functions in humans and is key to advance our general understanding of central nervous function. A prime example of translational research is the study of cross-species mechanisms that underlie responding to learned threats, by employing Pavlovian fear conditioning protocols in rodents and humans. Hitherto, evidence for (and critique of) these cross-species comparisons in fear conditioning research was based on theore...

Interactions with humans are jointly influenced by life history stage and social network factors and reduce group cohesion in moor macaques (Macaca maura).

Human-wildlife encounters are becoming increasingly frequent across the globe, often leading people to interact with and feed wild animals and impacting animal behaviour and ecology. Although the nature of human-wildlife interactions has been well documented across a number of species, we still have limited understanding as to why some individual animals interact more frequently with humans than others. Additionally, we lack a comprehensive understanding of how these interactions influence animal social net...

Activation of medial orbitofrontal cortex abolishes fear extinction and interferes with fear expression in rats.

Pavlovian fear conditioning and extinction procedures have long been used to study the regulation of learned fear. The amygdala is vital for the association of cues and fear expression, whereas the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is critical for fear regulation after extinction. The medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC) has an extensive connection with the fear circuit. In human studies, emotional regulation disorders, such as obsessive-compulsive disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder, are often linked t...

Differential effects of prior stress on conditioned inhibition of fear and fear extinction.

Resistant and generalized fear are hallmark symptoms of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Given PTSD is highly comorbid with addiction disorders indicates a maladaptive interaction between fear and reward circuits. To investigate learning processes underlying fear, reward and safety, we trained male rats to discriminate among a fear cue paired with footshock, a reward cue paired with sucrose and an explicit safety cue co-occurring with the fear cue in which no footshocks were delivered. In an attempt t...

Effect of d-cycloserine on fear extinction training in adults with social anxiety disorder.

Preclinical and clinical data have shown that D-cycloserine (DCS), a partial agonist at the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor complex, augments the retention of fear extinction in animals and the therapeutic learning from exposure therapy in humans. However, studies with non-clinical human samples in de novo fear conditioning paradigms have demonstrated minimal to no benefit of DCS. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of DCS on the retention of extinction learning following de novo fear conditioni...

Deficit in hippocampal ripples does not preclude spatial memory formation in APP/PS1 mice.

General theory of declarative memory formation posits a cortical-hippocampal dialog during which hippocampal ripple oscillations support information transfer and long-term consolidation of hippocampus dependent memories. Brain dementia, as Alzheimer disease (AD), is accompanied by memory loss and inability to form new memories. A large body of work has shown variety of mechanisms acting at cellular and molecular levels which can putatively play an important role in the impairment of memory formation. Howeve...

Bioaccumulation and biomagnification of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD) in insect-dominated food webs from a former e-waste recycling site in South China.

Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD) has frequently been detected in wildlife. However, there is limited research on its bioaccumulation and biomagnification in insect-dominated aquatic and terrestrial food webs. This study investigated the occurrence of HBCDD in insects and their predators collected from a former e-waste contaminated pond and its surrounding region. The concentrations of ƩHBCDD (sum concentrations of α-, β-, and γ-HBCDDs) ranged from nd to 179 ng g lipid weight. α-HBCDD was the predomi...

The scent of emotions: A systematic review of human intra- and interspecific chemical communication of emotions.

The sense of olfaction has been considered of minor importance in human communication. In recent years, evidence has emerged that humans might be influenced by unconscious messages sent through chemosignals in body odors. Data concerning the ability of humans to recognize fear, maybe related to the evolutionary role of these emotions in the fight-or-flight reactions, are well known.

Neural Basis of Observational Fear Learning: A Potential Model of Affective Empathy.

Observational fear learning in rodents is a type of context-dependent fear conditioning in which an unconditioned stimulus (US) is provided vicariously by observing conspecific others receiving foot shocks. This suggests the involvement of affective empathy, with several recent studies showing many similarities between this behavior and human empathy. Neurobiologically, it is important to understand the neural mechanisms by which the vicarious US activates the fear circuit via the affective pain system, obv...

Avoidance and its bi-directional relationship with conditioned fear: Mechanisms, moderators, and clinical implications.

Fear motivates different types of defensive behaviors. These behaviors are, however, not mere byproducts of fear. In this review, we highlight a bi-directional relationship between conditioned fear and instrumental defensive behavior in humans. We discuss mechanisms involved in the link from fear to goal-directed avoidance (e.g., relief, generalization), that may become habitual. These defensive behaviors may in turn reduce, preserve, or amplify fear responding (e.g., protection-from-extinction, behavior-as...

Ketamine Alleviates Fear Generalization Through GluN2B-BDNF Signaling in Mice.

Fear memories are critical for survival. Nevertheless, over-generalization of these memories, depicted by a failure to distinguish threats from safe stimuli, is typical in stress-related disorders. Previous studies have supported a protective role of ketamine against stress-induced depressive behavior. However, the effect of ketamine on fear generalization remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of ketamine on fear generalization in a fear-generalized mouse model. The mice were given a s...

Know safety, no fear.

Every day we are bombarded by stimuli that must be assessed for their potential for harm or benefit. Once a stimulus is learned to predict harm, it can elicit fear responses. Such learning can last a lifetime but is not always beneficial for an organism. For an organism to thrive in its environment, it must know when to engage in defensive, avoidance behaviors and when to engage in non-defensive, approach behaviors. Fear should be suppressed in situations that are not dangerous: when a novel, innocuous stim...

Pathology of Wildlife and Zoo Animals By Karen A. Terio, Denise McAloose, and Judy St. Leger (editors). Academic Press, London, UK. 2018. 1092 pp. ISBN: 9780128053065. US $126.00.

Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation over the ventromedial prefrontal cortex enhances fear extinction in healthy humans: A single blind sham-controlled study.

Development and Psychometric Evaluation of a Fear of Dementia Scale for Community-Dwelling Older Adults.

Negative attitudes toward dementia may pose an obstacle to the early diagnosis and treatment of this syndrome. However, because no scale has been designed to measure fear of dementia, a reliable and valid instrument that is able to measure accurately the multifaceted attributes of fear of dementia must be developed.

Managed wildlife breeding-an undervalued conservation tool?

Knowledge of and the technologies and resources applied to the ex situ care for wildlife have improved greatly in recent years. This has resulted in numerous successes bringing back populations from the brink of extinction by the reintroduction or restoration of animals from conservation breeding programmes. Controlled breeding of wildlife by humans is discussed controversially in society and in scientific circles and it faces a number of significant challenges. When natural breeding fails, Assisted Reprodu...

Prey Capture: Becoming Invisible When You Move.

Conspicuous skin patterns attract the attention of predators, but are thought also to act as protective mimicry during movement. A new behavioural study of mantises has found that the responses of these insect predators to a striped dummy target are reduced when the target is moving at high speed.

Molecular Detection and Subtyping of Detected in Wild Boars () in South Korea.

is a genus of parasitic protozoans that live in humans, mammals, and birds and which has been widely studied due to its low host specificity. Limited data are available, however, regarding its presence in wildlife, particularly in South Korea. Contact between wild boars () and livestock or humans has steadily increased as wild boars venture down from the mountains to farms and residential areas. In this study, we examined the status and subtypes (STs) of in wild boars in South Korea and confirmed its zoono...


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