PubMed Journals Articles About "Preliminary Study Of Early, Primary HIV Infection In A High Risk Cohort" RSS

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Showing "Preliminary Study Early Primary Infection High Risk Cohort" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 100,000+

Risk factors associated with revision for prosthetic joint infection after hip replacement: a prospective observational cohort study.

The risk of prosthetic joint infection (PJI) is influenced by patient, surgical, and health-care factors. Existing evidence is based on short-term follow-up. It does not differentiate between factors associated with early onset caused by the primary intervention from those associated with later onset more likely to result from haematogenous spread. We aimed to assess the overall and time-specific associations of these factors with the risk of revision due to PJI after primary total hip replacement.

Risk of adverse outcomes following urinary tract infection in older people with renal impairment: Retrospective cohort study using linked health record data.

Few studies have investigated the risk of adverse outcomes in older people with renal impairment presenting to primary care with a urinary tract infection (UTI). The aim of this study was to determine the risk of adverse outcomes in patients aged ≥65 years presenting to primary care with a UTI, by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and empirical prescription of nitrofurantoin versus trimethoprim.

Infection risk in gyms during physical exercise.

This study aimed to analyze the risk of infection (influenza and tuberculosis) for individuals participating in physical exercise. This was achieved by assessment of carbon dioxide (CO) concentrations, and examination of the physical characteristics of a number of gyms to determine whether there was a relationship to CO levels. This study was performed in three different gyms ventilated with either split system or central system air conditioners. The risk of airborne infection (percent of susceptible person...

Low platelet count as risk factor for infections in patients with primary immune thrombocytopenia: a retrospective evaluation.

Infectious complications are common and sometimes life threatening in patients with immune thrombocytopenia (ITP), mainly due to the immune-suppressive therapy. Recent evidence suggests a potential role of platelets in the inflammation process. In this clinical study, we further investigated the role of thrombocytopenia on infections in patients with primary ITP. We retrospectively evaluated data from the recently published large randomized clinical trial of a cohort of 195 patients with primary ITP, who we...

The relationship between anogenital HPV types and incident HIV infection among men who have sex with men and transgender women in Lima, Peru: Findings from a prospective cohort study.

Although it is known that individuals living with HIV have a higher HPV prevalence, the impact of individual HPV types on HIV acquisition is less clear. In this prospective cohort study we investigated the relationship between HPV types and incident HIV infection among men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TW) in Lima, Peru. Six hundred HIV-negative Peruvian MSM and TW participated in a 2-year study with biannual visits. At baseline, participants completed a computerized, self-administered ...

Role of Early De-escalation of Antimicrobial Therapy on Risk of Clostridioides difficile Infection following Enterobacteriaceae Bloodstream Infections.

There is a paucity of data on the effect of early de-escalation of antimicrobial therapy on rates of Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI). This retrospective cohort study evaluated impact of de-escalation from antipseudomonal beta-lactams (APBL) within 48 hours of Enterobacteriaceae bloodstream infections (BSI) on 90-day risk of CDI.

Circulating biomarkers may be unable to detect infection at the early phase of sepsis in ICU patients: the CAPTAIN prospective multicenter cohort study.

Sepsis and non-septic systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) are the same syndromes, differing by their cause, sepsis being secondary to microbial infection. Microbiological tests are not enough to detect infection early. While more than 50 biomarkers have been proposed to detect infection, none have been repeatedly validated.

Extended pelvic resection for rectal and anal canal tumors is a significant risk factor for perineal wound infection: a retrospective cohort study.

Perineal wound infection (PWI) rates are high after abdominoperineal resection (APR) and total pelvic exenteration (TPE). This study identified risk factors for PWI after surgery for anorectal tumors and examined the relationship between the surgical excision volume with the PWI degree.

Open Talus Fractures: Early Infection and Its Epidemiological Characteristics.

Open talus fractures are relatively rare and severe open injuries with a high risk of severe infection. To better understand the epidemiological characteristics of this kind of injury, a monocentric case review was conducted among open talus fracture patients admitted in West China Hospital of Sichuan University between January 2010 and December 2014. Fifty-one (N = 51) patients were recruited to the study, including 44 (86.3%) males and 7 (13.7%) females. Fifty-two cases of open talus fractures were di...

A cohort study of maternal cardiometabolic risk factors and primary cesarean delivery in an integrated health system.

Maternal cardiometabolic risk factors (i.e., hyperglycemia, pre-existing hypertension and high body mass index) impact fetal growth and risk of having a cesarean delivery. However, the independent and joint contribution of maternal cardiometabolic risk factors to primary cesarean section is unclear. We aimed to elucidate the degree to which maternal cardiometabolic risk factors contribute to primary cesarean deliveries and whether associations vary by infant size at birth in an integrated health system.

Chronic Hepatitis B Virus Infection and Risk of Dyslipidemia: A Cohort Study.

HBV infection has been associated with a decreased prevalence of dyslipidemia in cross-sectional studies, but cohort studies are limited. We investigated the longitudinal effects of chronic HBV infection on the development of dyslipidemia. We performed a cohort study of 62,287 non-cirrhotic adult men and women free of dyslipidemia who underwent serologic testing for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and were followed annually or biennially for an average of 4.46 years. A parametric Cox model was used to e...

Prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection among high-risk groups in Iran: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Determination of the true burden of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among high-risk groups relies heavily on occurrence measures such as prevalence, which are vital for implementation of preventive action plans. Nevertheless, up-to-date data on the prevalence of HCV infection remain scarce in Iran. This study aimed to review the relevant literature systematically and determine the pooled prevalence of HCV infection among high-risk groups in Iran.

Risk of developing sudden sensorineural hearing loss in patients with hepatitis B virus infection: A population-based study.

Sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) has significant impact on quality of life. It may result from viral infection, but the relationship between hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and SSNHL remains uncertain. To investigate the risk of developing SSNHL in patients with HBV, we conducted a nationwide, population-based, retrospective cohort study from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. A total of 33,234 patients diagnosed with HBV infection and 132,936 control subjects without viral h...

A prediction rule for early recognition of patients with candidemia in Internal Medicine: results from an Italian, multicentric, case-control study.

Increasing prevalence of candidemia in Internal Medicine wards (IMWs) has been reported in recent years, but risk factors for candida bloodstream infection in patients admitted to IMW may differ from those known in other settings. The aim of this study was to identify risk factors and define a prediction rule for the early recognition of the risk of candidemia in IMW inpatients.

The Mother-Infant Study Cohort (MISC): Methodology, challenges, and baseline characteristics.

The United Arab Emirates (UAE) exhibits alarming high prevalence of Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs) and their risk factors. Emerging evidence highlighted the role of maternal and early child nutrition in preventing later-onset NCDs. The objectives of this article are to describe the design and methodology of the first Mother and Infant Study Cohort (MISC) in UAE; present the baseline demographic characteristics of the study participants; and discuss the challenges of the cohort and their respective respond...

Association of MAPT haplotype-tagging polymorphisms with cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease: A preliminary study in a Croatian cohort.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the world leading cause of dementia. Early detection of AD is essential for faster and more efficacious usage of therapeutics and preventive measures. Even though it is well known that one ε4 allele of apolipoprotein E gene increases the risk for sporadic AD five times, and that two ε4 alleles increase the risk 20 times, reliable genetic markers for AD are not yet available. Previous studies have shown that microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT) gene polymorphisms could be a...

Risk factors for suicide in bipolar disorder: a cohort study of 12 850 patients.

Bipolar disorder carries a high risk of suicide. Identification of risk factors is important. The aim of this study was to study risk factors for suicide in a large cohort of men and women with bipolar disorder.

Proton pump inhibitors use and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma.

One cohort study using the Taiwan's database conducted by Kao et al published in Hepatology reported that proton pump inhibitors use was not associated with the risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with chronic hepatitis B infection or chronic hepatitis C infection. The findings were compatible with our cohort analysis using the Taiwan's database showing no association between proton pump inhibitors use and hepatocellular carcinoma. In contrast, a recent case-control study using the Taiw...

Reward activation in childhood predicts adolescent substance use initiation in a high-risk sample.

Substance use at an early age conveys substantial risk for later substance-related problems. A better understanding of early risk factors could result in more timely and effective intervention. This study investigated the predictive utility of the brain's response to reward anticipation as a risk factor for early substance use initiation.

No association between rate of torque development and onset of muscle activity with increased risk of hamstring injury in elite football.

Hamstring injuries remain a significant burden in sports that involve high speed running. In elite male football, hamstring injury has repeatedly been identified as the most common noncontact injury, representing 12% of all injuries. As the incidence remains high, investigations are aimed at better understanding how to improve prevention efforts. Intrinsic risk factors such as strength have been investigated extensively in a cohort of professional football players; however, other intrinsic measures of neuro...

Treatment with direct-acting antivirals in a multicenter cohort of HCV-infected inmates in Italy.

People who are incarcerated have a significantly higher prevalence of HCV infection than the general population. Given their high-risk behavior, they represent a reservoir of HCV infection for the whole community.

Vitamin D binding protein polymorphisms influence susceptibility to hepatitis C virus infection in a high-risk Chinese population.

Vitamin D binding protein (VDBP) plays an important role in the immune modulation and pathogenesis of hepatitis C viral (HCV) infection by influencing serum vitamin D levels. The present study aims to evaluate the association of VDBP genetic polymorphisms with susceptibility to and chronicity of HCV infection in a high-risk Chinese population. Seven genetic variants in the VDBP gene were genotyped in a case-control study of 886 patients with HCV persistent infection, 539 subjects with spontaneous clearance,...

Maternal High Triglyceride Levels During Early Pregnancy and Risk of Preterm Delivery: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

Maternal obesity increases the risk of preterm delivery. Obesity is known to be associated with altered lipid metabolism.

Effects of pay for performance on risk incidence of infection and of revision after total knee arthroplasty in type 2 diabetic patients: A nationwide matched cohort study.

As the world's population ages, the number of people receiving total knee arthroplasty (TKA) has been on the rise. Although patients with diabetes mellitus are known to face greater risks of TKA postoperative infection and revision TKA owing to diabetic complications, studies on whether such patients' participation in pay for performance (P4P) programs influences the incidence rates of TKA postoperative infection or revision TKA are still lacking. This study examined the 2002-2012 data of Taiwan's National ...

Risk factors for Plasmodium falciparum infection in the Kenyan Highlands: a cohort study.

Malaria transmission in African highland areas can be prone to epidemics, with minor fluctuations in temperature or altitude resulting in highly heterogeneous transmission. In the Kenyan Highlands, where malaria prevalence has been increasing, characterising malaria incidence and identifying risk factors for infection is complicated by asymptomatic infection.

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