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PubMed Journals Articles About "Prolonged Exposure Therapy Observation FMRI Stress Disorders Post" RSS

07:46 EST 17th November 2018 | BioPortfolio

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Showing "Prolonged Exposure Therapy Observation fMRI Stress Disorders Post" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 37,000+

Does Virtual Reality Increase Simulator Sickness During Exposure Therapy for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder?

Measurement of simulator-related side effects (SSEs) is an integral component of competent and ethical use of virtual reality exposure (VRE), but common SSEs may overlap with symptoms of anxiety. Limited research exists about the frequency of SSEs during VRE treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and no research compares self-reported SSEs for those undergoing VRE with those participating in exposure therapy without virtual reality. This study compared the SSEs of active duty soldiers with PTSD...


Exposure therapy for youth with anxiety: Utilization rates and predictors of implementation in a sample of practicing clinicians from across the United States.

Exposure therapy is a highly effective, evidence-based treatment technique for children and adolescents with anxiety disorders. Regardless, therapists in the community are reported to use exposure relatively rarely compared with other approaches. The goal of the present study was to identify how practicing clinicians treat youth with anxiety disorders across the United States and what factors contribute to their use of exposure therapy. Recruited from public directories, 257 private practice therapists who ...

Does virtual reality increase emotional engagement during exposure for PTSD? Subjective distress during prolonged and virtual reality exposure therapy.

Prolonged exposure (PE) is a treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) based on emotional processing theory. According to this theory, emotional engagement during imaginal exposure is critical to clinical outcome. One rationale for virtual reality exposure therapy (VRE) is the ability of trauma-relevant, multi-sensory stimuli to increase emotional engagement. This study compared the subjective distress of active duty soldiers (N = 108) during exposure via PE or VRE. Soldiers with higher mean or...


Neuroprotective effects of a catalytic antioxidant in a rat nerve agent model.

Persistent inhibition of acetylcholinesterase resulting from exposure to nerve agents such as soman, is associated with prolonged seizure activity known as status epilepticus (SE). Without medical countermeasures, exposure to soman and resultant SE leads to high morbidity and mortality. Currently available therapeutics are effective in limiting mortality, however effects on morbidity are highly time-dependent and rely on the ability to suppress SE. We have previously demonstrated significant protection from...

Internet-Based Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Chronic Stress: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

Prolonged exposure to stress can lead to substantial suffering, impairment and societal costs. However, access to psychological treatment is limited. Internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy (ICBT) can be effective in reducing symptoms of stress, but little is known of its effects in clinical samples. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of ICBT for patients suffering from chronic stress, operationalized as adjustment disorder (AD) and exhaustion disorder (ED).

Mirror exposure therapy for body image disturbances and eating disorders: A review.

Mirror exposure therapy is a clinical trial validated treatment component that improves body image and body satisfaction. Mirror exposure therapy has been shown to benefit individuals with high body dissatisfaction and patients with eating disorders (ED) in clinical trials. Mirror exposure is an optional component of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), an effective treatment for body dysmorphic disorder (BDD). However, most clinical trials of mirror exposure therapy have been small or uncontrolled and have ...

Effects of post-exposure naps on exposure therapy for social anxiety.

Exposure therapy for social anxiety disorder (SAD) utilizes fear extinction, a memory process enhanced by sleep. We investigated whether naps following exposure sessions might improve symptoms and biomarkers in response to social stress in adults undergoing 5-week exposure-based group SAD therapy. Thirty-two participants aged 18-39 (18 females) with SAD were randomized. Before and after treatment, participants completed the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS) and underwent a Trier Social Stress Test with ...

Treatment of acute stress disorder for victims of violent crime.

Victims of violent crime are at elevated risk of developing acute stress disorder (ASD) as well as subsequent post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), both of which are linked to severe psychological distress. The aim of this 12-month prospective study was to evaluate the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) vs. cognitive-behavioral therapy with a significant other (CBT-SO), relative to usual care (UC), for the improvement of post-traumatic, depression and anxiety symptoms and the prevention of PTSD...

Post-operative pain in mice is prolonged by diet-induced obesity and rescued by dietary intervention.

The prevalence of obesity has increased at an alarming rate during past decades. Obesity is associated with pathophysiological disorders that can evolve and increase the risk of heart disease, diabetes and hypertension. While the impact of diabetes on post-operative recovery is now known, the consequences of obesity on post-operative pain remain much less explored. Here, we show that obesity affects post-operative pain resolution and leads to a chronic pain state in mice. Several mechanisms were identified ...

Dissemination of exposure in the treatment of anxiety disorders and post-traumatic stress disorder among German cognitive behavioural therapists.

The efficacy of exposure is beyond doubt, which is reflected in guidelines recommending its application in the treatment of anxiety disorders and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Research suggests exposure to be underutilized in clinical practice in the United States and Europe. A systematic investigation of the dissemination of exposure in Germany is lacking. The present study examined the dissemination and application frequency of exposure among German cognitive behavioural therapists working in rou...

Using real-time fMRI brain-computer interfacing to treat eating disorders.

Real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging based brain-computer interfacing (fMRI neurofeedback) has shown encouraging outcomes in the treatment of psychiatric and behavioural disorders. However, its use in the treatment of eating disorders is very limited. Here, we give a brief overview of how to design and implement fMRI neurofeedback intervention for the treatment of eating disorders, considering the basic and essential components. We also attempt to develop potential adaptations of fMRI neurofeedba...

Post-traumatic stress disorder and risk of osteoporosis: A nationwide longitudinal study.

Several studies suggested a relationship between stress and related mental illnesses, such as depression and osteoporosis. However, it was unclear whether patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) were at risk of developing osteoporosis in later life. In this study, 6,041 patients with PTSD and 24,164 age- or sex-matched controls were enrolled between 2002 and 2009 in our study and followed up to the end of 2011. Cases of osteoporosis were identified during the follow-up. Patients with PTSD had an...

Nonsuicidal self-injury among adolescents and young adults with prolonged exposure to violence: The effect of post-traumatic stress symptoms.

Less is known about nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) among adolescents and young adults living in areas under prolonged political violence. This study aims to explore the frequencies of NSSI as well as the severity of post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), depression, anxiety, and sleep problems among 889 Palestinian adolescents and young adults. The participants completed self-report questionnaires assessing NSSI, PTSS, depression, anxiety symptoms, and sleep difficulties. The results found that 13.8% of the...

Protective effects of elevated anandamide on stress and fear-related behaviors: translational evidence from humans and mice.

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a common, debilitating condition with limited treatment options. Extinction of fear memories through prolonged exposure therapy, the primary evidence-based behavioral treatment for PTSD, has only partial efficacy. In mice, pharmacological inhibition of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) produces elevated levels of anandamide (AEA) and promotes fear extinction, suggesting that FAAH inhibitors may aid fear extinction-based treatments. A human FAAH 385C->A substitution e...

A Monte Carlo Simulation Approach for Beta-Lactam Dosing in Critically Ill Patients Receiving Prolonged Intermittent Renal Replacement Therapy.

Cefepime, ceftazidime, and piperacillin/tazobactam are commonly used beta-lactam antibiotics in the critical care setting. For critically ill patients receiving prolonged intermittent renal replacement therapy (PIRRT), limited pharmacokinetic data are available to inform clinicians on the dosing of these agents. Monte Carlo simulations (MCS) can be used to guide drug dosing when pharmacokinetic trials are not feasible. For each antibiotic, MCS using previously published pharmacokinetic data derived from cri...

Description and Preliminary Outcomes of an In Vivo Exposure Group Treatment for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

Prolonged exposure (PE) therapy is traditionally delivered individually to patients. To engage more veterans in care, an in vivo exposure group treatment was developed in an urban VA medical center. This treatment represented a modification of the in vivo exposure portion of PE, with the addition of in-session, therapist-assisted in vivo exposures. Here, we describe this 12-week treatment and present preliminary outcome data. Demographics and pre- and posttreatment scores on the PTSD Checklist-Specific (PCL...

Acute Assessment of Traumatic Brain Injury and Post-Traumatic Stress After Exposure to a Deployment-Related Explosive Blast.

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are two of the signature injuries in military service members who have been exposed to explosive blasts during deployments to Iraq and Afghanistan. Acute stress disorder (ASD), which occurs within 2-30 d after trauma exposure, is a more immediate psychological reaction predictive of the later development of PTSD. Most previous studies have evaluated service members after their return from deployment, which is often months or years after ...

Post-exposure effects of the piscicide 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) on the stress response and liver metabolic capacity in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

The piscicide 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) has been used to control invasive sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) populations in the Great Lakes for almost 60 years. Applied to rivers and streams containing larval lampreys, TFM seldom harms non-target fishes, but the effects of sub-lethal treatments on fish physiology are not well understood. We examined the effects of 9 h exposure to TFM on the stress axis and liver metabolic capacity of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) using in vivo and in vitro a...

The anxiolytic-like effects of estazolam on a PTSD animal model.

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a serious psychiatric disorder. Estazolam has been shown to produce anxiolytic-, hypnotic-, amnestic-, and sedative-like effects. However, few studies are concerned about its anti-PTSD-like effects. The anti-PTSD-like effects of estazolam were evaluated by single prolonged stress animal model. After exposure to single prolonged stress, rats (Sprague-Dawley, male, 8 weeks) were administered by estazolam (0.5, 1 and 2 mg/kg, i.p.) from day 2 to 13 once daily. The beha...

The opioid system in stress-induced memory disorders: From basic mechanisms to clinical implications in posttraumatic stress disorder and Alzheimer's disease.

Cognitive and emotional impairment are a serious consequence of stress exposure and are core features of neurological and psychiatric conditions that involve memory disorders. Indeed, acute and chronic stress are high-risk factors for the onset of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD), two devastating brain disorders associated with memory dysfunction. Besides the sympathetic nervous system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, stress response also involves the activ...

Oxidative stress and bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

With the progress of modern medicine, oxygen therapy has become a crucial measure for the treatment of premature infants. As an environmental stimulus, in the normal development of lungs, oxygen plays a very important regulatory role. However, the problem is that long-term exposure to hyperoxia can interfere with the development of lungs, leading to irreversible developmental abnormalities. Now, the incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is increasing year by year. The existing related research shows...

Brain circuit dysfunction in post-traumatic stress disorder: from mouse to man.

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a prevalent, debilitating and sometimes deadly consequence of exposure to severe psychological trauma. Although effective treatments exist for some individuals, they are limited. New approaches to intervention, treatment and prevention are therefore much needed. In the past few years, the field has rapidly developed a greater understanding of the dysfunctional brain circuits underlying PTSD, a shift in understanding that has been made possible by technological revolu...

Suppressed acoustic startle response in traumatic brain injury masks post-traumatic stress disorder hyper-responsivity.

An exaggerated acoustic startle reflex (ASR) is a clinical indicator of anxiety disorders, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Given the prevalence of PTSD following traumatic brain injury (TBI), we studied the effects of TBI on ASR. Adult Sprague Dawley rats exposed to moderate controlled cortical impact injury model of TBI displayed suppression of ASR intensity and sensitivity. As patients with PTSD have been shown to display hyperactive startle responses, the present discrepant observation of ...

Targeting Kruppel-like Factor 9 in Excitatory Neurons Protects against Chronic Stress-Induced Impairments in Dendritic Spines and Fear Responses.

Stress exposure is associated with the pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders, including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depressive disorder (MDD). Here, we show in rodents that chronic stress exposure rapidly and transiently elevates hippocampal expression of Kruppel-like factor 9 (Klf9). Inducible genetic silencing of Klf9 expression in excitatory forebrain neurons in adulthood prior to, but not after, onset of stressor prevented chronic restraint stress (CRS)-induced potentiation of contex...

Exposure therapy for chronic back pain.

Exposure therapy is an economical and promising psychological method for the treatment of chronic back pain, although little research has been done and its evidence needs further clarification. Exposure therapy has so far been little used in practice, which is partly due to the few published studies on this topic and partly to the uncertainty of the practitioners as to whether exposure therapy can be carried out without risk. Exposure therapy can be classified as a "tailored treatment" approach, in which p...


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