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PubMed Journals Articles About "Proviral DNA As A Target For HIV-1 Resistance Analysis" RSS

06:36 EST 20th November 2019 | BioPortfolio

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Showing "Proviral Target Resistance Analysis" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 41,000+

Routine drug resistance testing in HIV-1 proviral DNA, using an automated next- generation sequencing assay.

HIV-1 DNA genotypic drug resistance testing is increasingly performed to guide treatment switching or simplification in controlled patients. The Sentosa NGS platform is a fully automated system marketed for drug resistance testing on HIV-1 RNA samples.


Targeting HIV-1 proviral transcription.

Despite the success of antiretroviral therapies, there is no cure for HIV-1 infection due to the establishment of a long-lived latent reservoir that fuels viral rebound upon treatment interruption. 'Shock-and-kill' strategies to diminish the latent reservoir have had modest impact on the reservoir leading to considerations of alternative approaches to target HIV-1 proviruses. This review explores approaches to target HIV-1 transcription as a way to block the provirus expression.

Cell signaling and cancer: a mechanistic insight into drug resistance.

Drug resistance is a major setback for advanced therapeutics in multiple cancers. The increasing prevalence of this resistance is a growing concern and bitter headache for the researchers since a decade. Hence, it is essential to revalidate the existing strategies available for cancer treatment and to look after a novel therapeutic approach for target based killing of cancer cells at the genetic level. This review outlines the different mechanisms enabling resistance including drug efflux, drug target alter...


Liver and insulin resistance: New wine in old bottle!!!

Hepatic and systemic insulin resistance form the core of metabolic syndrome which is also associated with cardiovascular abnormalities, inflammation, and dyslipidemia. Skeletal muscles and adipose tissues are two main target organs for glucose disposal and hence have been studied for insulin resistance too. The liver is the first organ where insulin reaches after being secreted from pancreas and liver regulates glucose storage and disposal as per the body's demand in response to insulin. There are multiple ...

Emerging Roles of C-Myc in Cancer Stem Cell-Related Signaling and Resistance to Cancer Chemotherapy: A Potential Therapeutic Target Against Colorectal Cancer.

Myc is a nuclear transcription factor that mainly regulates cell growth, cell cycle, metabolism, and survival. Myc family proteins contain c-Myc, n-Myc, and l-Myc. Among them, c-Myc can become a promising therapeutic target molecule in cancer. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are known to be responsible for the therapeutic resistance. In the previous study, we demonstrated that c-Myc mediates drug resistance of colorectal CSCs using a patient-derived primary three-dimensional (3D) organoid culture. In this review, ...

A dynamic i-motif with a duplex stem-loop in the long terminal repeat promoter of the HIV-1 proviral genome modulates viral transcription.

I-motifs are non-canonical nucleic acids structures characterized by intercalated H-bonds between hemi-protonated cytosines. Evidence on the involvement of i-motif structures in the regulation of cellular processes in human cells has been consistently growing in the recent years. However, i-motifs within non-human genomes have never been investigated. Here, we report the characterization of i-motifs within the long terminal repeat (LTR) promoter of the HIV-1 proviral genome. Biophysical and biochemical anal...

PROTACs As Potential Therapeutic Agents for Cancer Drug Resistance.

Cancer drug resistance becomes the major challenging problem facing current clinical treatment faced by different kinds of therapies. Proteolysis targeting chimeras (PROTACs) as a novel and powerful strategy has attracted great attentions both from academia and industry for their sensitivity to drug-resistant targets relying on their unique characteristics compared to traditional inhibitors. PROTACs exert their function by degrading the target protein instead of inhibiting targets. Thus, different kinds of ...

CircPAN3 contributes to drug resistance in acute myeloid leukemia through regulation of autophagy.

The aim of this study was to investigate the role and underlying mechanism of circular RNA (circRNA) circPAN3 in mediating drug resistance in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). We first established two doxorubicin (ADM)-resistant AML cell lines and then utilized high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) to compare their circRNA expression profiles with those of the parental cell lines. With bioinformatic analysis, we identified key circRNA molecules involved in drug resistance and validated our findings in clinic...

Transcriptional analysis reveals the relativity of acid tolerance and antimicrobial peptide resistance of Salmonella.

The objective of this study was to comprehensively identify the target genes induced by acid stimulation in Salmonella, and to clarify the relativity of acid tolerance and antimicrobial peptide resistance. A clinical S. Typhimurium strain, S6, was selected and performed a transcriptome analysis under the acid tolerance response. In total, we found 1461 genes to be differentially expressed, including 721 up-regulated and 740 down-regulated genes. Functional annotation revealed differentially expressed genes ...

High-resolution QTL mapping in Tetranychus urticae reveals acaricide-specific responses and common target-site resistance after selection by different METI-I acaricides.

Arthropod herbivores cause dramatic crop losses, and frequent pesticide use has led to widespread resistance in numerous species. One such species, the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, is an extreme generalist herbivore and a major worldwide crop pest with a history of rapidly developing resistance to acaricides. Mitochondrial Electron Transport Inhibitors of complex I (METI-Is) have been used extensively in the last 25 years to control T. urticae around the globe, and widespread resistance to ...

Role of glutamine synthetase isogenes and herbicide metabolism in the mechanism of resistance to glufosinate in Lolium perenne L. spp. multiflorum biotypes from Oregon.

Glufosinate-resistant Lolium perenne L. spp. multiflorum biotypes from Oregon exhibited resistance levels up to 2.8-fold the field rate. One resistant biotype (MG) had an amino acid substitution in the glutamine synthetase 2 (GS2), whereas the other (OR) exhibited the wild-type genotype. We hypothesized that the amino acid substitution in GS2 is involved in the resistance mechanism in MG, and that non-target site resistance mechanisms are present in OR. OR metabolized glufosinate faster than the other two b...

Novel and Improved Crystal Structures of Haemophilus influenzae, E. coli and P. aeruginosa Penicillin-Binding-Protein 3 (PBP3) and N. gonorrhoeae PBP2: Towards a Better Understanding of β-Lactam Target-Mediated Resistance.

Even with the emergence of antibiotic resistance, penicillin and the wider family of beta-lactams have remained the single most important family of antibiotics. The periasmic/extracytoplasmic targets of penicillin are a family of enzymes with a highly conserved catalytic activity involved in the final stage of bacterial cell wall (peptidoglycan, PG) biosynthesis. Named after their ability to bind penicillin, rather than their catalytic activity these key targets are called penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs)...

Empirical ways to identify novel Bedaquiline resistance mutations in AtpE.

Clinical resistance against Bedaquiline, the first new anti-tuberculosis compound with a novel mechanism of action in over 40 years, has already been detected in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. As a new drug, however, there is currently insufficient clinical data to facilitate reliable and timely identification of genomic determinants of resistance. Here we investigate the structural basis for M. tuberculosis associated bedaquiline resistance in the drug target, AtpE. Together with the 9 previously identified r...

PCR-based identification of point mutation mediating acetolactate synthase-inhibiting herbicide resistance in weed wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis).

Acetolactate synthase (ALS)-inhibiting herbicides have been widely used for effective management and control of wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis) biotypes in Iran. The resistance of the ALS inhibitor to weeds is attributed to either target site alteration or enhanced herbicide degradation. Molecular and genetic characterization of the resistance mechanism is relevant to the evolution and management of herbicide resistance. The aims of this research were (a) to characterize the mechanism molecular suspected to...

Evaluation of the residual effectiveness of Fludora™ fusion WP-SB, a combination of clothianidin and deltamethrin, for the control of pyrethroid-resistant malaria vectors on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea.

Over the past decade, insecticide resistance to malaria vectors has been identified in 71 malaria endemic countries. This has posed a major global health challenge in the fight against malaria, with declining rates of indoor residual spraying coverage attributed to pyrethroid-resistance. As part of its vector control monitoring strategies, the Bioko Island Malaria Control Project (BIMCP) in Equatorial Guinea conducted routine insecticide resistance bioassays using the WHO's standard susceptibility tests fro...

Proteomic analysis uncovers the modulation of ergosterol, sphingolipid and oxidative stress pathway by myristic acid impeding biofilm and virulence in Candida albicans.

Candida albicans, a dimorphic opportunistic fungus is known to form robust biofilm and commonly associated with superficial and life threatening systemic infections. The repertoire of C. albicans infection is comprehensive due to its biofilm mediated virulence and occurrence of resistance against conventional antifungal drugs. Natural bioactive compounds are known for their antivirulence potency against fungi circumventing their resistance. In the present study, antibiofilm and antihyphal efficacies of myri...

Analyses of miRNA in the ileum of diarrheic piglets caused by Clostridium perfringens type C.

Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens) type C is one of major pathogenic causing diarrhea and other intestinal inflammatory diseases in piglets, which seriously affects the healthy development of the swine industries. Studies have found that miRNAs play important roles in regulating piglet diarrhea challenged by pathogenic E. coli and Salmonella. However, little is known miRNAs in the ileum of diarrheic piglets caused by C. perfringens type C. Therefore, we studied the expression profiles of the ileum miR...

Current outlook on drug resistance in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and potential therapeutic options.

Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a myeloproliferative neoplasm the hallmark of which, the breakpoint cluster region-Abelson (BCR-ABL) oncogene, has been the target of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), which have significantly improved the survival of patients with CML. However, because of an increase in TKI resistance, it is becoming imperative to identify resistance mechanisms so that drug therapies can be better prescribed and new agents developed. In this review, we discuss the various BCR-ABL-dependen...

Stable integrant-specific differences in bimodal HIV-1 expression patterns revealed by high-throughput analysis.

HIV-1 gene expression is regulated by host and viral factors that interact with viral motifs and is influenced by proviral integration sites. Here, expression variation among integrants was followed for hundreds of individual proviral clones within polyclonal populations throughout successive rounds of virus and cultured cell replication, with limited findings using CD4+ cells from donor blood consistent with observations in immortalized cells. Tracking clonal behavior by proviral "zip codes" indicated that...

Carfentrazone-ethyl resistance in an Amaranthus tuberculatus population is not mediated by amino acid alterations in the PPO2 protein.

To date, the only known mechanism conferring protoporphyrinogen IX oxidase (PPO)-inhibitor resistance in waterhemp (Amaranthus tuberculatus) is a glycine deletion in PPO2 (ΔG210), which results in cross-resistance to foliar PPO-inhibiting herbicides. However, a metabolism-based, HPPD-inhibitor resistant waterhemp population from Illinois (named SIR) was suspected of having a non-target site resistance (NTSR) mechanism due to its resistance to carfentrazone-ethyl (CE) but sensitivity to diphenylethers (DPEs...

Occurrence and spatial distribution of antibiotic resistance genes in the Bohai Sea and Yellow Sea areas, China.

Rapid development of Bohai and Yellow Sea Economic Rim has led to the concern of emerging contamination of marine environments. This study investigated the spatial distribution of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in Bohai and Yellow Sea areas. A large scale sampling from Bohai Sea, Yellow Sea and the major cities along the coastline from the mouth of Yalu River to the Yangtze River was performed. The spatial distribution of target ARGs based on the absolute abundances was in the trend of river water ≈...

Increasing antibiotic resistance in Clostridioides difficile: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Decreases in clinical response of Clostridioides difficile to antibiotics used for its treatment have raised concerns regarding antibiotic resistance. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to study the resistance rates of C. difficile to various antibiotics over time.

Metagenomic insights into the abundance and composition of resistance genes in aquatic environments: Influence of stratification and geography.

A global survey was performed with 122 aquatic metagenomic DNA datasets (92 lake water and 30 seawater) obtained from the Sequence Read Archive (SRA). Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and metal resistance genes (MRGs) were derived from the dataset sequences via bioinformatic analysis. The relative abundances of ARGs and MRGs in lake samples were in the ranges ND (not detected)-1.34 × 10 and 1.22 × 10-1.98 × 10 copies per 16S rRNA, which were higher than those in seawater samples. Among ARGs...

Mitochondrial metabolism: inducer or therapeutic target in tumor immune-resistance?

Mitochondria have been considered for a long time only as the principal source of building blocks and energy upon aerobic conditions. Recently they emerged as key players in cell proliferation, invasion and resistance to therapy. The most aggressive tumors are able to evade the immune-surveillance. Alterations in the mitochondria metabolism either in cancer cells or in host immune system cells are involved in such tumor-induced immune-suppression. This review will focus on the main mitochondrial dysfunction...

A derived Polymorphic Amplified Cleaved Sequence (dPACS) assay for detecting the Δ210 PPX2L codon deletion conferring target-site resistance to protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPO)-inhibiting herbicides.

Resistance to protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPO)-inhibiting herbicides in Amaranthus rudis from corn/soybean production systems in the USA appears to be mainly due to a codon deletion at position 210 of the target PPX2L gene. In this study, we have developed a simple and cost-effective derived Polymorphic Amplified Cleaved Sequenced (dPACS) marker for detecting this resistance-causing deletion in A. rudis and other relevant weed species.


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