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PubMed Journals Articles About "Rats Trail Behind Shrews Monkeys Humans Visual Problem" RSS

04:45 EST 19th December 2018 | BioPortfolio

Rats Trail Behind Shrews Monkeys Humans Visual Problem PubMed articles on BioPortfolio. Our PubMed references draw on over 21 million records from the medical literature. Here you can see the latest Rats Trail Behind Shrews Monkeys Humans Visual Problem articles that have been published worldwide.

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Showing "Rats trail behind shrews monkeys humans visual problem" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 13,000+

Pharmacokinetics and metabolism of pemafibrate, a novel selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha modulator, in rats and monkeys.

The metabolic profiles and pharmacokinetics of pemafibrate, a novel selective peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-alpha modulator currently launched as an antidyslipidemic drug, were investigated in vitro using hepatocytes from rats, monkeys, and humans and in vivo in rats and monkeys. Hepatocytes from rats, monkeys, and humans all biotransformed pemafibrate to its demethylated form (M1). The bioavailabilities of pemafibrate in Sprague-Dawley rats and cynomolgus monkeys were 15% and 87%, respectively...


Hydrolysis of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate in humans, monkeys, dogs, rats, and mice: An in vitro analysis using liver and intestinal microsomes.

Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is a widely used plasticizer that is rapidly metabolized to mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), an active metabolite, in mammals. In the present study, the hydrolysis of DEHP by the liver and intestinal microsomes of humans, monkeys, dogs, rats, and mice was examined. The kinetics of liver microsomes fit the Michaelis-Menten model for humans, monkeys, and rats, and the Hill model for dogs and mice. K or S values were similar among species, whereas V exhibited species diffe...

Distinct Frequency Specialization for Detecting Dark Transients in Humans and Tree Shrews.

Despite well-known privileged perception of dark over light stimuli, it is unknown to what extent this dark dominance is maintained when visual transients occur in rapid succession, for example, during perception of moving stimuli. Here, we address this question using dark and light transients presented at different flicker frequencies. Although both human participants and tree shrews exhibited dark dominance for temporally modulated transients, these occurred at different flicker frequencies, namely, at 11...


Human-like perceptual masking is difficult to observe in rats performing an orientation discrimination task.

Visual masking occurs when the perception of a brief target stimulus is affected by a preceding or succeeding mask. The uncoupling of the target and its perception allows an opportunity to investigate the neuronal mechanisms involved in sensory representation and visual perception. To determine whether rats are a suitable model for subsequent studies of the neuronal basis of visual masking, we first demonstrated that decoding of neuronal responses recorded in the primary visual cortex (V1) of anaesthetized ...

Resveratrol sensitizes lung cancer cell to TRAIL by p53 independent and suppression of Akt/NF-κB signaling.

TRAIL is a promising anticancer agent that has the potential to sensitize a wide variety of cancer or transformed cells by inducing apoptosis. However, resistance to TRAIL is a growing concern. Current manuscript aimed to employing combination treatment to investigate resveratrol induced TRAIL sensitization in NSCLC.

Age-related nomograms of serum anti-Mullerian hormone levels in female monkeys: comparison of rhesus (Macaca mulatta) and cynomolgus (Macaca fascicularis) monkeys.

AMH is regarded as a promising predictor for ovarian reserve in humans and non-human primate, and widely used in human medicine to predict ovarian response to gonadotropin, menopause and premature ovarian failure. However, large data set on the range of AMH levels in nonhuman primates is still scarce, which limited its applications largely. In this study, age-related AMH nomograms of rhesus (Macaca mulatta) and cynomolgus (Macaca fascicularis) were produced and compared. 219 rhesus and 529 cynomolgus monkey...

TGF3L fusion enhances the antitumor activity of TRAIL by promoting assembly into polymers.

TRAIL, a promising antitumor immuno-agent, exerted limited efficacy in clinical trials. The third disulfide loop of TGF-α (TGF3L peptide) with a very low affinity for EGFR has been reported to enhance the activity of fused antigens or cytokines. We wondered whether fusion of this peptide could enhance TRAIL activity and what the underlying mechanism for this enhancement would be. The TGF3L-TRAIL showed greatly enhanced cytotoxicity in a variety of cancer cell lines while spared normal cells unharmed. Typic...

Photo-excitable hybrid nanocomposites for image-guided photo/TRAIL synergistic cancer therapy.

Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) can induce apoptosis in cancer cells without toxicity to normal cells. However, the efficiency is greatly limited by its short half-life and wild resistance in various cancer cells. In this study, we reported a micellar hybrid nanoparticle to carry TRAIL ligand (denoted as IPN@TRAIL) for a novel photo-excited TRAIL therapy. These IPN@TRAIL offered increased TRAIL stability, prolonged half-life and enhanced tumor accumulation, monitored by dual ...

Sulfotransferase-catalyzed biotransformation of liguzinediol and comparison of its metabolism in different species using UFLC-QTOF-MS.

Liguzinediol (2,5-dihydroxymethyl-3,6-dimethylpyrazine, LZDO) is a potential agent for the low-risk treatment of heart failure. 2-N-acetylcysteine-LZDO (2-NAC-LZDO) and 2-cysteine-LZDO (2-Cys-LZDO) are major LZDO metabolites found in the pharmacokinetic studies of rats and beagle dogs. To elucidate the biotransformation pathway and related enzymes, an incubation system with 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS) as a cofactor and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) as a trapping agent was established using liver c...

Garcinol Enhances TRAIL-Induced Apoptotic Cell Death through Up-Regulation of DR5 and Down-Regulation of c-FLIP Expression.

Garcinol is a polyisoprenylated benzophenone derived from the fruit that possess potential therapeutic effects such as inhibition of inflammation and tumor expansion. Here, we investigated whether garcinol induces TRAIL sensitization in renal carcinoma cells. Single treatment with garcinol or TRAIL did not effect on apoptosis. However, combined treatment with garcinol plus TRAIL significantly induced apoptosis in renal carcinoma (Caki, ACHN and A498), lung carcinoma (A549), and hepatoma (SK-Hep1) cells. In...

Exploring the effects of non-consumptive recreation, trail use, and environmental factors on state park avian biodiversity.

State parks serve an important dual role in conservation by balancing wildlife management and recreation activities by park visitors. However, research in recreation ecology on the collective impacts of non-consumptive recreation, environmental factors, and trail design has been sparse. We modeled the influences of non-consumptive trail use, vegetation communities, habitat structure, climate, and trail design on avian communities in four Arkansas State parks. Our results suggested that non-consumptive trail...

Juvenile Tree Shrews Do Not Maintain Emmetropia in Narrow-band Blue Light.

In spectrally broad-band light, an emmetropization mechanism in post-natal eyes uses visual cues to modulate the growth of the eye to achieve and maintain near emmetropia. When we restricted available wavelengths to narrow-band blue light, juvenile tree shrews (diurnal dichromatic mammals closely related to primates) developed substantial refractive errors, suggesting that feedback from defocus-related changes in the relative activation of long- and short-wavelength-sensitive cones is essential to maintain ...

TRAIL attenuates sulforaphane-mediated Nrf2 and sustains ROS generation, leading to apoptosis of TRAIL-resistant human bladder cancer cells.

Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) can preferentially initiate apoptosis in malignant cells with minimal toxicity to normal cells. Unfortunately, many human cancer cells are refractory to TRAIL-induced apoptosis through many unknown mechanisms. Here, we report that TRAIL resistance can be reversed in human bladder cancer cell lines by treatment with sulforaphane (SFN), a well-known chemopreventive isothiocyanate in various cruciferous vegetables. Combined treatment with SFN and ...

miR-128 Targets the SIRT1/ROS/DR5 Pathway to Sensitize Colorectal Cancer to TRAIL-Induced Apoptosis.

Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is an ideal anti-tumor drug because it exhibits selective cytotoxicity against cancer cells. However, certain cancer cells are resistant to TRAIL, and the potential mechanisms are still unclear. The aim of this study was to reduce the resistance of colorectal cancer (CRC) cells to TRAIL.

Phase shifts in high beta and low gamma band local field potentials predict the focus of visual spatial attention.

The local field potential (LFP) contains rich information about activity in local neuronal populations. However, it has been challenging to establish direct links between LFP modulations and task-relevant behavior or cognitive processes, such as attention. We sought to determine whether LFP amplitude or phase modulations were predictive of the allocation of visual spatial attention. LFPs were recorded simultaneously in multiple early visual brain structures of alert macaque monkeys performing attention-dema...

Synthesis, characterization, and in vitro evaluation of TRAIL-modified, cabazitaxel -loaded polymeric micelles for achieving synergistic anticancer therapy.

Combination therapy of two or more drugs has gradually become of outmost importance in cancer treatment. Cabazitaxel (CTX) is a taxoid drug and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a member of TNF superfamily. In this study, we prepared TRAIL-modified and CTX-loaded polymer micelle (TRAIL-M-CTX). This nanoparticle was self-assembled from biodegradable amphiphilic copolymers, monomethoxyl poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(DL-lactide) (mPEG-PLA) and COOH-PEG-PLA, via a nanopreci...

Application of Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling to Predict the Effects of FcRn Inhibitors in Mice, Rats, and Monkeys.

There is a growing interest in developing inhibitors of the neonatal Fc-receptor, FcRn, for use in the treatment for humoral autoimmune conditions. We have developed a new physiological based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model that is capable of characterizing the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics (PK/PD) of anti-FcRn monoclonal antibodies (mAb) in mice, rats, and monkeys. The model includes incorporation of FcRn recycling of immune gamma globulin (IgG) in hematopoietic cells in addition to FcRn recycling of ...

Responsive Neural Activities in the Primary Visual Cortex of Retinal Degenerated Rats.

To study the responsive neural activities in the primary visual cortex (V1) of retinal degeneration (RD) models, experiments involving the wild type (WT) and RD rats were conducted. The neural responses in the V1 were recorded extracellularly, while a visual stimulus with varied light intensity was given to the subjects. First, the firing rate and its relationship with light intensity were compared between the WT and RD groups. Second, the mutual information (MI) between the visual stimulus and neural respo...

Detection and phylogenetic analysis of porcine bocaviruses carried by murine rodents and house shrews in China.

Bocaparvovirus infections of humans and both wild and domestic animals have been widely reported around the world. In this study, we detected and genetically characterized porcine bocavirus (PBoV) carried by murine rodents (Rattus norvegicus, Rattus tanezumi, and Rattus losea) and house shrews (Suncus murinus) in China. Between May 2015 and May 2017, 496 murine rodents and 23 house shrews were captured in four Chinese provinces. Nested polymerase chain reaction was used to investigate the prevalence of PBoV...

Preference for attractive faces is species-specific.

Studies on facial attractiveness in human adults, infants, and newborns have consistently reported a visual preference for faces rated as attractive compared with faces rated as unattractive. Biological accounts of facial attractiveness have typically presented such preferences as arising from adaptations for mate choice or as by-products of general sensory bias. In this cross-species study, we examined whether explicit ratings of attractiveness made by human judges would predict implicit visual preferences...

Autophagy as a mechanism of Apo2L/TRAIL resistance.

Apo2 ligand (Apo2L)/tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is unique to selectively induce apoptosis in tumor cells while sparing normal cells. Thus there is tremendous interest in Apo2L/TRAIL therapy; however, drug resistance is a serious limitation. Autophagy is a cellular housekeeping process that controls protein and organelle turnover, and is almost consistently activated in response to apoptosis-inducing stimuli, including Apo2L/TRAIL. Unlike apoptosis, autophagy leads to cell...

Assessing children's cognitive flexibility with the Shape Trail Test.

In this paper we report an initial validation of the Shape Trail Test-Child Version (STT-CV) with a non-clinical sample of children aged 6 to 9 years. The STT-CV has been developed as an age-appropriate and culturally fair direct downward extension of the Trail Making Test (TMT) for the assessment of cognitive flexibility. Children completed the STT-CV and four established measures of executive functions that assessed working memory, inhibitory control and task switching. Results showed the expected age-bas...

Telmisartan generates ROS-dependent upregulation of death receptor 5 to sensitize TRAIL in lung cancer via inhibition of autophagy flux.

Telmisartan broadly used for the treatment of hypertension that is also known for its anticancer properties. TRAIL has the potential to kill tumor cells with minimal toxicity in normal cells by binding to death receptors, DR4 and DR5. Unfortunately, these TRAIL-death receptors have failed as most human cancers are resistant to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis. In this study, we evaluated telmisartan as a novel TRAIL-DR5-targeting agent with the aim of rendering TRAIL-based cancer therapies more active. Herein, we d...

The impact of TRAIL on proliferation of secretory prostate cancer PC-3 cell and LMO2 gene expression.

To determine the expressions of TRAIL protein and LMO2 gene in prostate cancer tissues with different differentiation degree and identify the influence of TRAIL on prostate cancer PC-3 cell proliferation.

When humans behave like monkeys: Feedback delays and extensive practice increase the efficiency of speeded decisions.

The study of non-human primates has been foundational in understanding the neural origins of human decision processes, yet the approach rests on the assumption that one can validly extrapolate from the animal to the human. In the context of decision making, this requires constancy across species in physiological and cognitive processes. The former cannot be experimentally validated and therefore remains assumed, and recent findings have called into question the latter: non-human primates become increasingly...


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