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PubMed Journals Articles About "Rats Trail Behind Shrews Monkeys Humans Visual Problem" RSS

00:39 EDT 21st August 2018 | BioPortfolio

Rats Trail Behind Shrews Monkeys Humans Visual Problem PubMed articles on BioPortfolio. Our PubMed references draw on over 21 million records from the medical literature. Here you can see the latest Rats Trail Behind Shrews Monkeys Humans Visual Problem articles that have been published worldwide.

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Showing "Rats trail behind shrews monkeys humans visual problem" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 12,000+

Distinct Frequency Specialization for Detecting Dark Transients in Humans and Tree Shrews.

Despite well-known privileged perception of dark over light stimuli, it is unknown to what extent this dark dominance is maintained when visual transients occur in rapid succession, for example, during perception of moving stimuli. Here, we address this question using dark and light transients presented at different flicker frequencies. Although both human participants and tree shrews exhibited dark dominance for temporally modulated transients, these occurred at different flicker frequencies, namely, at 11...


Differences in nonclinical pharmacokinetics between species and prediction of human pharmacokinetics of TAK-272 (SCO-272), a novel orally active renin inhibitor.

In the search for orally available drugs, the prediction of human pharmacokinetics (PK) is essential to successfully select compounds that will be clinically useful. This report describes the selection of TAK-272 (SCO-272), a novel orally active renin inhibitor, as a clinical candidate via the detailed investigation of nonclinical PK data and human PK prediction. The bioavailability (BA) of TAK-272 after oral administration to rats and monkeys was low, especially in fasted monkeys, and the systemic exposure...

An outbreak of toxoplasmosis in squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) in South Korea.

Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is an intracellular protozoan parasite that can infect warm-blooded animals including humans. New World monkeys, such as squirrel monkeys, are more susceptible to T. gondii than Old World monkeys, often developing fatal disease.


Identity Construction and Symbolic Association in Farmer-Vervet Monkey (Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus) Interconnections in St. Kitts.

Primates occupy a liminal space between humans and animals. On the Caribbean island of St. Kitts, translocated vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus) are respected creatures, yet they cause problems. Vervets regularly consume crops on farms and are considered "pests"; still, Kittitians express empathy and understanding for them based largely on the monkeys' display of human-like behaviours. Using data from interviews with 64 Kittitian farmers, we deconstruct the symbolism of the vervet monkey in St. ...

Accurate Natural Trail Detection Using a Combination of a Deep Neural Network and Dynamic Programming.

This paper presents a vision sensor-based solution to the challenging problem of detecting and following trails in highly unstructured natural environments like forests, rural areas and mountains, using a combination of a deep neural network and dynamic programming. The deep neural network (DNN) concept has recently emerged as a very effective tool for processing vision sensor signals. A patch-based DNN is trained with supervised data to classify fixed-size image patches into "trail" and "non-trail" categor...

Importance of cynomolgus monkeys in development of monoclonal antibody drugs.

Animal species used in the preclinical studies for development of monoclonal antibody (mAb) drugs are surveyed in this review. Relevant animal species for preclinical studies of mAb candidates are those express desired epitope of mAb candidates. Cynomolgus monkeys cross-react with mAb drugs much higher than other animal species commonly used in preclinical studies such as absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME), efficacy, and toxicity studies, for development of new drugs. Moreover, plasma...

Visual artificial grammar learning by rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta): exploring the role of grammar complexity and sequence length.

Humans and nonhuman primates can learn about the organization of stimuli in the environment using implicit sequential pattern learning capabilities. However, most previous artificial grammar learning studies with nonhuman primates have involved relatively simple grammars and short input sequences. The goal in the current experiments was to assess the learning capabilities of monkeys on an artificial grammar-learning task that was more complex than most others previously used with nonhumans. Three experiment...

Nanoparticles for Immune Cytokine TRAIL-Based Cancer Therapy.

The immune cytokine tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) has received significant attention as a cancer therapeutic due to its ability to selectively trigger cancer cell apoptosis without causing toxicity in vivo. While TRAIL has demonstrated significant promise in preclinical studies in mice as a cancer therapeutic, challenges including poor circulation half-life, inefficient delivery to target sites, and TRAIL resistance have hindered clinical translation. Recent advances in dru...

Resveratrol sensitizes lung cancer cell to TRAIL by p53 independent and suppression of Akt/NF-κB signaling.

TRAIL is a promising anticancer agent that has the potential to sensitize a wide variety of cancer or transformed cells by inducing apoptosis. However, resistance to TRAIL is a growing concern. Current manuscript aimed to employing combination treatment to investigate resveratrol induced TRAIL sensitization in NSCLC.

Abstraction promotes creative problem-solving in rhesus monkeys.

Abstraction allows us to discern regularities beyond the specific instances we encounter. It also promotes creative problem-solving by enabling us to consider unconventional problem solutions. However, the mechanisms by which this occurs are not well understood. Because it is often difficult to isolate human high-level cognitive processes, we utilized a nonhuman primate model, in which rhesus monkeys appear to use similar processes to consider an unconventional solution to the difficult reverse-reward probl...

Parallel trends in cortical gray and white matter architecture and connections in primates allow fine study of pathways in humans and reveal network disruptions in autism.

Noninvasive imaging and tractography methods have yielded information on broad communication networks but lack resolution to delineate intralaminar cortical and subcortical pathways in humans. An important unanswered question is whether we can use the wealth of precise information on pathways from monkeys to understand connections in humans. We addressed this question within a theoretical framework of systematic cortical variation and used identical high-resolution methods to compare the architecture of cor...

TGF3L fusion enhances the antitumor activity of TRAIL by promoting assembly into polymers.

TRAIL, a promising antitumor immuno-agent, exerted limited efficacy in clinical trials. The third disulfide loop of TGF-α (TGF3L peptide) with a very low affinity for EGFR has been reported to enhance the activity of fused antigens or cytokines. We wondered whether fusion of this peptide could enhance TRAIL activity and what the underlying mechanism for this enhancement would be. The TGF3L-TRAIL showed greatly enhanced cytotoxicity in a variety of cancer cell lines while spared normal cells unharmed. Typic...

Photo-excitable hybrid nanocomposites for image-guided photo/TRAIL synergistic cancer therapy.

Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) can induce apoptosis in cancer cells without toxicity to normal cells. However, the efficiency is greatly limited by its short half-life and wild resistance in various cancer cells. In this study, we reported a micellar hybrid nanoparticle to carry TRAIL ligand (denoted as IPN@TRAIL) for a novel photo-excited TRAIL therapy. These IPN@TRAIL offered increased TRAIL stability, prolonged half-life and enhanced tumor accumulation, monitored by dual ...

Improved cytotoxicity of novel TRAIL variants produced as recombinant fusion proteins.

The TNF-Related Apoptosis Inducing Ligand (TRAIL) cytokine triggers apoptosis specifically in cancer cells. Susceptibility of a given cell to TRAIL depends on the activity of regulatory proteins, one of the most important of which is BID. The aim of this study was to increase the cytotoxic potential of TRAIL against cancer cells. TRAIL was fused to the BH3 domain of BID. Hence, TRAIL acted not only as an anticancer agent, but also as a specific carrier for the BID fragment. Two fusion protein variants were ...

Visual recognition of mirror, video-recorded, and still images in rats.

Several recent studies have claimed that rodents have good visual recognition abilities. However, the extent to which rats can recognize other rats and distinguish between males and females using visual information alone remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the ability of rats to visually recognize mirror, video-recorded, and still images and to discriminate between images of males and females. Rats were tested in a place preference apparatus with a mirror, a video-recorded image of a rat,...

Sulfotransferase-catalyzed biotransformation of liguzinediol and comparison of its metabolism in different species using UFLC-QTOF-MS.

Liguzinediol (2,5-dihydroxymethyl-3,6-dimethylpyrazine, LZDO) is a potential agent for the low-risk treatment of heart failure. 2-N-acetylcysteine-LZDO (2-NAC-LZDO) and 2-cysteine-LZDO (2-Cys-LZDO) are major LZDO metabolites found in the pharmacokinetic studies of rats and beagle dogs. To elucidate the biotransformation pathway and related enzymes, an incubation system with 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS) as a cofactor and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) as a trapping agent was established using liver c...

Gambogic acid sensitizes breast cancer cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis by promoting the crosstalk of extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic signalings.

Due to the ability of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) to induce cancer cell apoptosis selectively, TRAIL has attracted significant interest in the treatment of cancer. However, although TRAIL triggers apoptosis in a broad range of cancer cells, most primary cancers are often intrinsically TRAIL-resistant, or acquire resistance after TRAIL treatment, evocating new strategies to overcome TRAIL resistance. Gambogic acid (GA), an active constituent of Garcinia Hanburyi (Ten...

Garcinol Enhances TRAIL-Induced Apoptotic Cell Death through Up-Regulation of DR5 and Down-Regulation of c-FLIP Expression.

Garcinol is a polyisoprenylated benzophenone derived from the fruit that possess potential therapeutic effects such as inhibition of inflammation and tumor expansion. Here, we investigated whether garcinol induces TRAIL sensitization in renal carcinoma cells. Single treatment with garcinol or TRAIL did not effect on apoptosis. However, combined treatment with garcinol plus TRAIL significantly induced apoptosis in renal carcinoma (Caki, ACHN and A498), lung carcinoma (A549), and hepatoma (SK-Hep1) cells. In...

VO2max Testing in Trail Runners: Is There a Specific Exercise Test Protocol?

Trail running places specific physiological demands on the human body due to its uphill and downhill running sections. We developed and investigated a more sport-specific trail exercise test protocol (inclination and speed incremental protocol), and compared it to two standard exercise test protocols (horizontal step and ramp protocol) in thirteen highly trained trail runners (age 31±6 years, height 179±6.4 cm, weight 69.2±7.9 kg, BMI 21.6±2.1 kg/m). The maximum oxygen uptake (VOmax) measured duri...

Irigenin sensitizes TRAIL-induced apoptosis via enhancing pro-apoptotic molecules in gastric cancer cells.

Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) holds promising value for cancer therapy due to its capacity to induce apoptosis in cancer cells. Nevertheless, TRAIL therapy is greatly hampered by its resistance. Irigenin (Iri), isoflavonoids, can be isolated from the rhizome of Belamcanda chinensis, and has been shown anti-cancer properties. In this study, we explored if Iri could enhance TRAIL-regulated apoptosis in TRAIL resistant gastric cancer cells. Iri significantly potentiated TRAIL-...

Social modulation of risky decision-making in rats (Rattus norvegicus) and tufted capuchin monkeys (Sapajus spp.).

Both human and non-human animals frequently deal with risky decisions in a social environment. Nevertheless, the influence of the social context on decision-making has been scarcely investigated. Here, we evaluated for the first time whether the presence of a conspecific influences risk preferences in rats and in tufted capuchin monkeys. Subjects received a series of choices between a constant, safe option and a variable, risky option, both alone (Alone condition) and when paired with a conspecific (Paired ...

TRAIL attenuates sulforaphane-mediated Nrf2 and sustains ROS generation, leading to apoptosis of TRAIL-resistant human bladder cancer cells.

Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) can preferentially initiate apoptosis in malignant cells with minimal toxicity to normal cells. Unfortunately, many human cancer cells are refractory to TRAIL-induced apoptosis through many unknown mechanisms. Here, we report that TRAIL resistance can be reversed in human bladder cancer cell lines by treatment with sulforaphane (SFN), a well-known chemopreventive isothiocyanate in various cruciferous vegetables. Combined treatment with SFN and ...

The Murine Natural Cytotoxic Receptor NKp46/NCR1 Controls TRAIL Protein Expression in NK Cells and ILC1s.

TRAIL is an apoptosis-inducing ligand constitutively expressed on liver-resident type 1 innate lymphoid cells (ILC1s) and a subset of natural killer (NK) cells, where it contributes to NK cell anti-tumor, anti-viral, and immunoregulatory functions. However, the intrinsic pathways involved in TRAIL expression in ILCs remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that the murine natural cytotoxic receptor mNKp46/NCR1, expressed on ILC1s and NK cells, controls TRAIL protein expression. Using NKp46-deficient mice, we sh...

Synthesis, characterization, and in vitro evaluation of TRAIL-modified, cabazitaxel -loaded polymeric micelles for achieving synergistic anticancer therapy.

Combination therapy of two or more drugs has gradually become of outmost importance in cancer treatment. Cabazitaxel (CTX) is a taxoid drug and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a member of TNF superfamily. In this study, we prepared TRAIL-modified and CTX-loaded polymer micelle (TRAIL-M-CTX). This nanoparticle was self-assembled from biodegradable amphiphilic copolymers, monomethoxyl poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(DL-lactide) (mPEG-PLA) and COOH-PEG-PLA, via a nanopreci...

Rhesus macaques form preferences for brand logos through sex and social status based advertising.

Like humans, monkeys value information about sex and status, inviting the hypothesis that our susceptibility to these factors in advertising arises from shared, ancestral biological mechanisms that prioritize social information. To test this idea, we asked whether rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) show choice behavior that is similar to humans in response to sex and social status in advertising. Our results show that monkeys form preferences for brand logos repeatedly paired with images of macaque genitals a...


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