PubMed Journals Articles About "Researcher Reveal Insights Into Brain Circuitry" RSS

01:50 EDT 19th September 2018 | BioPortfolio

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Showing "Researcher reveal insights into brain circuitry" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 14,000+

Developmental change in the resting state electroencephalogram: Insights into cognition and the brain.

Resting state electroencephalography (RS-EEG) is a commonly used neurophysiological technique which provides a measure of brain activity when an individual is awake and not performing any assigned cognitive task. Because this relatively simple and non-invasive method is suitable for many ages and populations, a large and diverse literature has amassed. The focus of this review is to describe and synthesize RS-EEG literature across the lifespan while emphasizing the associations between RS-EEG and cognition....

Early human brain development: insights into macroscale connectome wiring.

Early brain development is closely dictated by distinct neurobiological principles. Here, we aimed to map early trajectories of structural brain wiring in the neonatal brain.

Emerging insights into Hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis regulation and interaction with stress signaling.

Reproduction and fertility are regulated via hormones of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. Control of this reproductive axis occurs at all levels, including the brain and pituitary, and allows for promotion or inhibition of gonadal sex steroid secretion and function. In addition to guiding proper gonadal development and function, gonadal sex steroids also act in negative and positive feedback loops to regulate reproductive circuitry in the brain, including kisspeptin neurons, thereby modulating...

Activation of Ras in the Vascular Endothelium Induces Brain Vascular Malformations and Hemorrhagic Stroke.

Cerebrovascular malformations (CVMs) affect approximately 3% of the population, risking hemorrhagic stroke, seizures, and neurological deficits. Recently Ras mutations have been identified in a majority of brain arterio-venous malformations. We generated an endothelial-specific, inducible HRAS mouse model, which results in dilated, proliferative blood vessels in the brain, blood-brain barrier breakdown, intracerebral hemorrhage, and rapid lethality. Organoid morphogenesis models revealed abnormal cessation ...

Neural Markers of Resilience in Adolescent Females at Familial Risk for Major Depressive Disorder.

Adolescence is a neurodevelopmental period during which experience-dependent plasticity in brain circuitry may confer vulnerability to depression as well as resilience to disorder. Little is known, however, about the neural mechanisms that underlie resilience during this critical period of brain development.

Electrophysiological properties and projections of lateral hypothalamic parvalbumin positive neurons.

Cracking the cytoarchitectural organization, activity patterns, and neurotransmitter nature of genetically-distinct cell types in the lateral hypothalamus (LH) is fundamental to develop a mechanistic understanding of how activity dynamics within this brain region are generated and operate together through synaptic connections to regulate circuit function. However, the precise mechanisms through which LH circuits orchestrate such dynamics have remained elusive due to the heterogeneity of the intermingled and...

Development of tactile sensory circuits in the CNS.

Molecular identification of neuronal types and genetic and imaging approaches to characterize their properties reveal morphological, physiological and dynamic aspects of sensory circuit development. Here we focus on the mouse tactile sensory circuitry, with particular emphasis on the main trigeminal pathway that connects the whiskers, the major tactile organ in rodents, to the neocortex. At each level of this pathway, neurogenesis, axonal elongation, pathfinding, target recognition and circuit reorganizatio...

Enhancing endogenous capacity to repair a stroke-damaged brain: an evolving field for stroke research.

Stroke represents a severe medical condition that causes stroke survivors to suffer from long-term and even lifelong disability. Over the past several decades, a vast majority of stroke research targets neuroprotection in the acute phase, while little work has been done to enhance stroke recovery at the later stage. Through reviewing current understanding of brain plasticity, stroke pathology, and emerging preclinical and clinical restorative approaches, this review aims to provide new insights to advance t...

Comment on "The growth pattern of Neandertals, reconstructed from a juvenile skeleton from El Sidrón (Spain)".

Rosas(Reports, 22 September 2017, p. 1282) calculate El Sidrón J1 to have reached only 87.5% of its adult brain size. This finding is based on an overestimation of Neandertal brain size. Pairwise comparisons with a larger sample of Neandertal fossils reveal that it is unlikely that the brain of El Sidrón would have grown appreciably larger.

Recovery of brain abscess-induced stuttering after neurosurgical intervention.

Stuttering occurs in approximately 5% of all children and 1% of adults. One type, neurogenic stuttering, is usually attributable to strokes or other structural damages to the brain areas that are responsible for language fluency. Here, we present the first case of neurogenic stuttering caused by a brain abscess. The patient was a 60-year-old man admitted for a seizure and administered an anticonvulsant, after which he began stuttering. MRI revealed a brain abscess in the left frontal lobe that extended to t...

Gamma oscillations in cognitive disorders.

Gamma oscillations (∼25-100 Hz) are believed to play a role in cognition. Accordingly, aberrant gamma oscillations have been observed in several cognitive disorders, including Alzheimer's disease and Fragile X syndrome. Here, we review how recent results showing abnormal gamma rhythms in Alzheimer's disease and Fragile X syndrome help reveal links between cellular disturbances and cognitive impairments. We also discuss how gamma results from rodent models of Alzheimer's disease and Fragile X syndrome ma...

Lower Prefrontal and Hippocampal Volume and Diffusion Tensor Imaging Differences Reflect Structural and Functional Abnormalities in Abstinent Individuals with Alcohol Use Disorder.

Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is known to have adverse effects on brain structure and function. Multimodal assessments investigating volumetric, diffusion, and cognitive characteristics may facilitate understanding of the consequences of long-term alcohol use on brain circuitry, their structural impairment patterns, and their impact on cognitive function in AUD.

The Neurobiology of the Male Sexual Refractory Period.

Despite having been recognized for many years, the mechanisms governing the male sexual refractory period (post-ejaculatory refractory period, post-ejaculatory interval) remain poorly understood. This review examines the brain and spinal areas putatively involved in this phenomenon to draw a coherent picture from the available data. It is hoped that this will reveal where further research will offer the potential for crucial insights on this topic.

Connectivity dynamics in typical development and its relationship to autistic traits and autism spectrum disorder.

Recent advances in neuroimaging techniques have provided significant insights into developmental trajectories of human brain function. Characterizations of typical neurodevelopment provide a framework for understanding altered neurodevelopment, including differences in brain function related to developmental disorders and psychopathology. Historically, most functional connectivity studies of typical and atypical development operate under the assumption that connectivity remains static over time. We hypothes...

Mechanistic Insights into Human Brain Impact Dynamics through Modal Analysis.

Although concussion is one of the greatest health challenges today, our physical understanding of the cause of injury is limited. In this Letter, we simulated football head impacts in a finite element model and extracted the most dominant modal behavior of the brain's deformation. We showed that the brain's deformation is most sensitive in low frequency regimes close to 30 Hz, and discovered that for most subconcussive head impacts, the dynamics of brain deformation is dominated by a single global mode. In...

Mendelian Disease Associations Reveal Novel Insights into Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

Monogenic diseases have been shown to contribute to complex disease risk and may hold new insights into the underlying biological mechanism of Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD).

Sex differences in the regulation of social and anxiety-related behaviors: insights from vasopressin and oxytocin brain systems.

To understand how the brain regulates behavior, many variables must be taken into account, with sex as a prominent variable. In this review, we will discuss recent human and rodent studies showing the sex-specific involvement of the neuropeptides vasopressin and oxytocin in social and anxiety-related behaviors. We discuss that sex differences can be evident at pre-pubertal ages as seen in the sex-specific regulation of social recognition, social play, and anxiety by the vasopressin system in juvenile rats. ...

Clinical characteristics and course of post-operative brain abscess.

Cerebral abscesses after brain surgery are rare but severe and life threatening complications OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical aspects of those patients and thereby reveal risk factors, and the relevant aspects for their future therapy.

Rapid effects of 17β-estradiol on aggressive behavior in songbirds: Environmental and genetic influences.

17β-estradiol (E) has numerous rapid effects on the brain and behavior. This review focuses on the rapid effects of Eon aggression, an important social behavior, in songbirds. First, we highlight the contributions of studies on song sparrows, which reveal that seasonal changes in the environment profoundly influence the capacity of Eto rapidly alter aggressive behavior. Eadministration to male song sparrows increases aggression within 20 min in the non-breeding season, but not in the breeding season. Fur...

Corticosteroids and perinatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury.

Perinatal hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain injury is the major cause of neonatal mortality and severe long-term neurological morbidity. Yet, the effective therapeutic interventions currently available are extremely limited. Corticosteroids act on both mineralocorticoid (MR) and glucocorticoid (GR) receptors and modulate inflammation and apoptosis in the brain. Neuroinflammatory response to acute cerebral HI is a major contributor to the pathophysiology of perinatal brain injury. Here, we give an overview of curr...

Development of White Matter Circuitry in Infants With Fragile X Syndrome.

Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a genetic neurodevelopmental disorder and the most common inherited cause of intellectual disability in males. However, there are no published data on brain development in children with FXS during infancy.

Neural Circuitry Among Connecting the Hippocampus, Prefrontal Cortex and Basolateral Amygdala in a Mouse Depression Model: Associations Correlations Between BDNF Levels and BOLD - fMRI Signals.

Depression is a heterogeneous disorder, but the exact neuronal mechanisms causing the disease have not yet been discovered.

Social Behavior: How the Brain Thinks like a Mom.

Becoming a parent changes our choices and actions. Identifying the underlying neural circuits is necessary to understand the transformation of an animal's behavior post-parenthood. Multiple nodes of the 'parenting circuit' have now been identified to reveal the workings of a single brain region key to the orchestration of parent-specific behaviors.

Adult brain activation during visual learning and memory tasks. An experimental approach to translational neuroscience.

Human brain connectome is a new and rapidly developing field in neuroscience. The pattern of structural and functional connectivity in the brain is not fixed but is continuously changing in response to experiences. Exploring these phenomena opens a powerful arsenal of analyses and computational approaches that could provide important new insights into clinical and cognitive neuroscience. The aim of the present study was to investigate the activations of adult brain cortical areas during a memory task perfor...

NeuroQuant® and NeuroGage® reveal effects of traumatic brain injury on brain volume.

This report describes the case of a 58-year-old man with moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI) and pre-accident brain disorders who had multiple persistent neuropsychiatric symptoms. NeuroQuant® 2.0 and NeuroGage® 2.0 MRI brain volume analyses were used during the chronic stage of injury (> 1 year after injury) to help understand the effects of the TBI on his brain volume. NeuroQuant® showed widespread cross-sectional atrophy, especially in the frontal and temporal lobes, consistent with encephalomalac...

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