PubMed Journals Articles About "Researcher Reveal Insights Into Brain Circuitry" RSS

16:07 EST 13th November 2018 | BioPortfolio

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Showing "Researcher reveal insights into brain circuitry" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 14,000+

Developmental change in the resting state electroencephalogram: Insights into cognition and the brain.

Resting state electroencephalography (RS-EEG) is a commonly used neurophysiological technique which provides a measure of brain activity when an individual is awake and not performing any assigned cognitive task. Because this relatively simple and non-invasive method is suitable for many ages and populations, a large and diverse literature has amassed. The focus of this review is to describe and synthesize RS-EEG literature across the lifespan while emphasizing the associations between RS-EEG and cognition....

Early human brain development: insights into macroscale connectome wiring.

Early brain development is closely dictated by distinct neurobiological principles. Here, we aimed to map early trajectories of structural brain wiring in the neonatal brain.

Activation of Ras in the Vascular Endothelium Induces Brain Vascular Malformations and Hemorrhagic Stroke.

Cerebrovascular malformations (CVMs) affect approximately 3% of the population, risking hemorrhagic stroke, seizures, and neurological deficits. Recently Ras mutations have been identified in a majority of brain arterio-venous malformations. We generated an endothelial-specific, inducible HRAS mouse model, which results in dilated, proliferative blood vessels in the brain, blood-brain barrier breakdown, intracerebral hemorrhage, and rapid lethality. Organoid morphogenesis models revealed abnormal cessation ...

Evaluating cellularity and structural connectivity on whole brain slides using a custom-made digital pathology pipeline.

In brain research, the histopathological examination of coronar whole-brain slides provides important insights into spatial disease characteristics. Regarding brain tumor research, this enables visualization of tumor heterogeneity, infiltration patterns and the relationship with the surrounding brain parenchyma. The precise correlation between radiological imaging and post-mortem brains is of special interest.

Electrophysiological properties and projections of lateral hypothalamic parvalbumin positive neurons.

Cracking the cytoarchitectural organization, activity patterns, and neurotransmitter nature of genetically-distinct cell types in the lateral hypothalamus (LH) is fundamental to develop a mechanistic understanding of how activity dynamics within this brain region are generated and operate together through synaptic connections to regulate circuit function. However, the precise mechanisms through which LH circuits orchestrate such dynamics have remained elusive due to the heterogeneity of the intermingled and...

Regularizing firing patterns of rat subthalamic neurons ameliorates parkinsonian motor deficits.

The subthalamic nucleus (STN) is an effective therapeutic target for deep brain stimulation (DBS) for Parkinson's disease (PD) and histamine level is elevated in the basal ganglia in PD patients. However, the endogenous histaminergic modulation on STN neuronal activities and the neuronal mechanism underlying STN-DBS are unknown. Here we report that STN neuronal firing patterns are more crucial than firing rates for motor control. Histamine excited STN neurons, but paradoxically ameliorated parkinsonian moto...

Development of tactile sensory circuits in the CNS.

Molecular identification of neuronal types and genetic and imaging approaches to characterize their properties reveal morphological, physiological and dynamic aspects of sensory circuit development. Here we focus on the mouse tactile sensory circuitry, with particular emphasis on the main trigeminal pathway that connects the whiskers, the major tactile organ in rodents, to the neocortex. At each level of this pathway, neurogenesis, axonal elongation, pathfinding, target recognition and circuit reorganizatio...

Effects of acute Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol on next-day extinction recall is mediated by post-extinction resting-state brain dynamics.

We have previously demonstrated that an acute dose of Δ9-tetrahydrocanninbinol (THC), administered prior to extinction learning, facilitates later recall of extinction learning and modulates the underlying neural circuitry, including the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), hippocampus (HPC), and amygdala (AMYG). It remains unknown whether THC-induced changes in fear-extinction neural circuitry can be detected following extinction learning, which may reflect ongoing processes involved consolidation of t...

Large-scale Circuitry Interactions upon Earthquake Experiences Revealed by Recurrent Neural Networks.

Brain dynamics has recently received increasing interest due to its significant importance in basic and clinical neurosciences. However, due to inherent difficulties in both data acquisition and data analysis methods, studies on large-scale brain dynamics of mouse with local field potential (LFP) recording are very rare. In this paper, we did a series of works on modeling large-scale mouse brain dynamic activities responding to fearful earthquake. Based on LFP recording data from thirteen brain regions whic...

Recovery of brain abscess-induced stuttering after neurosurgical intervention.

Stuttering occurs in approximately 5% of all children and 1% of adults. One type, neurogenic stuttering, is usually attributable to strokes or other structural damages to the brain areas that are responsible for language fluency. Here, we present the first case of neurogenic stuttering caused by a brain abscess. The patient was a 60-year-old man admitted for a seizure and administered an anticonvulsant, after which he began stuttering. MRI revealed a brain abscess in the left frontal lobe that extended to t...

Gamma oscillations in cognitive disorders.

Gamma oscillations (∼25-100 Hz) are believed to play a role in cognition. Accordingly, aberrant gamma oscillations have been observed in several cognitive disorders, including Alzheimer's disease and Fragile X syndrome. Here, we review how recent results showing abnormal gamma rhythms in Alzheimer's disease and Fragile X syndrome help reveal links between cellular disturbances and cognitive impairments. We also discuss how gamma results from rodent models of Alzheimer's disease and Fragile X syndrome ma...

Lower Prefrontal and Hippocampal Volume and Diffusion Tensor Imaging Differences Reflect Structural and Functional Abnormalities in Abstinent Individuals with Alcohol Use Disorder.

Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is known to have adverse effects on brain structure and function. Multimodal assessments investigating volumetric, diffusion, and cognitive characteristics may facilitate understanding of the consequences of long-term alcohol use on brain circuitry, their structural impairment patterns, and their impact on cognitive function in AUD.

The Neurobiology of the Male Sexual Refractory Period.

Despite having been recognized for many years, the mechanisms governing the male sexual refractory period (post-ejaculatory refractory period, post-ejaculatory interval) remain poorly understood. This review examines the brain and spinal areas putatively involved in this phenomenon to draw a coherent picture from the available data. It is hoped that this will reveal where further research will offer the potential for crucial insights on this topic.

Pericyte Plasticity in the Brain.

Cerebral pericytes are perivascular cells that stabilize blood vessels. Little is known about the plasticity of pericytes in the adult brain in vivo. Recently, using state-of-the-art technologies, including two-photon microscopy in combination with sophisticated Cre/loxP in vivo tracing techniques, a novel role of pericytes was revealed in vascular remodeling in the adult brain. Strikingly, after pericyte ablation, neighboring pericytes expand their processes and prevent vascular dilatation. This new knowle...

Mechanistic Insights into Human Brain Impact Dynamics through Modal Analysis.

Although concussion is one of the greatest health challenges today, our physical understanding of the cause of injury is limited. In this Letter, we simulated football head impacts in a finite element model and extracted the most dominant modal behavior of the brain's deformation. We showed that the brain's deformation is most sensitive in low frequency regimes close to 30 Hz, and discovered that for most subconcussive head impacts, the dynamics of brain deformation is dominated by a single global mode. In...

Clinical characteristics and course of post-operative brain abscess.

Cerebral abscesses after brain surgery are rare but severe and life threatening complications OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical aspects of those patients and thereby reveal risk factors, and the relevant aspects for their future therapy.

Corticosteroids and perinatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury.

Perinatal hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain injury is the major cause of neonatal mortality and severe long-term neurological morbidity. Yet, the effective therapeutic interventions currently available are extremely limited. Corticosteroids act on both mineralocorticoid (MR) and glucocorticoid (GR) receptors and modulate inflammation and apoptosis in the brain. Neuroinflammatory response to acute cerebral HI is a major contributor to the pathophysiology of perinatal brain injury. Here, we give an overview of curr...

A review of the non-equivalent control group post-test-only design.

Quantitative research designs are broadly classified as either experimental or quasi-experimental. The main distinguishing feature of the quasi-experiment is the manipulation of the independent variable without randomisation. When randomisation or use of a control group is unfeasible, a researcher can choose from a range of quasi-experimental designs.

Neural Circuitry Among Connecting the Hippocampus, Prefrontal Cortex and Basolateral Amygdala in a Mouse Depression Model: Associations Correlations Between BDNF Levels and BOLD - fMRI Signals.

Depression is a heterogeneous disorder, but the exact neuronal mechanisms causing the disease have not yet been discovered.

Development of Amygdala Functional Connectivity During Infancy and Its Relationship With 4-Year Behavioral Outcomes.

The amygdala represents a core node in the human brain's emotional signal processing circuitry. Given its critical role, both the typical and atypical functional connectivity patterns of the amygdala have been extensively studied in adults. However, the development of amygdala functional connectivity during infancy is less well studied; thus, our understanding of the normal growth trajectory of key emotion-related brain circuits during a critical period is limited.

Social Behavior: How the Brain Thinks like a Mom.

Becoming a parent changes our choices and actions. Identifying the underlying neural circuits is necessary to understand the transformation of an animal's behavior post-parenthood. Multiple nodes of the 'parenting circuit' have now been identified to reveal the workings of a single brain region key to the orchestration of parent-specific behaviors.

NeuroQuant® and NeuroGage® reveal effects of traumatic brain injury on brain volume.

This report describes the case of a 58-year-old man with moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI) and pre-accident brain disorders who had multiple persistent neuropsychiatric symptoms. NeuroQuant® 2.0 and NeuroGage® 2.0 MRI brain volume analyses were used during the chronic stage of injury (> 1 year after injury) to help understand the effects of the TBI on his brain volume. NeuroQuant® showed widespread cross-sectional atrophy, especially in the frontal and temporal lobes, consistent with encephalomalac...

Scaling of the corpus callosum in wild and domestic canids: Insights into the domesticated brain.

All domesticated mammals exhibit marked reductions in overall brain size, however, it is unknown whether the corpus callosum, an integral white matter fiber pathway for interhemispheric cortical communication, is affected by domestication differentially or strictly in coordination with changes in brain size. To answer this question, we used quantitative magnetic resonance imaging to compare the mid-sagittal cross-sectional areas of the corpus callosum in 35 carnivore species, including eight wild canids and...

The impact of type 1 diabetes on neural activity serving attention.

Type 1 diabetes has been associated with alterations in attentional processing and other cognitive functions, and previous studies have found alterations in both brain structure and function in affected patients. However, these previous neuroimaging studies have generally examined older patients, particularly those with major comorbidities known to affect functioning independent of diabetes. The primary aim of the current study was to examine the neural dynamics of selective attention processing in a young ...

The neonatal brain in critical congenital heart disease: Insights and future directions.

Neurodevelopmental outcomes are impaired in survivors of critical congenital heart disease (CHD) in several developmental domains including motor, cognitive and sensory outcomes. These deficits can extend into the adolescent and early adulthood years. The cause of these neurodevelopmental impairments is multi-factorial and includes patient specific risk factors, cardiac anatomy and physiology as well as brain changes seen on MRI. Advances in imaging techniques have identified delayed brain development in th...

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