PubMed Journals Articles About "Researcher Reveal Insights Into Brain Circuitry" RSS

00:07 EST 19th January 2019 | BioPortfolio

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Showing "Researcher reveal insights into brain circuitry" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 14,000+

Developmental change in the resting state electroencephalogram: Insights into cognition and the brain.

Resting state electroencephalography (RS-EEG) is a commonly used neurophysiological technique which provides a measure of brain activity when an individual is awake and not performing any assigned cognitive task. Because this relatively simple and non-invasive method is suitable for many ages and populations, a large and diverse literature has amassed. The focus of this review is to describe and synthesize RS-EEG literature across the lifespan while emphasizing the associations between RS-EEG and cognition....

Early human brain development: insights into macroscale connectome wiring.

Early brain development is closely dictated by distinct neurobiological principles. Here, we aimed to map early trajectories of structural brain wiring in the neonatal brain.

Activation of Ras in the Vascular Endothelium Induces Brain Vascular Malformations and Hemorrhagic Stroke.

Cerebrovascular malformations (CVMs) affect approximately 3% of the population, risking hemorrhagic stroke, seizures, and neurological deficits. Recently Ras mutations have been identified in a majority of brain arterio-venous malformations. We generated an endothelial-specific, inducible HRAS mouse model, which results in dilated, proliferative blood vessels in the brain, blood-brain barrier breakdown, intracerebral hemorrhage, and rapid lethality. Organoid morphogenesis models revealed abnormal cessation ...

Evaluating cellularity and structural connectivity on whole brain slides using a custom-made digital pathology pipeline.

In brain research, the histopathological examination of coronar whole-brain slides provides important insights into spatial disease characteristics. Regarding brain tumor research, this enables visualization of tumor heterogeneity, infiltration patterns and the relationship with the surrounding brain parenchyma. The precise correlation between radiological imaging and post-mortem brains is of special interest.

Plasticity and Adaptation in Adult Binocular Vision.

Understanding the relationship between changes in sensory perception and functional/structural changes in the brain is a major endeavor in the field of systems neuroscience. Progress in this area holds the potential to reveal how the brain adapts to the demands of a complex and changing environment, as well as to assist with the development of therapeutic interventions to reverse the negative effects of abnormal experience. The cells and circuits that make up the mammalian visual system provide a unique sci...

Degeneration of dopaminergic circuitry influences depressive symptoms in Lewy body disorders.

Depression is commonly observed even in prodromal stages of Lewy body disorders (LBD), and is associated with cognitive impairment and a faster rate of cognitive decline. Given the role of dopamine in the development of movement disorders, but also in motivation and reward, we investigated neurodegenerative pathology in dopaminergic circuitry in Parkinson's disease (PD), PD with dementia (PDD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) patients in relation to depressive symptoms.

Brain structure, cognition, and brain age in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and healthy controls.

Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder (BD) may be disorders of accelerated aging. Direct comparison of healthy aging populations with schizophrenia and BD patients across the adult lifespan may help inform this theory. In total, 225 individuals (91 healthy controls, 81 schizophrenia, 53 euthymic BD) underwent 3T T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion tensor imaging, and cognitive testing. We analyzed associations among age, diagnosis, and cognition with cortical thickness and fractional anisotropy (...

Regularizing firing patterns of rat subthalamic neurons ameliorates parkinsonian motor deficits.

The subthalamic nucleus (STN) is an effective therapeutic target for deep brain stimulation (DBS) for Parkinson's disease (PD) and histamine level is elevated in the basal ganglia in PD patients. However, the endogenous histaminergic modulation on STN neuronal activities and the neuronal mechanism underlying STN-DBS are unknown. Here we report that STN neuronal firing patterns are more crucial than firing rates for motor control. Histamine excited STN neurons, but paradoxically ameliorated parkinsonian moto...

Electrophysiological properties and projections of lateral hypothalamic parvalbumin positive neurons.

Cracking the cytoarchitectural organization, activity patterns, and neurotransmitter nature of genetically-distinct cell types in the lateral hypothalamus (LH) is fundamental to develop a mechanistic understanding of how activity dynamics within this brain region are generated and operate together through synaptic connections to regulate circuit function. However, the precise mechanisms through which LH circuits orchestrate such dynamics have remained elusive due to the heterogeneity of the intermingled and...

Development of tactile sensory circuits in the CNS.

Molecular identification of neuronal types and genetic and imaging approaches to characterize their properties reveal morphological, physiological and dynamic aspects of sensory circuit development. Here we focus on the mouse tactile sensory circuitry, with particular emphasis on the main trigeminal pathway that connects the whiskers, the major tactile organ in rodents, to the neocortex. At each level of this pathway, neurogenesis, axonal elongation, pathfinding, target recognition and circuit reorganizatio...

Tails of a Super Histone.

Diffuse intrinsic brain stem gliomas (DIPGs) with characteristic K27M mutation of H3.3 are lethal and poorly understood childhood cancers. In this issue of Cancer Cell, Larson et al. exploit a unique murine DIPG model with inducible, endogenous K27M expression to reveal insights into mechanisms of K27M-mediated transformation in DIPG.

Effects of acute Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol on next-day extinction recall is mediated by post-extinction resting-state brain dynamics.

We have previously demonstrated that an acute dose of Δ9-tetrahydrocanninbinol (THC), administered prior to extinction learning, facilitates later recall of extinction learning and modulates the underlying neural circuitry, including the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), hippocampus (HPC), and amygdala (AMYG). It remains unknown whether THC-induced changes in fear-extinction neural circuitry can be detected following extinction learning, which may reflect ongoing processes involved consolidation of t...

Progress in Brain Cannabinoid CB Receptor Research: From Genes to Behavior.

The type 2 cannabinoid receptor (CB2R) was initially regarded as a peripheral cannabinoid receptor. However, recent technological advances in gene detection, alongside the availability of transgenic mouse lines, indicate that CB2Rs are expressed in both neurons and glial cells in the brain under physiological and pathological conditions, and are involved in multiple functions at cellular and behavioral levels. Brain CB2Rs are inducible and neuroprotective via up-regulation in response to various insults, bu...

A Cell Atlas for the Mouse Brain.

Despite vast numbers of studies of stained cells in the mouse brain, no current brain atlas provides region-by-region neuron counts. In fact, neuron numbers are only available for about 4% of brain of regions and estimates often vary by as much as 3-fold. Here we provide a first 3D cell atlas for the whole mouse brain, showing cell positions constructed algorithmically from whole brain Nissl and gene expression stains, and compared against values from the literature. The atlas provides the densities and pos...

Spanish adaptation and validation of The Institutional Review Board Researcher Assessment Tool (IRB-RAT).

To assess the reliability and validity of the translated and culturally-adapted Institutional Review Board Researcher Assessment Tool (IRB-RAT) for Peruvian research ethics committees (RECs).

Large-scale Circuitry Interactions upon Earthquake Experiences Revealed by Recurrent Neural Networks.

Brain dynamics has recently received increasing interest due to its significant importance in basic and clinical neurosciences. However, due to inherent difficulties in both data acquisition and data analysis methods, studies on large-scale brain dynamics of mouse with local field potential (LFP) recording are very rare. In this paper, we did a series of works on modeling large-scale mouse brain dynamic activities responding to fearful earthquake. Based on LFP recording data from thirteen brain regions whic...

Gamma oscillations in cognitive disorders.

Gamma oscillations (∼25-100 Hz) are believed to play a role in cognition. Accordingly, aberrant gamma oscillations have been observed in several cognitive disorders, including Alzheimer's disease and Fragile X syndrome. Here, we review how recent results showing abnormal gamma rhythms in Alzheimer's disease and Fragile X syndrome help reveal links between cellular disturbances and cognitive impairments. We also discuss how gamma results from rodent models of Alzheimer's disease and Fragile X syndrome ma...

Lower Prefrontal and Hippocampal Volume and Diffusion Tensor Imaging Differences Reflect Structural and Functional Abnormalities in Abstinent Individuals with Alcohol Use Disorder.

Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is known to have adverse effects on brain structure and function. Multimodal assessments investigating volumetric, diffusion, and cognitive characteristics may facilitate understanding of the consequences of long-term alcohol use on brain circuitry, their structural impairment patterns, and their impact on cognitive function in AUD.

The Neurobiology of the Male Sexual Refractory Period.

Despite having been recognized for many years, the mechanisms governing the male sexual refractory period (post-ejaculatory refractory period, post-ejaculatory interval) remain poorly understood. This review examines the brain and spinal areas putatively involved in this phenomenon to draw a coherent picture from the available data. It is hoped that this will reveal where further research will offer the potential for crucial insights on this topic.

Pericyte Plasticity in the Brain.

Cerebral pericytes are perivascular cells that stabilize blood vessels. Little is known about the plasticity of pericytes in the adult brain in vivo. Recently, using state-of-the-art technologies, including two-photon microscopy in combination with sophisticated Cre/loxP in vivo tracing techniques, a novel role of pericytes was revealed in vascular remodeling in the adult brain. Strikingly, after pericyte ablation, neighboring pericytes expand their processes and prevent vascular dilatation. This new knowle...

Clinical characteristics and course of post-operative brain abscess.

Cerebral abscesses after brain surgery are rare but severe and life threatening complications OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical aspects of those patients and thereby reveal risk factors, and the relevant aspects for their future therapy.

A review of the non-equivalent control group post-test-only design.

Quantitative research designs are broadly classified as either experimental or quasi-experimental. The main distinguishing feature of the quasi-experiment is the manipulation of the independent variable without randomisation. When randomisation or use of a control group is unfeasible, a researcher can choose from a range of quasi-experimental designs.

Neural Circuitry Among Connecting the Hippocampus, Prefrontal Cortex and Basolateral Amygdala in a Mouse Depression Model: Associations Correlations Between BDNF Levels and BOLD - fMRI Signals.

Depression is a heterogeneous disorder, but the exact neuronal mechanisms causing the disease have not yet been discovered.

Development of Amygdala Functional Connectivity During Infancy and Its Relationship With 4-Year Behavioral Outcomes.

The amygdala represents a core node in the human brain's emotional signal processing circuitry. Given its critical role, both the typical and atypical functional connectivity patterns of the amygdala have been extensively studied in adults. However, the development of amygdala functional connectivity during infancy is less well studied; thus, our understanding of the normal growth trajectory of key emotion-related brain circuits during a critical period is limited.

Social Behavior: How the Brain Thinks like a Mom.

Becoming a parent changes our choices and actions. Identifying the underlying neural circuits is necessary to understand the transformation of an animal's behavior post-parenthood. Multiple nodes of the 'parenting circuit' have now been identified to reveal the workings of a single brain region key to the orchestration of parent-specific behaviors.

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