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PubMed Journals Articles About "Researchers Find Efficient Produce Neurons From Pluripotent Stem" RSS

09:15 EDT 25th September 2018 | BioPortfolio

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Showing "Researchers find efficient produce neurons from pluripotent stem" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 17,000+

Induction of pluripotent stem cells by reprogramming human ocular fibroblasts under xeno-free conditions.

To develop an efficient and xeno-free standard eye-derived induced pluripotent stem cell reprogramming protocol for use during induced pluripotent stem cell-based cell therapies in treating retinal degenerative diseases and to compare the relative effectiveness of both animal- and non-animal-derived culture systems in the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells.


Human Pluripotent Stem-Cell-Derived Cortical Neurons Integrate Functionally into the Lesioned Adult Murine Visual Cortex in an Area-Specific Way.

The transplantation of pluripotent stem-cell-derived neurons constitutes a promising avenue for the treatment of several brain diseases. However, their potential for the repair of the cerebral cortex remains unclear, given its complexity and neuronal diversity. Here, we show that human visual cortical cells differentiated from embryonic stem cells can be transplanted and can integrate successfully into the lesioned mouse adult visual cortex. The transplanted human neurons expressed the appropriate repertoir...

Leptomeninges-Derived Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells and Directly Converted Neurons From Autopsy Cases With Varying Neuropathologic Backgrounds.

Patient-specific stem cell technology from skin and other biopsy sources has transformed in vitro models of neurodegenerative disease, permitting interrogation of the effects of complex human genetics on neurotoxicity. However, the neuropathologic changes that underlie cognitive and behavioral phenotypes can only be determined at autopsy. To better correlate the biology of derived neurons with age-related and neurodegenerative changes, we generated leptomeningeal cell lines from well-characterized research ...


Evaluation of hollow fiber culture for large-scale production of mouse embryonic stem cell-derived hematopoietic stem cells.

Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) have the ability to differentiate into all types of blood cells and can be transplanted to treat blood disorders. However, it is difficult to obtain HSCs in large quantities because of the shortage of donors. Recent efforts have focused on acquiring HSCs by differentiation of pluripotent stem cells. As a conventional differentiation method of pluripotent stem cells, the formation of embryoid bodies (EBs) is often employed. However, the size of EBs is limited by depletion of o...

Efficient derivation of extended pluripotent stem cells from NOD-scid Il2rg mice.

Recently we have established a new culture condition enabling the derivation of extended pluripotent stem (EPS) cells, which, compared to conventional pluripotent stem cells, possess superior developmental potential and germline competence. However, it remains unclear whether this condition permits derivation of EPS cells from mouse strains that are refractory or non-permissive to pluripotent cell establishment. Here, we show that EPS cells can be robustly generated from non-permissive NOD-scid Il2rg mice t...

Defined Conditions for Differentiation of Functional Retinal Ganglion Cells From Human Pluripotent Stem Cells.

We aimed to establish an efficient method for retinal ganglion cell (RGC) differentiation from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) using defined factors.

Beating Heart Cells from Hair-Follicle-Associated Pluripotent (HAP) Stem Cells.

The neural stem-cell marker nestin is expressed in hair follicle stem cells located in the bulge area which are termed hair-follicle-associated pluripotent (HAP) stem cells. HAP stem cells can differentiate into neurons, glia, keratinocytes, smooth muscle cells, and melanocytes in vitro. Subsequently, we demonstrated that HAP stem cells could affect nerve and spinal cord regeneration in mouse models. We subsequently demonstrated that HAP stem cells differentiated into beating cardiac muscle cells. The diff...

The GluN2B subunit represents a major functional determinant of NMDA receptors in human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cortical neurons.

Abnormal signaling pathways mediated by N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of various CNS disorders and have been long considered as promising points of therapeutic intervention. However, few efforts have been previously described concerning evaluation of therapeutic modulators of NMDARs and their downstream pathways in human neurons with endogenous expression of NMDARs. In the present study, we assessed expression, functionality, and subunit composition of endo...

Establishment of an integration-free induced pluripotent stem cell line (MUSIi005-A) from exfoliated renal epithelial cells.

Human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) were generated from exfoliated renal epithelial cells isolated from a urine sample of a 31-year-old healthy woman. Epithelial cells were characterized for the expression of E-cadherin and reprogrammed using non-integrating Sendai viral vectors. The urine-derived iPSC line (designated as MUSIi005-A) was karyotypically normal, expressed pluripotent markers, differentiated into cells of three embryonic germ layers, and showed no viral and transgene expressions at pa...

Pluripotent stem cell replacement approaches to treat type 1 diabetes.

Stem cells represent a potential candidate for β cell replacement in type 1 diabetes. Pluripotent stem cells are able to differentiate in vitro into functional insulin producing cells, that can restore normoglycemia in diabetic mice. Clinical trials with embryonic stem cell-derived pancreatic progenitors are ongoing. Besides, induced pluripotent stem cells offer the chance of personalized cell therapy. So far, transition to the clinic still needs to face critical issues, such as immunogenicity and safety o...

Synaptic Microcircuit Modeling with 3D Cocultures of Astrocytes and Neurons from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells.

A barrier to our understanding of how various cell types and signals contribute to synaptic circuit function is the lack of relevant models for studying the human brain. One emerging technology to address this issue is the use of three dimensional (3D) neural cell cultures, termed 'organoids' or 'spheroids', for long term preservation of intercellular interactions including extracellular adhesion molecules. However, these culture systems are time consuming and not systematically generated. Here, we detail a...

Sequential Application of Discrete Topographical Patterns Enhances Derivation of Functional Mesencephalic Dopaminergic Neurons from Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

Parkinson's Disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder attributed to death of mesencephalic dopaminergic (DA) neurons. Pluripotent stem cells have great potential in the study for this late-onset disease, but acquirement of cells that are robust in quantity and quality is still technically demanding. Biophysical cues have been shown to direct stem cell fate, but the effect of different topographies in the lineage commitment and subsequent maturation stages of cells have been less examined. Using hu...

Modelling the Dorsal Root Ganglia using Human Pluripotent Stem Cells: A Platform to Study Peripheral Neuropathies.

Sensory neurons of the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) are the primary responders to stimuli inducing feelings of touch, pain, temperature, vibration, pressure and muscle tension. They consist of multiple subpopulations based on their morphology, molecular and functional properties. Our understanding of DRG sensory neurons has been predominantly driven by rodent studies and using transformed cell lines, whereas less is known about human sensory DRG neurons simply because of limited availability of human tissue. A...

Automated Closed-System Expansion of Pluripotent Stem Cell Aggregates in a Rocking-Motion Bioreactor.

Pluripotent stem cell suspension aggregates have proven to be an efficient and phenotypically stable means for expansion and directed differentiation. Bioreactor systems with automation of perfusion, fluidization, and gas exchange are essential for scaling up pluripotent stem cell cultures. Since stem cell pluripotency and differentiation are affected by both chemical and physical signals, we investigated a low-shear method for the expansion of cells in a rocking-motion bioreactor. The rocking motion drives...

A Simplified and Efficient Protocol for Derivation and Maintenance of High-Quality Mouse Primed Pluripotent Stem Cells Using Wnt Inhibition.

Epiblast stem cells (EpiSCs) are primed pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) derived from mouse postimplantation embryos. Interestingly, EpiSCs share many characteristics with human PSCs such as human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and human induced PSCs (hiPSC). Thus, EpiSCs can serve as a model for studying primed states of pluripotency. This article describes a simple yet highly efficient protocol for EpiSC derivation and maintenance of homogenous EpiSCs using an inhibitor of WNT secretion. Using this method, Epi...

Application of pluripotent stem cells for treatment of human neuroendocrine disorders.

The neuroendocrine system is composed of many types of functional cells. Matured cells are generally irreversible to progenitor cells and it is difficult to obtain enough from our body. Therefore, studying specific subtypes of human neuroendocrine cells in vitro has not been feasible. One of the solutions is pluripotent stem cells, such as embryonic stem (ES) cells and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. These are unlimited sources and, in theory, are able to give rise to all cell types of our body. There...

Induced Tissue-Specific Stem Cells and Epigenetic Memory in Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have significant implications for overcoming most of the ethical issues associated with embryonic stem (ES) cells. The pattern of expressed genes, DNA methylation, and covalent histone modifications in iPS cells are very similar to those in ES cells. However, it has recently been shown that, following the reprogramming of mouse/human iPS cells, epigenetic memory is inherited from the parental cells. These findings suggest that the phenotype of iPS cells may be influenced...

Generation of a human induced pluripotent stem cell line from urinary cells of a patient with primary congenital glaucoma using integration free Sendai technology.

We have generated a human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) line derived from urinary cells of a 10years old patient with primary congenital glaucoma (PCG). The cells were reprogrammed with the human OSKM transcription factors using the Sendai-virus delivery system and shown to have full differentiation potential. The line is available and registered in the human pluripotent stem cell registry as BIOi001-A.

Generation of a human induced pluripotent stem cell line, KSCBi003-A, from human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells using a chromosomal integration-free system.

We generated a human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) line, KSCBi003-A, from adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (Ad-MSCs) using a Sendai virus-based gene delivery system. We confirmed that the KSCBi003-A has a normal karyotype and short tandem repeat (STR)-based identities that match the parent cells. We also confirmed that the cell line expresses pluripotent stem cell markers such as Nanog, OCT4, SSEA-4, TRA-1-60, and TRA-1-81. We also analyzed that the KSCBi003-A has an ability to differen...

Application of induced pluripotent stem cell and embryonic stem cell technology to the study of male infertility.

Stem cells (SCs) are classes of undifferentiated biological cells existing only at the embryonic, fetal, and adult stages that can divide to produce specialized cell types during fetal development and remain in our bodies throughout life. The progression of regenerative and reproductive medicine owes the advancement of respective in vitro and in vivo biological science on the stem cell nature under appropriate conditions. The SCs are promising therapeutic tools to treat currently of infertility because of w...

Human Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Engineered Tissues: Clinical Considerations.

The combined power of human pluripotent stem cells and tissue engineering promises to revolutionize medicine by building tissue patches and artificial replacement organs for patients battling diverse diseases. Here, we articulate some big questions that need to be addressed before such engineered tissues become mainstream in the clinic.

State performance in pluripotent and adult stem cell research, 2009-2016.

To examine how the geographic distribution of pluripotent and adult stem cell research publications within the USA differs from other areas of biomedical research.

Retinal Cell Type DNA Methylation and Histone Modifications Predict Reprogramming Efficiency and Retinogenesis in 3D Organoid Cultures.

Diverse cell types can be reprogrammed into pluripotent stem cells by ectopic expression of Oct4 (Pou5f1), Klf4, Sox3, and Myc. Many of these induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) retain memory, in terms of DNA methylation and histone modifications (epigenetic memory), of their cellular origins, and this may bias subsequent differentiation. Neurons are difficult to reprogram, and there has not been a systematic side-by-side characterization of reprogramming efficiency or epigenetic memory across different ...

Pluripotent Stem Cell-based therapy for Parkinson's disease: current status and future prospects.

Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative disorders, which affects about 0.3% of the general population. As the population in the developed world ages, this creates an escalating burden on society both in economic terms and in quality of life for these patients and for the families that support them. Although currently available pharmacological or surgical treatments may significantly improve the quality of life of many patients with PD, these are symptomatic treatments that do no...

De Novo DNA Methylation: Marking the Path from Stem Cell to Neural Fate.

DNA methylation is an epigenetic mark that plays pivotal roles in gene regulation, but its functions in neural fate decisions are poorly understood. In this issue of Cell Stem Cell, Ziller et al. (2018) show that the de novo methyltransferase Dnmt3a ensures efficient generation of motor neurons from stem cells.


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