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20:11 EDT 15th September 2019 | BioPortfolio

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Showing "Researchers reverse stem cell aging process" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 39,000+

Aging of the Hematopoietic Stem Cell Niche: An Unnerving Matter.

The drivers of aging in the hematopoietic system remain incompletely understood. In this issue of Cell Stem Cell, Ho et al. (2019) report that functional switching of β-adrenergic nerve signaling underlies remodeling of stem cell niches, driving age-associated alterations in hematopoiesis.

FOXO3, a Molecular Search for the Fountain of Youth.

FOXO3 has been consistently associated with longevity and with a reduction in the prevalence of cardiovascular disease. In this issue, Yan et al. (2019) report that FOXO3-activated vascular cells derived from human embryonic stem cells (ESCs) promote multiple vascular functions and reverse cellular aging through the transcriptional repression of CSRP1.

Stem Cell Aging? Blame It on the Niche.

The molecular basis for the neural stem cell quiescence-to-activation transition has become an important focus in the study of adult neurogenesis. Recently in Cell, Kalamakis et al. (2019) show that aged neural stem cells face greater barriers to exiting quiescence, imposed by the niche through inflammation and altered Wnt signaling.

Opening the Black Box of Peer Review.

In this Backstory, Cell Stem Cell Senior Scientific Editor Jonathan Saxe presents a case study of two Cell Stem Cell papers published in 2018. Using the correspondences between authors, editors, and reviewers as tools, he provides broader insights and tips into navigating the journal's editorial consideration process.

Wild-type and SAMP8 mice show age-dependent changes in distinct stem cell compartments of the interfollicular epidermis.

Delayed wound healing and reduced barrier function with an increased risk of cancer are characteristics of aged skin and one possible mechanism is misregulation or dysfunction of epidermal stem cells during aging. Recent studies have identified heterogeneous stem cell populations within the mouse interfollicular epidermis that are defined by territorial distribution and cell division frequency; however, it is unknown whether the individual stem cell populations undergo distinct aging processes. Here we prov...

The Impact of Herbal Products in the Prevention, Regeneration and Delay of Skin Aging.

Skin aging is a complex process induced by intrinsic and extrinsic factors and causes alterations to the structural and functional aspects of the skin. Skin aging affects patients physically and physiologically. Understanding the process of skin aging can provide new knowledge on how to attenuate or reduce skin disorder symptoms. Herbs have been used for ages to prevent and treat skin aging, yet there are growing interests by researchers in this field globally. Various strategies have been developed for imp...

DNA damage in aging, the stem cell perspective.

DNA damage is one of the most consistent cellular process proposed to contribute to aging. The maintenance of genomic and epigenomic integrity is critical for proper function of cells and tissues throughout life, and this homeostasis is under constant strain from both extrinsic and intrinsic insults. Considering the relationship between lifespan and genotoxic burden, it is plausible that the longest-lived cellular populations would face an accumulation of DNA damage over time. Tissue-specific stem cells are...

Simultaneous Isolation of Stem and Niche Cells of Skeletal Muscle: Applicability for Aging Studies.

The maintenance of adult stem cells in their normal quiescent state depends on intrinsic factors and extrinsic signals originating from their microenvironment (also known as the stem cell niche). In skeletal muscle, its stem cells (satellite cells) lose their regenerative potential with aging, and this has been attributed, at least in part, to both age-associated changes in the satellite cells as in the niche cells, which include resident fibro-adipogenic progenitors (FAPs), macrophages, and endothelial cel...

NAD supplementation rejuvenates aged gut adult stem cells.

The tissue decline due to aging is associated with the deterioration of adult stem cell function. Here we show the number and proliferative activity of intestinal stem cells (ISCs) but not Paneth cells decline during aging, as does ISC function assessed ex vivo. Levels of SIRT1 and activity of mTORC1 also decline with aging. The treatment with the NAD(+) precursor nicotinamide riboside (NR) rejuvenates ISCs from aged mice and reverses an impaired ability to repair gut damage. The effect of NR is blocked by ...

Skeletal Muscle Progenitor Cell Heterogeneity.

Tissue-specific stem cells contribute to adult tissue maintenance, repair, and regeneration. In skeletal muscle, many different mononuclear cell types are capable of giving rise to differentiated muscle. Of these tissue stem-like cells, satellite cells (SCs) are the most studied muscle stem cell population and are widely considered the main cellular source driving muscle repair and regeneration in adult tissue. Within the satellite cell pool, many distinct subpopulations exist, each exhibiting differential...

Laminin-511 Supplementation Enhances Stem Cell Localization with Suppression in the Decline of Cardiac Function in Acute Infarct Rats.

The extracellular matrix (ECM), in particular, basement membrane components such as laminins (LMs), is essential for stem cell differentiation and self-renewal. LM511 and LM221 are the main ECM components of the epicardium, where stem cells were abundant. Here, we examined whether LMs affected the regeneration process by modulating stem cell activities.

Aging and lineage allocation changes of bone marrow skeletal (stromal) stem cells.

Aging is associated with decreased bone mass and accumulation of bone marrow adipocytes. Both bone forming osteoblastic cells and bone marrow adipocytes are derived from a stem cell population within the bone marrow stroma called bone marrow stromal (skeletal or mesenchymal) stem cells (BMSC). In the present review, we provide an overview, based on the current literature, regarding the physiological aging processes that cause changes in BMSC lineage allocation, enhancement of adipocyte and defective osteobl...

Setting our AdipoSIGHTS on Stem Cells in Pharmacogenomics.

In a recent study published in Cell Stem Cell, Hu et al. (2019) used human adipose stem cell-derived adipocytes to demonstrate that genetic variation predicts anti-diabetic response to thiazolidinediones (TZDs) by modulating PPARγ binding.

Loss of Slug Compromises DNA Damage Repair and Accelerates Stem Cell Aging in Mammary Epithelium.

DNA damage activates checkpoints that limit the replicative potential of stem cells, including differentiation. These checkpoints protect against cancer development but also promote tissue aging. Because mice lacking Slug/Snai2 exhibit limited stem cell activity, including luminobasal differentiation, and are protected from mammary cancer, we reasoned that Slug might regulate DNA damage checkpoints in mammary epithelial cells. Here, we show that Slug facilitates efficient execution of RPA32-mediated DNA dam...

CoQ10 and Aging.

The aging process includes impairment in mitochondrial function, a reduction in anti-oxidant activity, and an increase in oxidative stress, marked by an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Oxidative damage to macromolecules including DNA and electron transport proteins likely increases ROS production resulting in further damage. This oxidative theory of cell aging is supported by the fact that diseases associated with the aging process are marked by increased oxidative stress. Coenzyme Q10...

Nanoparticle technology and stem cell therapy team up against neurodegenerative disorders.

The convergence of nanoparticles and stem cell therapy holds great promise for the study, diagnosis, and treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. By combining nanoparticles with stem cell therapies, researchers aim to harness the power of nanoparticles to carefully modulate their microenvironment to enhance the survival and success of stem cell transplants. Understanding the various properties of different nanoparticles is key to applying them to clinical therapies; the many distinct types of nanoparticles...

YAP/Yorkie in the germline modulates the age-related decline of germline stem cells and niche cells.

The properties and behaviour of stem cells rely heavily on signaling from the local microenvironment. At the apical end of Drosophila testis, self-renewal and differentiation of germline stem cells (GSCs) are tightly controlled by distinct somatic cells that comprise a specialised stem cell niche known as the hub. The hub maintains GSC homeostasis through adhesion and cell signaling. The Salvador/Warts/Hippo (SWH) pathway, which suppresses the transcriptional co-activator YAP/Yki via a kinase cascade, is a ...

Hematopoietic Stem Cell Intracellular Levels of Ca to the Rescue! What Next?

Calcium ions (Ca), ubiquitous signaling and second messenger molecules, are communicators for the transmission of messages in numerous cell functions. In this issue of Cell Stem Cell, Luchsinger et al. (2019) provide evidence through the use of transplantation and mechanistic studies for the finding that, "Harnessing Hematopoietic Stem Cell Low Intracellular Calcium Improves Their Maintenance In Vitro."

RALying Regeneration through Wnt Internalization in Stem Cells.

In this issue of Cell Stem Cell, Johansson et al. (2019) find evolutionarily conserved regulation of Wnt signaling through Ral GTPases. These GTPases promote internalization of Wnt receptor complexes and play a critical role in intestinal stem cell function in flies and mice.

Functional Multipotency of Stem Cells: Biological Traits Gleaned from Neural Progeny Studies.

In this review, a stem cell concept, initially defined by the author more than 10 years ago focusing on neural stem cells, has been systematically refined and updated. Relative to the conventional view which touched principally on the totipotency, pluripotentcy and multipotency of cell lineage differentiation (e.g., the ability of neural stem cells to grow into all three types of neural cells), accumulated data obtained by other researchers and my own team promoted Functional Multipotency; Totipotency; Plur...

Red Deer Umbilical Cord Lining Mesenchymal Stem Cell Extract Cream for Rejuvenation of the Face

Background: Aging is a multifactorial process that involves all components of the skin. Both intrinsic and extrinsic forces play a role in this aging process. A new patented protein mix derived from red deer umbilical cord lining stem cell conditioned media (Calecim® Multi Action Cream, CellResearch Corporation, Singapore) has been developed to improve the signs of aging. The extract is the conditioned media from umbilical cord lining mesenchymal stem cell culture in basal media and consists of a mixture, ...

Toward a Universal Solution: Editing Compatibility into Pluripotent Stem Cells.

In this issue of Cell Stem Cell, Xu et al. (2019) demonstrate that editing iPSCs' major histocompatibility antigens may potentially provide a small set of universally compatible stem cell lines for therapies. However, these modifications may result in patient minor histocompatibility responses and deficiencies in their T cell response repertoire to infection and cancer.

Zebrafish embryo extract counteracts human stem cell senescence.

Human adult stem cells hold promise for regenerative medicine. They are usually expanded for multiple passages to increase cell yield prior to transplantation. Unfortunately, prolonged culture leads to cell senescence, a major drawback from successful outcomes in cell therapy approaches. Here, we show that an extract from early Zebrafish embryo (ZF1) counteracted senescence progression in human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) along multiple culture passages (from the 5th to the 20th). Exposure to ZF1 st...

Lysosomes Dare Cells to be Different(iated).

In this issue of Cell Stem Cell, Villegas et al. (2019) used a genome-wide CRISPR screen to identify ESC pluripotency regulators, which generated insights into how signaling from lysosome enables cells to transcriptionally regulate their metabolism. Further investigation of human genetics identified a human developmental disease arising from a defect in this process.

Transcriptional Profiling of Stem Cells: Moving from Descriptive to Predictive Paradigms.

Transcriptional profiling is a powerful tool commonly used to benchmark stem cells and their differentiated progeny. As the wealth of stem cell data builds in public repositories, we highlight common data traps, and review approaches to combine and mine this data for new cell classification and cell prediction tools. We touch on future trends for stem cell profiling, such as single-cell profiling, long-read sequencing, and improved methods for measuring molecular modifications on chromatin and RNA that brin...

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