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PubMed Journals Articles About "Researchers Unravel Mechanisms That Control Cell Size" RSS

15:18 EDT 16th June 2019 | BioPortfolio

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Showing "Researchers unravel mechanisms that control cell size" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 51,000+

A Visual Framework for Classifying Determinants of Cell Size.

Cells control their size by coordinating cell cycle progression with volume growth. Size control is typically studied at specific cell cycle transitions that are delayed or accelerated depending on size. This focus is well suited for revealing mechanisms acting at these transitions, but neglects the dynamics in other cell cycle phases, and is therefore inherently limited for studying how the characteristic cell size is determined. We address this limitation through a formalism that intuitively visualizes ...


Unravelling nuclear size control.

Correlation between nuclear and cell size, the nucleocytoplasmic ratio, is a cellular phenomenon that has been reported throughout eukaryotes for more than a century but the mechanisms that achieve it are not well understood. Here, we review work that has shed light on the cellular processes involved in nuclear size control. These studies have implicated nucleocytoplasmic transport, LINC complexes, RNA processing, regulation of nuclear envelope expansion and partitioning of importin α in nuclear size contr...

Control of grain size by G-protein signaling in rice.

Heterotrimeric G proteins are involved in multiple cellular processes in eukaryotes by sensing and transducing various signals. G-protein signaling in plants is quite different from that in animals, and the mechanisms of plant G-protein signaling are still largely unknown. Several recent studies have provided new insights into the mechanisms of G protein signaling in rice grain size and yield control. In this review, we summarize recent advances on the function of G proteins in rice grain size control, and ...


The microRNA-306/abrupt regulatory axis controls wing and haltere growth in Drosophila.

Growth control relies on extrinsic and intrinsic mechanisms that regulate and coordinate the size and pattern of organisms. This control is crucial for a homeostatic development and healthy physiology. The gene networks acting in this process are large and complex: factors involved in growth control are also important in diverse biological processes and these networks include multiple regulators that interact and respond to intra- and extra-cellular inputs that may ultimately converge in the control of the ...

A systematic genetic screen identifies essential factors involved in nuclear size control.

Nuclear size correlates with cell size, but the mechanism by which this scaling is achieved is not known. Here we screen fission yeast gene deletion mutants to identify essential factors involved in this process. Our screen has identified 25 essential factors that alter nuclear size, and our analysis has implicated RNA processing and LINC complexes in nuclear size control. This study has revealed lower and more extreme higher nuclear size phenotypes and has identified global cellular processes and specific ...

Inborn errors of immunity: single mutations unravel mechanisms of immune disease.

Dot6 Is a Major Regulator of Cell Size and a Transcriptional Activator of Ribosome Biogenesis in the Opportunistic Yeast .

In most species, size homeostasis appears to be exerted in late G1 phase as cells commit to division, called Start in yeast and the Restriction Point in metazoans. This size threshold couples cell growth to division and thereby establishes long-term size homeostasis. Our former investigations have shown that hundreds of genes markedly altered cell size under homeostatic growth conditions in the opportunistic yeast , but surprisingly only few of these overlapped with size control genes in the budding yeast ...

Mammalian Pum1 and Pum2 Control Body Size via Translational Regulation of the Cell Cycle Inhibitor Cdkn1b.

Body and organ size regulation in mammals involves multiple signaling pathways and remains largely enigmatic. Here, we report that Pum1 and Pum2, which encode highly conserved PUF RNA-binding proteins, regulate mouse body and organ size by post-transcriptional repression of the cell cycle inhibitor Cdkn1b. Binding of PUM1 or PUM2 to Pumilio binding elements (PBEs) in the 3' UTR of Cdkn1b inhibits translation, promoting G1-S transition and cell proliferation. Mice with null mutations in Pum1 and Pum2 exhibit...

Mathematical model and computer simulations of telomere loss.

The molecular mechanisms that control the limited number of human cell divisions has occupied researchers ever since its first description in 1961. There is evidence that this limited growth capacity, referred to as cellular or replicative senescence, is the basis for organismal ageing. Numerous studies point to the molecular mechanisms of telomere involvement in this phenomenon. A hallmark of cell senescence is high stochasticity where individual cells enter senescence in a completely random and stochastic...

Upregulation of E93 Gene Expression Acts as the Trigger for Metamorphosis Independently of the Threshold Size in the Beetle Tribolium castaneum.

Body size in holometabolous insects is determined by the size at which the juvenile larva undergoes metamorphosis to the pupal stage. To undergo larva-pupa transition, larva must reach a critical developmental checkpoint, the threshold size (TS); however, the molecular mechanisms through which the TS cues this transition remain to be fully characterized. Here, we use the flour beetle Tribolium castaneum to characterize the molecular mechanisms underlying entry into metamorphosis. We found that T. castaneum...

When size matters - coordination of growth and cell cycle in bacteria.

Bacterial cells often inhabit environments where conditions can change rapidly. Therefore, a lot of bacterial species developed control strategies allowing them to grow and divide very fast during feast and slow down both parameters during famine. Under rich nutritional conditions, fast-growing bacteria can divide with time interval equal to half of the period required to synthesize their chromosomes. This is possible due to multifork replication which allows ancestor cells to start copying genetic material...

How the cell cycle clock ticks.

Eukaryotic cell division has been studied thoroughly and is understood in great mechanistic detail. Paradoxically, however, we lack an understanding of its core control process, in which the master regulator of the cell cycle, cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK), temporally coordinates an array of complex molecular events. The core elements of the CDK control system are conserved in eukaryotic cells, which contain multiple cyclin-CDK forms that have poorly defined and partially overlapping responsibilities in the...

Developmental Diversity in Cell Division Mechanisms.

Cytokinesis is the subject of intense study, but mechanisms underlying contractility and cell shape change in cytokinesis are still being defined. Furthermore, it is unknown how contractile mechanisms vary among cell types and throughout development. Recent findings uncover differential molecular requirements for cytokinesis depending on cell fate and embryonic context.

Control by cell size.

The p38/HOG stress-activated protein kinase network couples growth to division in Candida albicans.

Cell size is a complex trait that responds to developmental and environmental cues. Quantitative size analysis of mutant strain collections disrupted for protein kinases and transcriptional regulators in the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans uncovered 66 genes that altered cell size, few of which overlapped with known size genes in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A potent size regulator specific to C. albicans was the conserved p38/HOG MAPK module that mediates the osmostress response. Basal HOG...

The Multiple Ways Nuclei Scale on a Multinucleated Muscle Cell Scale.

In mononucleated cells, nuclear size scales with cell size, but does this relationship extend to multinucleated cells? In this issue of Developmental Cell,Windner et al. (2019) examine scaling of nuclei in multinucleated Drosophila muscle fibers and identify global and local cellular inputs that contribute to nuclear size regulation.

Cytotoxicity of nanoparticles - Are the size and shape only matters? or the media parameters too?: a study on band engineered ZnS nanoparticles and calculations based on equivolume stress model.

Size dependent cytotoxicity of ZnS nanoparticles (NPs) was investigated in Human embryonic kidney (HEK-293) cell lines by MTT assay. The cells were incubated with varying concentration of ZnS NPs of sizes 4 nm, 10 nm and 25 nm for 48 h under different (cell culture) media viscosity conditions. The results showed that the toxicity is decreased with the particle size while it is negatively correlated with the viscosity of the media. Theoretical calculations were performed, by assuming equivolume stress model ...

Comparative transcriptome analysis of sinonasal inverted papilloma and associated squamous cell carcinoma: Out-HOXing developmental genes.

Sinonasal papilloma has a tendency toward local destruction, recurrence, and malignant transformation. This study aimed to unravel mechanisms in the malignant transformation of sinonasal papillomas using RNA-seq.

Size-dependent cytotoxicity of silver nanoparticles to Azotobacter vinelandii: Growth inhibition, cell injury, oxidative stress and internalization.

The influence of nanomaterials on the ecological environment is becoming an increasingly hot research field, and many researchers are exploring the mechanisms of nanomaterial toxicity on microorganisms. Herein, we studied the effect of two different sizes of nanosilver (10 nm and 50 nm) on the soil nitrogen fixation by the model bacteria Azotobacter vinelandii. Smaller size AgNPs correlated with higher toxicity, which was evident from reduced cell numbers. Flow cytometry analysis further confirmed this find...

AKTivation mechanisms.

Akt1-3 (Akt) are a subset of the AGC protein Ser/Thr kinase family and play important roles in cell growth, metabolic regulation, cancer, and other diseases. We describe some of the roles of Akt in cell signaling and the biochemical and structural mechanisms of the regulation of Akt catalysis by the phospholipid PIP3 and by phosphorylation. Recent findings highlight a diverse set of strategies to control Akt catalytic activity to ensure its normal biological functions.

Cardiac sympathetic innervation network shapes the myocardium by locally controlling cardiomyocyte size through the cellular proteolytic machinery.

The heart is innervated by a dense sympathetic neuron network which, in the short term, controls chronotropy and inotropy and, in the long term, regulates cardiomyocyte size. Acute neurogenic control of heart rate is achieved locally, through direct neuro-cardiac coupling at specific junctional sites (Neuro-Cardiac Junctions). The ventricular sympathetic network topology is well-defined and characteristic for each mammalian species. Here, we used cell size regulation to determine whether long-term modulatio...

Stable Pom1 clusters form a glucose-modulated concentration gradient that regulates mitotic entry.

Control of cell size requires molecular size sensors that are coupled to the cell cycle. Rod-shaped fission yeast cells divide at a threshold size partly due to Cdr2 kinase, which forms nodes at the medial cell cortex where it inhibits the Cdk1-inhibitor Wee1. Pom1 kinase phosphorylates and inhibits Cdr2, and forms cortical concentration gradients from cell poles. Pom1 inhibits Cdr2 signaling to Wee1 specifically in small cells, but the time and place of their regulatory interactions were unclear. We show t...

Dying under pressure: cellular characterisation and in vivo functions of cell death induced by compaction.

Cells and tissues are exposed to multiple mechanical stresses during development, tissue homeostasis and diseases. While we start to have an extensive understanding of the influence of mechanics on cell differentiation and proliferation, how excessive mechanical stresses can also lead to cell death and may be associated with pathologies has been much less explored so far . Recently, the development of new perturbative approaches allowing modulation of pressure and deformation of tissues has demonstrated tha...

The awesome power of optogenetics in hearing research.

The use of light as a tool to manipulate cellular processes or optogenetics has developed rapidly in various biological fields over the past decade. Through the addition of photosensitive proteins, light can be used to control intracellular mechanisms, map neuronal pathways, and alter variables that would be difficult to control using other mechanisms. Photons of a specific wavelength affect these light sensitive targets for in vitro or in vivo experiments. Optogenetics is beneficial because it gives the in...

Isolation of Lipid Cell Envelope Components from Acinetobacter baumannii.

With the increasing occurrence of antibiotic resistance among Acinetobacter sp., the race is on for researchers to not only isolate resistant isolates but also utilize basic and applied microbiological techniques to study mechanisms of resistance. For many antibiotics, the limit of efficacy against Gram-negative bacteria is dependent on its ability to permeate the outer membrane and access its target. As such, it is critical that researchers be able to isolate and analyze the lipid components of the cell en...


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