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PubMed Journals Articles About "Rift Valley Fever Virus Infection Mechanism Identified" RSS

11:19 EDT 19th September 2018 | BioPortfolio

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Showing "Rift Valley fever virus infection mechanism identified" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 29,000+

Equine immunoglobulin F(ab') fragments protect mice from Rift Valley fever virus infection.

Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is an emerging arbovirus in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula, in which infection with RVFV poses a serious threat to humans and livestock globally. Approved treatments for RVFV infection, especially for use in humans, have not yet been developed. There is an urgent need for effective drugs to prevent RVFV disease.


Prevalence and risk factors of Rift Valley fever in humans and animals from Kabale district in Southwestern Uganda, 2016.

Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a zoonotic disease caused by Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) found in Africa and the Middle East. Outbreaks can cause extensive morbidity and mortality in humans and livestock. Following the diagnosis of two acute human RVF cases in Kabale district, Uganda, we conducted a serosurvey to estimate RVFV seroprevalence in humans and livestock and to identify associated risk factors.

Culex flavivirus infection in a Culex pipiens mosquito colony and its effects on vector competence for Rift Valley fever phlebovirus.

Rift Valley fever is a mosquito-borne zoonotic disease that affects domestic ruminants and humans. Culex flavivirus is an insect-specific flavivirus that naturally exists in field mosquito populations. The influence of Culex flavivirus on Rift Valley fever phlebovirus (RVFV) vector competence of Culex pipiens has not been investigated.


Galidesivir limits Rift Valley fever virus infection and disease in Syrian golden hamsters.

Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a mosquito-borne pathogen endemic to sub-Saharan Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. There are no approved antiviral therapies or vaccines available to treat or prevent severe disease associated with RVFV infection in humans. The adenosine analogue, galidesivir (BCX4430), is a broad-spectrum antiviral drug candidate with in vitro antiviral potency (EC of less than 50 μM) in more than 20 different viruses across eight different virus families. Here we report on the activity...

Systematic literature review of Rift Valley fever virus seroprevalence in livestock, wildlife and humans in Africa from 1968 to 2016.

Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a zoonotic arbovirus that causes severe disease in livestock and humans. The virus has caused recurrent outbreaks in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula since its discovery in 1931. This review sought to evaluate RVFV seroprevalence across the African continent in livestock, wildlife and humans in order to understand the spatio-temporal distribution of RVFV seroprevalence and to identify knowledge gaps and areas requiring further research. Risk factors associated with seroposi...

Rift Valley Fever: A survey of knowledge, attitudes, and practice of slaughterhouse workers and community members in Kabale District, Uganda.

Rift Valley Fever virus (RVF) is a zoonotic virus in the Phenuiviridae family. RVF outbreaks can cause significant morbidity and mortality in humans and animals. Following the diagnosis of two RVF cases in March 2016 in southern Kabale district, Uganda, we conducted a knowledge, attitudes and practice (KAP) survey to identify knowledge gaps and at-risk behaviors related to RVF.

Correction: Phosphoproteomic analysis reveals Smad protein family activation following Rift Valley fever virus infection.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0191983.].

Enhanced surveillance for Rift Valley Fever in livestock during El Niño rains and threat of RVF outbreak, Kenya, 2015-2016.

In mid-2015, the United States' Pandemic Prediction and Forecasting Science and Technical Working Group of the National Science and Technology Council, Food and Agriculture Organization Emergency Prevention Systems, and Kenya Meteorological Department issued an alert predicting a high possibility of El-Niño rainfall and Rift Valley Fever (RVF) epidemic in Eastern Africa.

Combination Kinase Inhibitor Treatment Suppresses Rift Valley Fever Virus Replication.

Viruses must parasitize host cell translational machinery in order to make proteins for viral progeny. In this study, we sought to use this signal transduction conduit against them by inhibiting multiple kinases that influence translation. Previous work indicated that several kinases involved in translation, including p70 S6K, p90RSK, ERK, and p38 MAPK, are phosphorylated following Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) infection. Furthermore, inhibiting p70 S6K through treatment with the FDA approved drug rapamyci...

Expression of a Recombinant Nucleocapsid Protein of Rift Valley Fever Virus in Vero Cells as an Immunofluorescence Antigen and Its Use for Serosurveillance in Traditional Cattle Herds in Zambia.

The open reading frame of the nucleocapsid protein (NP) of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) strain MP12 was cloned and expressed in Vero E6 cells. The recombinant NP (rNP)-expressing cells were used as antigens for an indirect immunofluorescent antibody assay (IFA). The rNP-based IFA and RVFV-infected Vero E6 cell (authentic antigen)-based IFA showed similar IFA profiles with immune rabbit serum, which was prepared by immunization with rNP expressed using a baculovirus vector. A total of 942 traditional cattl...

Rift Valley fever in animals and humans: Current perspectives.

Rift Valley fever (RVF) is an ecologically complex emerging arboviral disease that causes significant illness in both livestock and people. This review article is designed to assist the reader in understanding the varied aspects of RVF disease in animals and humans. The historical facets of RVF disease, including the evolution of human outbreaks, are presented and discussed. The different clinical presentations of human RVF disease and the underlying causes are then addressed. We explore the exposure and tr...

Development of monoclonal antibodies to Rift Valley Fever Virus and their application in antigen detection and indirect immunofluorescence.

Rift Valley fever virus is a mosquito-borne virus which is associated with acute hemorrhagic fever leading to large outbreaks among ruminants and humans in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. RVFV circulates between mosquitoes, ruminants, camels and humans, which requires divergent amplification and maintenance strategies that have not been fully explored on the cellular and molecular level. We therefore assessed monoclonal antibodies for their applicability to monitor the expression pattern and kinetics of v...

Preliminary evaluation of diagnostic accuracy and precision of a competitive ELISA for detection of antibodies to Rift Valley fever virus in cattle and sheep sera.

Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), a mosquito-borne, zoonotic pathogen, is endemic to sub-Saharan Africa and has spread beyond the continent to the Arabian Peninsula. The high likelihood of RVFV's spread to other non-endemic countries spurs the need for development and implementation of rapid diagnostic tests and surveillance programs. In this preliminary evaluation, we assessed the diagnostic accuracy and precision of a recombinant RVFV nucleoprotein based competitive ELISA (cELISA) assay to detect RVFV antib...

Rift Valley fever vaccines: current and future needs.

Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a zoonotic mosquito-borne bunyaviral disease associated with high abortion rates, neonatal deaths, and fetal malformations in ruminants, and mild to severe disease in humans. Outbreaks of RVF cause huge economic losses and public health impacts in endemic countries in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. A proper vaccination strategy is important for preventing or minimizing outbreaks. Vaccination against RVF is not practiced in many countries, however, due to absence or irregular oc...

Novel activities of safe-in-human broad-spectrum antiviral agents.

According to the WHO, there is an urgent need for better control of viral diseases. Re-positioning existing safe-in-human antiviral agents from one viral disease to another could play a pivotal role in this process. Here, we reviewed all approved, investigational and experimental antiviral agents, which are safe in man, and identified 59 compounds that target at least three viral diseases. We tested 55 of these compounds against eight different RNA and DNA viruses. We found novel activities for dalbavancin ...

Identification of Dengue and Chikungunya Cases Among Suspected Cases of Yellow Fever in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

For more than 95% of acute febrile jaundice cases identified through surveillance for yellow fever, a reemerging arthropod-borne viral disease, no etiological exploration is ever done. The aim of this study was to test for other arthropod-borne viruses that can induce the same symptoms in patients enrolled in the yellow fever surveillance in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Of 652 patients included in the surveillance of yellow fever in DRC from January 2003 to January 2012, 453 patients that tes...

A phytosociological analysis and description of wetland vegetation and ecological factors associated with locations of high mortality for the 2010-11 Rift Valley fever outbreak in South Africa.

Rift Valley fever (RVF) is endemic in Africa and parts of the Middle East. It is an emerging zoonotic disease threat to veterinary and public health. Outbreaks of the disease have severe socio-economic impacts. RVF virus emergence is closely associated with specific endorheic wetlands that are utilized by the virus' mosquito vectors. Limited botanical vegetation surveys had been published with regard to RVF virus (RVFV) ecology. We report on a phytosociological classification, analysis and description of we...

Attenuation and efficacy of live-attenuated Rift Valley fever virus vaccine candidates in non-human primates.

Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is an important mosquito-borne veterinary and human pathogen that has caused large outbreaks of severe disease throughout Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. Currently, no licensed vaccine or therapeutics exists to treat this potentially deadly disease. The explosive nature of RVFV outbreaks and the severe consequences of its accidental or intentional introduction into RVFV-free areas provide the impetus for the development of novel vaccine candidates for use in both livestock a...

Prevalence of Selected Zoonotic Diseases and Risk Factors at a Human-Wildlife-Livestock Interface in Mpumalanga Province, South Africa.

A lack of surveillance and diagnostics for zoonotic diseases in rural human clinics limits clinical awareness of these diseases. We assessed the prevalence of nine zoonotic pathogens in a pastoral, low-income, HIV-endemic community bordering wildlife reserves in South Africa. Two groups of participants were included: malaria-negative acute febrile illness (AFI) patients, called febrilers, at three clinics (n = 74) and second, farmers, herders, and veterinary staff found at five government cattle dip-tan...

Diffusing Wild Type and Sterile Mosquitoes in an Optimal Control Setting.

This paper develops an optimal control framework to investigate the introduction of sterile type mosquitoes to reduce the overal moquito population. As is well known, mosquitoes are vectors of disease. For instance the WHO lists, among other diseases, Malaria, Dengue Fever, Rift Valley Fever, Yellow Fever, Chikungunya Fever and Zika. [http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs387/en/ ] The goal is to establish the existence of a solution given an optimal sterilization protocol as well as to develop the co...

G119S ace-1 mutation conferring insecticide resistance detected in the Culex pipiens complex in Morocco.

Arboviruses are controlled through insecticide control of their mosquito vector. However, inconsiderate use of insecticides often results in the selection of resistance in treated populations, so that monitoring is required to optimize their usage. Here, Culex pipiens (West Nile and Rift Valley Fever virus vector) specimens were collected from four Moroccan cities. Levels of susceptibility to the organophosphate (OP) insecticide malathion were assessed using WHO-recommended bioassays. Individual mosquitoes ...

Inhibition of Japanese encephalitis virus infection by the host zinc-finger antiviral protein.

CCCH-type zinc-finger antiviral protein (ZAP) is a host factor that restricts the infection of many viruses mainly through RNA degradation, translation inhibition and innate immune responses. So far, only one flavivirus, yellow fever virus, has been reported to be ZAP-resistant. Here, we investigated the antiviral potential of human ZAP (isoform ZAP-L and ZAP-S) against three flaviviruses, Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), dengue virus (DENV) and Zika virus (ZIKV). Infection of JEV but not DENV or ZIKV was...

Development of a real time reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification method (RT-LAMP) for detection of a novel swine acute diarrhea syndrome Coronavirus (SADS-CoV).

A novel swine acute diarrhea syndrome Coronavirus (SADS-CoV) that causes severe diarrhea in suckling piglets was identified in southern China in 2017. A simple and rapid detection test was developed for this virus using real-time RT-LAMP based on the conserved N gene of the virus. The method had a detection limit of 1.0 × 10 copies/µL with no cross-reactions with classical swine fever virus, porcine and respiratory syndrome virus NA, porcine and respiratory syndrome virus EU, transmissible gastroenter...

Beyond structures of highly symmetric purified viral capsids by cryo-EM.

Cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-EM) is widely used to determine high-resolution structures of symmetric virus capsids. The method holds promise for extending studies beyond purified capsids and their symmetric protein shells. The non-symmetric genome component has been addressed in dsRNA cypoviruses and ssRNA bacteriophages Qβ and MS2. The structure of human herpes simplex virus type 1 capsids has been determined within intact virions to resolve capsid-tegument interactions. Electron tomog...

Seneca Valley Virus 3Cpro abrogates the IRF3- and IRF7-mediated innate immune response by degrading IRF3 and IRF7.

Seneca Valley Virus (SVV) is a newly emerged virus belonging to the family Picornaviridae. Basic knowledge of the immunological response to SVV is limited. To date, one study has demonstrated that SVV 3Cpro mediates the cleavage of host MAVS, TRIF, and TANK at specific sites and consequently escapes the host's antiviral innate immunity. In this study, we show that SVV 3Cpro reduces IRF3 and IRF7 protein expression level and phosphorylation. SVV infection also reduces expression of IRF3 and IRF7 protein. The...


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