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PubMed Journals Articles About "Rift Valley Fever Virus Infection Mechanism Identified" RSS

11:07 EST 14th November 2018 | BioPortfolio

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Showing "Rift Valley fever virus infection mechanism identified" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 30,000+

Equine immunoglobulin F(ab') fragments protect mice from Rift Valley fever virus infection.

Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is an emerging arbovirus in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula, in which infection with RVFV poses a serious threat to humans and livestock globally. Approved treatments for RVFV infection, especially for use in humans, have not yet been developed. There is an urgent need for effective drugs to prevent RVFV disease.


Prevalence and risk factors of Rift Valley fever in humans and animals from Kabale district in Southwestern Uganda, 2016.

Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a zoonotic disease caused by Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) found in Africa and the Middle East. Outbreaks can cause extensive morbidity and mortality in humans and livestock. Following the diagnosis of two acute human RVF cases in Kabale district, Uganda, we conducted a serosurvey to estimate RVFV seroprevalence in humans and livestock and to identify associated risk factors.

Culex flavivirus infection in a Culex pipiens mosquito colony and its effects on vector competence for Rift Valley fever phlebovirus.

Rift Valley fever is a mosquito-borne zoonotic disease that affects domestic ruminants and humans. Culex flavivirus is an insect-specific flavivirus that naturally exists in field mosquito populations. The influence of Culex flavivirus on Rift Valley fever phlebovirus (RVFV) vector competence of Culex pipiens has not been investigated.


Galidesivir limits Rift Valley fever virus infection and disease in Syrian golden hamsters.

Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a mosquito-borne pathogen endemic to sub-Saharan Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. There are no approved antiviral therapies or vaccines available to treat or prevent severe disease associated with RVFV infection in humans. The adenosine analogue, galidesivir (BCX4430), is a broad-spectrum antiviral drug candidate with in vitro antiviral potency (EC of less than 50 μM) in more than 20 different viruses across eight different virus families. Here we report on the activity...

Vascular permeability in the brain is a late pathogenic event during Rift Valley fever virus encephalitis in rats.

Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a zoonotic disease of livestock that causes several clinical outcomes in people including febrile disease, hemorrhagic fever, and/or encephalitis. After aerosol infection with RVFV, Lewis rats develop lethal encephalitic disease, and we use this as a model for studying disease mechanisms of RVFV infection in the brain. Permeability of the brain vasculature in relation to virus invasion and replication is not known. Here, we found that vascular permeability in the brain occu...

Serological evidence of inter-epizootic/inter-epidemic circulation of Rift Valley fever virus in domestic cattle in Kyela and Morogoro, Tanzania.

Tanzania is among the Rift Valley fever (RVF) epizootic/endemic countries in sub Saharan Africa, where RVF disease outbreaks occur within a range of 3 to 17-year intervals. Detection of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) antibodies in animals in regions with no previous history of outbreaks raises the question of whether the disease is overlooked due to lack-of effective surveillance systems, or if there are strains of RVFV with low pathogenicity. Furthermore, which vertebrate hosts are involved in the inter-ep...

Systematic literature review of Rift Valley fever virus seroprevalence in livestock, wildlife and humans in Africa from 1968 to 2016.

Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a zoonotic arbovirus that causes severe disease in livestock and humans. The virus has caused recurrent outbreaks in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula since its discovery in 1931. This review sought to evaluate RVFV seroprevalence across the African continent in livestock, wildlife and humans in order to understand the spatio-temporal distribution of RVFV seroprevalence and to identify knowledge gaps and areas requiring further research. Risk factors associated with seroposi...

Host-based processes as therapeutic targets for Rift Valley fever virus.

Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is an enveloped, segmented, negative sense RNA virus that replicates within the host's cytoplasm. To facilitate its replication, RVFV must utilize host cell processes and as such, these processes may serve as potential therapeutic targets. This review summarizes key host cell processes impacted by RVFV infection. Specifically the influence of RVFV on host transcriptional regulation, post-transcriptional regulation, protein half-life and availability, host signal transduction, ...

Enhanced surveillance for Rift Valley Fever in livestock during El Niño rains and threat of RVF outbreak, Kenya, 2015-2016.

In mid-2015, the United States' Pandemic Prediction and Forecasting Science and Technical Working Group of the National Science and Technology Council, Food and Agriculture Organization Emergency Prevention Systems, and Kenya Meteorological Department issued an alert predicting a high possibility of El-Niño rainfall and Rift Valley Fever (RVF) epidemic in Eastern Africa.

Participatory survey of Rift Valley fever in nomadic pastoral communities of North-central Nigeria: The associated risk pathways and factors.

Rift Valley fever (RVF) is an emerging neglected mosquito-borne viral zoonotic disease of domestic animals and humans, with potential for global expansion. The objectives of this study were: to assess perceived relative burden and seasonality of RVF in nomadic cattle herds and validate the burden with sero-prevalence impact; and assess perceived risk factors associated with the disease and risk pathways for RVF virus in nomadic pastoral herds of North-central Nigeria using pastoralists' existing veterinary ...

Combination Kinase Inhibitor Treatment Suppresses Rift Valley Fever Virus Replication.

Viruses must parasitize host cell translational machinery in order to make proteins for viral progeny. In this study, we sought to use this signal transduction conduit against them by inhibiting multiple kinases that influence translation. Previous work indicated that several kinases involved in translation, including p70 S6K, p90RSK, ERK, and p38 MAPK, are phosphorylated following Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) infection. Furthermore, inhibiting p70 S6K through treatment with the FDA approved drug rapamyci...

Expression of a Recombinant Nucleocapsid Protein of Rift Valley Fever Virus in Vero Cells as an Immunofluorescence Antigen and Its Use for Serosurveillance in Traditional Cattle Herds in Zambia.

The open reading frame of the nucleocapsid protein (NP) of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) strain MP12 was cloned and expressed in Vero E6 cells. The recombinant NP (rNP)-expressing cells were used as antigens for an indirect immunofluorescent antibody assay (IFA). The rNP-based IFA and RVFV-infected Vero E6 cell (authentic antigen)-based IFA showed similar IFA profiles with immune rabbit serum, which was prepared by immunization with rNP expressed using a baculovirus vector. A total of 942 traditional cattl...

Development of a Quantitative RT-PCR Assay to Differentiate Rift Valley Fever Virus Smithburn Vaccine Strain from Clone 13 Vaccine Strain.

A new quantitative RT-PCR assay was developed to differentiate Rift Valley fever (RVF) Smithburn vaccine strain from Clone 13 vaccine strain. The new qRT-PCR assay targeting the S segment (NSs and N gene) was tested on synthesized standard RNA and MP-12 strain viruses. The detection limit of the new qRT-PCR assay is 1 copy/μL of NSs and N, and is able to differentiate the Smithburn vaccine strain of RVF from the Clone 13 vaccine strain. No cross-reactivity with other vector-borne viruses was observed, a fa...

Rift Valley fever in animals and humans: Current perspectives.

Rift Valley fever (RVF) is an ecologically complex emerging arboviral disease that causes significant illness in both livestock and people. This review article is designed to assist the reader in understanding the varied aspects of RVF disease in animals and humans. The historical facets of RVF disease, including the evolution of human outbreaks, are presented and discussed. The different clinical presentations of human RVF disease and the underlying causes are then addressed. We explore the exposure and tr...

Development of monoclonal antibodies to Rift Valley Fever Virus and their application in antigen detection and indirect immunofluorescence.

Rift Valley fever virus is a mosquito-borne virus which is associated with acute hemorrhagic fever leading to large outbreaks among ruminants and humans in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. RVFV circulates between mosquitoes, ruminants, camels and humans, which requires divergent amplification and maintenance strategies that have not been fully explored on the cellular and molecular level. We therefore assessed monoclonal antibodies for their applicability to monitor the expression pattern and kinetics of v...

Preliminary evaluation of diagnostic accuracy and precision of a competitive ELISA for detection of antibodies to Rift Valley fever virus in cattle and sheep sera.

Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), a mosquito-borne, zoonotic pathogen, is endemic to sub-Saharan Africa and has spread beyond the continent to the Arabian Peninsula. The high likelihood of RVFV's spread to other non-endemic countries spurs the need for development and implementation of rapid diagnostic tests and surveillance programs. In this preliminary evaluation, we assessed the diagnostic accuracy and precision of a recombinant RVFV nucleoprotein based competitive ELISA (cELISA) assay to detect RVFV antib...

Novel activities of safe-in-human broad-spectrum antiviral agents.

According to the WHO, there is an urgent need for better control of viral diseases. Re-positioning existing safe-in-human antiviral agents from one viral disease to another could play a pivotal role in this process. Here, we reviewed all approved, investigational and experimental antiviral agents, which are safe in man, and identified 59 compounds that target at least three viral diseases. We tested 55 of these compounds against eight different RNA and DNA viruses. We found novel activities for dalbavancin ...

Critical role for cholesterol in Lassa fever virus entry identified by a novel small molecule inhibitor targeting the viral receptor LAMP1.

Lassa fever virus (LASV) is endemic in West Africa and causes severe hemorrhagic fever and sensorineural hearing loss. We identified a small molecule inhibitor of LASV and used it to analyze the mechanism of entry. Using a photo-reactive analog that retains antiviral activity as a probe, we identified the inhibitor target as lysosome-associated membrane protein 1 (LAMP1), a host factor that binds to the LASV glycoprotein (GP) during infection. We found that LAMP1 binding to LASV GP is cholesterol-dependent,...

Identification of Dengue and Chikungunya Cases Among Suspected Cases of Yellow Fever in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

For more than 95% of acute febrile jaundice cases identified through surveillance for yellow fever, a reemerging arthropod-borne viral disease, no etiological exploration is ever done. The aim of this study was to test for other arthropod-borne viruses that can induce the same symptoms in patients enrolled in the yellow fever surveillance in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Of 652 patients included in the surveillance of yellow fever in DRC from January 2003 to January 2012, 453 patients that tes...

Attenuation and efficacy of live-attenuated Rift Valley fever virus vaccine candidates in non-human primates.

Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is an important mosquito-borne veterinary and human pathogen that has caused large outbreaks of severe disease throughout Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. Currently, no licensed vaccine or therapeutics exists to treat this potentially deadly disease. The explosive nature of RVFV outbreaks and the severe consequences of its accidental or intentional introduction into RVFV-free areas provide the impetus for the development of novel vaccine candidates for use in both livestock a...

Aedes aegypti mosquitoes from Guadeloupe (French West Indies) are able to transmit yellow fever virus.

The recent yellow fever epidemic in Brazil has raised the concern of outbreaks in neighboring countries, particularly in the Caribbean region where the vector Aedes aegypti is predominant. This threat comes from the past when in the Americas, this disease caused devastating urban epidemics. We report the vector competence of Ae. aegypti from Guadeloupe for yellow fever virus by determining different parameters describing virus infection, dissemination, and transmission. The results indicate that Ae. aegypti...

Prevalence of Selected Zoonotic Diseases and Risk Factors at a Human-Wildlife-Livestock Interface in Mpumalanga Province, South Africa.

A lack of surveillance and diagnostics for zoonotic diseases in rural human clinics limits clinical awareness of these diseases. We assessed the prevalence of nine zoonotic pathogens in a pastoral, low-income, HIV-endemic community bordering wildlife reserves in South Africa. Two groups of participants were included: malaria-negative acute febrile illness (AFI) patients, called febrilers, at three clinics (n = 74) and second, farmers, herders, and veterinary staff found at five government cattle dip-tan...

Diffusing Wild Type and Sterile Mosquitoes in an Optimal Control Setting.

This paper develops an optimal control framework to investigate the introduction of sterile type mosquitoes to reduce the overal moquito population. As is well known, mosquitoes are vectors of disease. For instance the WHO lists, among other diseases, Malaria, Dengue Fever, Rift Valley Fever, Yellow Fever, Chikungunya Fever and Zika. [http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs387/en/ ] The goal is to establish the existence of a solution given an optimal sterilization protocol as well as to develop the co...

2'-Fluoro-2'-deoxycytidine is a broad-spectrum inhibitor of bunyaviruses in vitro and in phleboviral disease mouse models.

2'-Fluoro-2'-deoxycytidine (2'-FdC) was reported to inhibit various viruses in vitro, including Borna disease, hepatitis C, Lassa fever, influenza and certain herpes viruses, and is inhibitory to influenza viruses in mice. We investigated the antiviral activity of 2'-FdC against several unrelated bunyaviruses in 50% cytopathic effect inhibition (CPE) and, with viruses that cause limited CPE, 90% virus yield reduction (VYR) assays. La Crosse (LACV), Maporal, Punta Toro, Rift Valley fever (RVFV), and San Ange...

G119S ace-1 mutation conferring insecticide resistance detected in the Culex pipiens complex in Morocco.

Arboviruses are controlled through insecticide control of their mosquito vector. However, inconsiderate use of insecticides often results in the selection of resistance in treated populations, so that monitoring is required to optimize their usage. Here, Culex pipiens (West Nile and Rift Valley Fever virus vector) specimens were collected from four Moroccan cities. Levels of susceptibility to the organophosphate (OP) insecticide malathion were assessed using WHO-recommended bioassays. Individual mosquitoes ...


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