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PubMed Journals Articles About "Separations" RSS

23:31 EST 19th November 2019 | BioPortfolio

Separations PubMed articles on BioPortfolio. Our PubMed references draw on over 21 million records from the medical literature. Here you can see the latest Separations articles that have been published worldwide.

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Showing "Separations" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 103

Enhancing metal separations by liquid-liquid extraction using polar solvents.

The less polar phase of liquid-liquid extraction systems has been studied extensively for improving metal separations, however, the role of the more polar phase has been overlooked for far too long. Here, we investigate the extraction of metals from a variety of polar solvents and demonstrate that, the influence of polar solvents on metal extraction is so significant that extraction of many metals can be largely tuned, and the metal separations can be significantly enhanced by selecting suitable polar solve...


Droplet sample introduction to microchip gel and zone electrophoresis for rapid analysis of protein-protein complexes and enzymatic reactions.

Electrophoresis has demonstrated utility as tool for screening of small molecule modulators of protein-protein interactions and enzyme targets. Screening of large chemical libraries requires high-throughput separations. Such fast separation can be accessed by microchip electrophoresis. Here, microchip gel electrophoresis separations of proteins are achieved in 2.6 s with 1200 V/cm and 3-mm separation lengths. However, such fast separations can still suffer from limited overall throughput from sample intro...

Molecular Sieves for the Separation of Hydrogen Isotopes.

Stable molecular hydrogen isotopes, D and T, are both scarce and essential in several energy, industrial and large-scale, fundamental research applications. Due to the chemical similarity of these isotopes, their extraction and purification from hydrogen has relied for decades on expensive and energy-demanding processes. However, factoring in the phenomenon of quantum sieving could provide a new route for these separations. In this work, we have explored how to separate hydrogen isotopes by adsorption takin...


A conditional cash transfer and Women's empowerment: Does Bolsa Familia Influence intimate partner violence?

We apply mixed methods to explore how a conditional cash transfer (CCT) may influence intimate partner violence (IPV). Qualitative interviews with female beneficiaries of Bolsa Familia, Brazil's CCT program, and service providers suggest positive, negative, and null associations between CCTs and IPV are all plausible. These associations result from a combination of economic and psychological motivations. We also use quantitative methods to examine if the expansion of Bolsa Familia between 2004 and 2009 affe...

Qualitative evaluation of high pH mass spectrometry-compatible reversed phase liquid chromatography for altered selectivity in separations of intact proteins.

Intact proteins are increasingly being recognized as potential biomarkers and biotherapeutic agents for cancer and other serious diseases. Low pH reversed phase plays an important role in both single and multidimensional protein separations for resolving complex protein samples prior to mass spectrometric detection. In this work, we evaluated the use of high pH reversed phase liquid chromatography as an alternative chromatographic separation to gain different selectivity while maintaining the high resolving...

Magnetic Field Directed Rare-Earth Separations.

The separation of rare-earth ions from one another is challenging due to their chemical and physical similarities. Nearly all rare-earth separations rely upon small changes in ionic radii to direct speciation or reactivity. Herein, we show that the intrinsic magnetic properties of the rare-earth ions impact the separations of light/heavy and selected heavy/heavy binary mixtures. Using TriNOx 3- ({(2- t BuNO)C 6 H 4 CH 2 } 3 N] 3- ) rare-earth complexes, we efficiently and selectively crystallized heavy rare...

Ultrathin membranes with polymer/nanofiber inter-penetrated structure for high-efficiency liquid separations.

Ultrathin film composite (UTFC) membrane comprising an ultrathin polymeric active layer has been extensively explored in gas separation applications benefiting from its extraordinary permeation flux for high throughput separation. However, the practical realization of ultrathin active layer in liquid separations is still impeded by the trade-off effect between membrane thickness (permeation flux) and structural stability (separation factor). Herein, we report a general multi & alternate spin-coating (MAS) s...

On the existence of endocytosis driven by membrane phase separations.

Large endocytic responses can occur rapidly in diverse cell types without dynamins, clathrin, or actin remodeling. Our experiments suggest that membrane phase separations are crucial with more ordered plasma membrane domains being internalized. Not only do these endocytic processes rely on coalescence of membrane domains, they are promoted by participation of membrane proteins in such domains, one important regulatory influence being palmitoylation. Membrane actin cytoskeleton in general resists membrane ph...

Untargeted LC/MS-based metabolic phenotyping (metabonomics/metabolomics): The state of the art.

Liquid chromatography (LC) hyphenated to mass spectrometry is currently the most widely used means of determining metabolic phenotypes via both untargeted and targeted analysis. At present a range of analytical separations, including reversed-phase, hydrophilic interaction and ion-pair LC are employed to maximise metabolome coverage with ultra (high) performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) increasingly displacing conventional high performance liquid chromatography because of the need for short analysis ti...

Clinical and pharmaceutical applications of affinity ligands in capillary electrophoresis: A review.

Affinity capillary electrophoresis (ACE) is a separation technique that combines a biologically-related binding agent with the separating power and efficiency of capillary electrophoresis. This review will examine several classes of binding agents that have been used in ACE and applications that have been described for the resulting methods in clinical or pharmaceutical analysis. Binding agents that will be considered are antibodies, aptamers, lectins, serum proteins, carbohydrates, and enzymes. This review...

Intensified Ethylene Production via Chemical Looping through an Exergetically Efficient Redox Scheme.

Ethylene production via steam cracking of ethane and naphtha is one of the most energy and emission-intensive processes in the chemical industry. High operating temperatures, significant reaction endothermicity, and complex separations create hefty energy demands and result in substantial CO and NO emissions. Meanwhile, decades of optimization have led to a thermally efficient, near-"perfect" process with ∼95% first law energy efficiency, leaving little room for further reduction in energy consumption and...

Ramifications and Insights on the Role of Water in Chiral Sub/Supercritical Fluid Chromatography.

More than 40 cosolvents have been used with carbon dioxide to alter its solvation strength. Among the most interesting systems is the subcritical/supercritical CO/alkanol eluents. Using small amounts of water in CO/MeOH is known to be beneficial in chiral subcritical/supercritical chromatography. However, the ramifications of introducing water as a cosolvent component is not entirely understood. In this work, we demonstrate important aspects of the CO/MeOH/HO system on nine chiral stationary phases with ver...

High-Throughput and Ultrafast Liquid Chromatography.

Analytical scientists working in many sectors have long expressed the need for increasingly fast chromatographic separations. The pharmaceutical industry, for example, has a growing need for high-throughput methodologies in order to accelerate the discovery and development of new chemical entities. Analytical toxicology labs require fast, robust methods for routine analysis of many clinical and forensic samples. As biomedical researchers increase the need for in-depth proteomic and metabolomic analysis of c...

Liquid chromatographic chiral recognition of phytoalexins on immobilized polysaccharides chiral stationary phases. Unusual temperature behavior.

Three immobilized polysaccharide chiral stationary phases, Chiralpak IA, Chiralpak IB and Chiralpak IC, were used for the study of enantioseparation of 36 derivatives of natural indole phytoalexins, in most cases bioactive, including racemic spirobrassinin, 1-methoxyspirobrassinin and 1-methoxyspirobrassinol methyl ether. Almost all analytes were baseline resolved at least on two different polysaccharide columns in normal phase mode. The effects of mobile phase composition, the analyte structure and the col...

Ion Mobility Spectrometry: Fundamental Concepts, Instrumentation, Applications, and the Road Ahead.

Ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) is a rapid separation technique that has experienced exponential growth as a field of study. Interfacing IMS with mass spectrometry (IMS-MS) provides additional analytical power as complementary separations from each technique enable multidimensional characterization of detected analytes. IMS separations occur on a millisecond timescale, and therefore can be readily nested into traditional GC and LC/MS workflows. However, the continual development of novel IMS methods has gen...

Encapsulation of Ionic Liquids for Tailored Applications.

This spotlight article highlights the favorable impact encapsulation of ionic liquids (ILs) has on multiple advanced applications. ILs are molten salts with many favorable properties, such as negligible vapor pressure, good thermal stability, and high ionic conductivity; however, their widespread implementation in advanced applications is hampered by their relatively high viscosity, which makes them difficult to handle and results in slow mass transfer rates. The ability to encapsulate IL in a shell holds p...

Laminar Graphene Oxide Membranes Towards Selective Ionic and Molecular Separations: Challenges and Progress.

Resolution of resources and environmental crises requires an efficient separation technologies, consequently, scientists and engineers are working vigorously for ideal separation materials. Laminar graphene oxide (GO) is a two-dimensional (2D) material offers considerable interest in this field due to its single atomic layer thickness, good stability, chemical inertness, and variety of functional groups. Recently, GO have emerged as a novel membrane material for molecular and ionic separation of gases, solv...

Enhanced CO2 capture and hydrogen purification via hydroxy metal-organic framework/polyimide mixed matrix membranes.

Membrane separation technology provides substantial energy- and cost-savings for molecular separations in chemical industrials, ideally complementing conventional thermal-driven separation approaches. However, current membranes confront pragmatic challenges, primarily lying in the Robeson permeability-selectivity upper bound limits. Here we show hydroxy metal-organic frameworks (MOFs)/polyimide mixed matrix membranes, enabling high separation performance for applications including CO2 capture and hydrogen p...

Chemically Selective Transport in a Cross-Linked H Phase Lyotropic Liquid Crystal Membrane.

The uniform size and complex chemical topology of the pores formed by self-assembled amphiphilic molecules such as liquid crystals make them promising candidates for selective separations. In this work, we observe transport of water, sodium ions and 20 small polar solutes within the pores of a lyotropic liquid crystal (LLC) membrane using atomistic molecular simulations. We find that the transport of a species is dependent not only on molecular size, but on chemical functionality as well. The membrane's inh...

Microfluidics: Innovations in Materials and Their Fabrication and Functionalization.

Microfluidics is a growing field of study because these devices offer novel and versatile approaches for addressing a range of scientific problems. Microfluidics have been used in separations, cell analysis, and microreactors, to illustrate a few applications. Microfluidics have been defined in terms of microliter volumes or micrometer dimensions of channels. For this review, we utilize the latter definition, where microfluidic channels range from 1-1000 µm in width or height. Microfluidic devices are fabr...

Evaluation of Direct from Sample Metabolomics of Human Faeces using Rapid Evaporative Ionisation Mass Spectrometry (REIMS).

Mass spectrometry is a powerful tool in the investigation of the human faecal metabolome. However, current approaches require time-consuming sample preparation, chromatographic separations, and consequently long analytical run times. Rapid evaporative ionisation mass spectrometry (REIMS) is a method of ambient ionisation mass spectrometry and has been utilised in the metabolic profiling of a diverse range of biological materials, including human tissue, cell culture lines, and microorganisms. Here, we descr...

Precursors to Exciton Condensation in Quantum Hall Bilayers.

Tunneling spectroscopy reveals evidence for interlayer electron-hole correlations in quantum Hall bilayer two-dimensional electron systems at layer separations near, but above, the transition to the incompressible exciton condensate at total Landau level filling ν_{T}=1. These correlations are manifested by a nonlinear suppression of the Coulomb pseudogap which inhibits low energy interlayer tunneling in weakly coupled bilayers. The pseudogap suppression is strongest at ν_{T}=1 and grows rapidly as the cr...

Vortex fiber nulling for exoplanet observations. I. Experimental demonstration in monochromatic light.

Vortex fiber nulling is a method for spectroscopically characterizing exoplanets at small angular separations, ≲λ/D, from their host star. The starlight is suppressed by creating an optical vortex in the system point spread function, which prevents the stellar field from coupling into the fundamental mode of a single-mode optical fiber. Light from the planet, on the other hand, couples into the fiber and is routed to a spectrograph. Using a prototype vortex fiber nuller (VFN) designed for monochromatic l...

Arrow of Causality and Quantum Gravity.

Causality in quantum field theory is defined by the vanishing of field commutators for spacelike separations. However, this does not imply a direction for causal effects. Hidden in our conventions for quantization is a connection to the definition of an arrow of causality, i.e., what is the past and what is the future. If we mix quantization conventions within the same theory, we get a violation of microcausality. In such a theory with mixed conventions, the dominant definition of the arrow of causality is ...

The long-range attraction between hydrophobic macroscopic surfaces.

Direct measurements of the long-range strongly attractive force observed between macroscopic hydrophobic surfaces across aqueous solutions are reexamined in light of recent experiments and theoretical developments. The focus is on systems in the absence of submicroscopic bubbles (preexistent or induced) to avoid capillary bridging forces. Other possible interferences to the measurements are also eliminated. The force-distance profiles are obtained directly (no contributions from electrical double layer or h...


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