PubMed Journals Articles About "Shining Light Small Diseased Tissues" RSS

16:17 EST 13th December 2018 | BioPortfolio

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Showing "Shining light small diseased tissues" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 18,000+

Light Come Shining: Fundus Autofluorescence.

Nyovani Madise: shining a light on the social determinants of SRHR.

Recent development and trends in sample extraction and preparation for mass spectrometric analysis of nucleotides, nucleosides, and proteins.

This review describes the recent developments in sample extraction and preparation techniques for mass spectrometric analysis of nucleotides, nucleosides, and proteins. Unique materials and techniques have been developed for highly selective extraction of nucleotides and nucleosides by solid-phase extraction strategies using various affinities. However, for proteins, the analysis of small-scale sections of diseased tissues (formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues) and the direct analysis of an exact lesio...

Shining light on the paraventricular nucleus: The role of glutamatergic PVN neurons in blood pressure control.

Identifying COPD Genes: Shining the Light on Dark DNA.

Somatic offloading during sperm maturation: shining light on the extragenomic paternal dowry.

Initiation, Expansion, and Cryopreservation of Human Primary Tissue-Derived Normal and Diseased Organoids in Embedded Three-Dimensional Culture.

Organoids are primary patient-derived micro tissues grown within a three-dimensional extracellular matrix that better represents in vivo physiology and genetic diversity than existing two-dimensional cell lines. Organoids rely on the self-renewal and differentiation of tissue-resident stem cells that expand in culture and self-organize into complex three-dimensional structures. Depending on the tissue, organoids typically lack stromal, vascular, neural, and immune cells but otherwise can contain cells from ...

Evaluation of chromocystoscopy in the diagnosis of cystitis in female donkeys.

Early detection of cystitis in equine is essential to improve the prognosis and outcome of therapy. However, the conventional white light endoscopy is not sufficiently accurate for this purpose. Hence, this study evaluated chromoendoscopy as a recent diagnostic tool for cystitis in female donkeys. For this purpose, 5 apparently normal donkeys (control group) and 5 female donkeys with cystitis (diseased group) were used. Physical and rectal examinations, urine analysis, white light cystoscopy, methylene blue...

Retinal Microglia - a Key Player in Healthy and Diseased Retina.

Microglia, the resident immune cells of the brain and retina, are constantly engaged in the surveillance of their surrounding neural tissue. During embryonic development they infiltrate the retinal tissues and participate in the phagocytosis of redundant neurons. The contribution of microglia in maintaining the purposeful and functional histo-architecture of the adult retina is indispensable. Within the retinal microenvironment, robust microglial activation is elicited by subtle changes caused by extrinsic ...

Strategy of optical path of daylight signal into tissues in cold-season turfgrasses using small, concave silica bodies.

Plants incorporate inorganic materials (biominerals), such as silica, into their various components. Plants belonging to the order Poales, like rice plants and turfgrasses, show comparatively high rates of silicon accumulation, mainly in the form of silica bodies. This work aims to determine the shapes and roles of these silica bodies by microscopic observation and optical simulation. We have previously found convex silica bodies on the leaves of rice plants and hot-season turfgrasses (adapted to hot-season...

Shining a Light on Olfactory Circuits.

How is odor information organized in the brain? In this issue of Neuron, Jeanne et al. (2018) pair optogenetics with electrophysiology to map functional connections between two olfactory brain regions. They suggest that lateral horn neurons encode "odor scenes" to represent biologically relevant odor environments.

Clearing for Deep Tissue Imaging.

Biologic tissues are generally opaque due to optical properties that result in scattering and absorption of light. Preparation of tissues for optical microscopy often involves sectioning to a thickness of 50-100 µm, the practical limits of light penetration and recovery. A researcher who wishes to image a whole tissue must acquire potentially hundreds of individual sections before rendering them into a three-dimensional volume. Clearing removes strongly light-scattering and light-absorbing components of a ...

Daily variation of gene expression in diverse rat tissues.

Circadian information is maintained in mammalian tissues by a cell-autonomous network of transcriptional feedback loops that have evolved to optimally regulate tissue-specific functions. An analysis of daily gene expression in different tissues, as well as an evaluation of inter-tissue circadian variability, is crucial for a systems-level understanding of this transcriptional circuitry. Affymetrix gene chip measurements of liver, muscle, adipose, and lung tissues were obtained from a rich time series light/...

Optical windows for head tissues in near and short-wave infrared regions: approaching transcranial light applications.

Optical properties of the rat head tissues (brain cortex, cranial bone and scalp skin) are assessed, aiming at transcranial light applications such as optical imaging and phototherapy. The spectral measurements are carried out over the wide spectral range of 350-2800 nm, involving visible, near-infrared (NIR) and short-wave infrared (SWIR) regions. Four tissue transparency windows are considered: ~700-1000 nm (NIR-I), ~1000-1350 nm (NIR-II), ~1550-1870 nm (NIR-III or SWIR) and ~2100-2300 nm (SWIR-II). The v...

Modeling Human Digestive Diseases with CRISPR-Cas9-modified Organoids.

Insights into the stem cell niche have allowed researchers to cultivate adult tissue stem cells as organoids that display structural and phenotypic features of healthy and diseased epithelial tissues. Organoids derived from patients' tissues are used as models of disease and to test drugs. CRISPR-Cas9 technology can be used to genetically engineer organoids for studies of monogenic diseases and cancer. We review the derivation of organoids from human gastrointestinal tissues and how CRISPR-Cas9 technology c...

Active agents, biomaterials, and technologies to improve biolubrication and strengthen soft tissues.

Normal functioning of articulating tissues is required for many physiological processes occurring across length scales from the molecular to whole organism. Lubricating biopolymers are present natively on tissue surfaces at various sites of biological articulation, including eyelid, mouth, and synovial joints. The range of operating conditions at these disparate interfaces yields a variety of tribological mechanisms through which compressive and shear forces are dissipated to protect tissues from material w...

Shining a Light on Alport Syndrome.

In this issue of Cell Chemical Biology, Omachi et al. (2018) present a split Nanoluciferase system to identify successful protein trimerization in Alport syndrome. This elegant proof of concept suggests opportunities for drug screening for Alport syndrome and may be transferable to the study of other diseases affecting protein-protein interactions.

Seeing the Light: The Roles of Red- and Blue-Light Sensing in Plant Microbes.

Plants collect, concentrate, and conduct light throughout their tissues, thus enhancing light availability to their resident microbes. This review explores the role of photosensing in the biology of plant-associated bacteria and fungi, including the molecular mechanisms of red-light sensing by phytochromes and blue-light sensing by LOV (light-oxygen-voltage)-domain proteins in these microbes. Bacteriophytochromes function as major drivers of the bacterial transcriptome and mediate light-regulated suppressio...

Recurring circadian disruption alters circadian clock sensitivity to resetting.

A single phase advance of the light:dark (LD) cycle can temporarily disrupt synchrony of neural circadian rhythms within the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and between the SCN and peripheral tissues. Compounding this, modern life can involve repeated disruptive light conditions. To model chronic disruption to the circadian system, we exposed male mice to more than a month of a 20 h light cycle (LD10:10), which mice typically cannot entrain to. Control animals were housed under LD12:12. We measured locomotor ...

Fold-change Response of Photosynthesis to Step Increases of Light Level.

Plants experience light intensity over several orders of magnitude. High light is stressful, and plants have several protective feedback mechanisms against this stress. Here we asked how plants respond to sudden rises at low ambient light, far below stressful levels. For this, we studied the fluorescence of excited chlorophyll a of photosystem II in Arabidopsis thaliana plants in response to step increases in light level at different background illuminations. We found a response at low-medium light with cha...

Small-angle X-ray scattering study of the kinetics of light-dark transition in a LOV protein.

Light, oxygen, voltage (LOV) photoreceptors consist of conserved photo-responsive domains in bacteria, archaea, plants and fungi, and detect blue-light via a flavin cofactor. We investigated the blue-light induced conformational transition of the dimeric photoreceptor PpSB1-LOV-R66I from Pseudomonas putida in solution by using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). SAXS experiments of the fully populated light- and dark-states under steady-state conditions revealed significant structural differences between t...

Structural evidence for a new elaborate 3D-organization of the cardiomyocyte lateral membrane in adult mammalian cardiac tissues.

This study explored the lateral crest structures of adult cardiomyocytes (CMs) within healthy and diseased cardiac tissue.

High-resolution slow-light fiber Bragg grating temperature sensor with phase-sensitive detection.

This Letter reports a slow-light fiber Bragg grating (FBG) temperature sensor with a record temperature resolution of ∼0.3  m°C/√Hz, a drift of only ∼1  m°C over the typical duration of a measurement (∼30  s), and negligible self-heating. This sensor is particularly useful for applications requiring the detection of very small temperature changes, such as radiation-balanced lasers and the measurement of small absorptive losses using calorimetry. The sensor performance is demonstrated b...

Current Challenges of Bioprinted Tissues towards Clinical Translation.

Bioprinting is a recently developed technology that has great potential to manufacture artificial tissues and organs for transplantation. Recent studies have demonstrated promising results of small-scale bioprinted tissues with vascular structure and signs of their particular tissue functions. However, the recreation of a complex and multifunctional vascular network, as well as the limitation of oxygen and nutrient diffusion, in a human-scale tissue are still challenges in the current stage of this technolo...

Evaluation of Novel Tumor-Targeted Near-Infrared Probe for Fluorescence-Guided Surgery of Cancer.

Because the most reliable therapy for cancer involves quantitative resection of all diseased tissue, considerable effort has been devoted to improving a surgeon's ability to locate and remove all malignant lesions. With the aid of improved optical imaging equipment, we and others have focused on developing tumor-targeted fluorescent dyes to selectively illuminate cancer nodules during surgery. We describe here the design, synthesis, optical properties, in vitro and in vivo tumor specificity/affinity, pharma...

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