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Showing "Shire secures once daily ADHD drug" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 11,000+

Childhood ADHD Symptoms and Future Illicit Drug Use: The Role of Adolescent Cigarette Use.

The aim of this study is to understand how early cigarette use might predict subsequent illicit drug use, especially among individuals with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms during childhood. Data were drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Waves I-IV). The analysis sample involves participants who had not used illicit drugs at Wave I, with no missing responses for studied predictors ( N  = 7,332). Smoking status at Wave I (ever regular vs. never regular)...

Diagnosing ADHD during active substance use: Feasible or flawed?

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is highly prevalent in patients with a substance use disorder (SUD). Because of possible problems with validity, diagnostic assessment of ADHD is usually postponed until after a period of abstinence, which may jeopardize adequate and timely treatment. The aim of this study is to investigate how a diagnostic assessment of ADHD in patients who are actively using substances compares to the results of a second assessment after a period of full or partial abstinenc...

Is the Association of ADHD with Socio-Economic Disadvantage Explained by Child Comorbid Externalizing Problems or Parent ADHD?

It has been unclear whether an associations of child ADHD with socio-economic disadvantage (SES) could be accounted for by (a) parental ADHD explaining both low SES and child ADHD, and/or (b) the joint overlap of ODD or CD with low SES and ADHD. Study 1 used a community-recruited case-control sample with detailed evaluation of SES indicators, child ADHD, child externalizing, and parent ADHD symptoms (n = 931 children, 521 ADHD, 577 boys, 354 girls) in a path modeling analysis with latent variables. Study ...

Association analysis of norepinephrine transporter polymorphisms and methylphenidate response in ADHD patients.

Methylphenidate (MPH) is the most frequently prescribed drug in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Hitherto mostly the dopamine transporter gene has been studied in MPH-response and only a few studies analyzed the norepinephrine transporter (NET, SLC6A2) gene, although MPH is a potent inhibitor of both dopamine and norepinephrine transporters. We aimed to analyze this monoamine transporter gene in relation to ADHD per se and MPH-response in particular to gain further knowledge in ADHD pharmaco...

Addressing Diagnosis and Treatment Gaps in Adults With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was originally defined in children but is now recognized to persist into adulthood for some patients. Despite this recognition, adult ADHD remains underdiagnosed. This narrative review describes the negative impact of ADHD across multiple functional domains, diagnostic guidelines for adult ADHD and its clinical features, the importance of screening tools and clinical interviews to help evaluate adults for ADHD, and adult ADHD treatment options. Diagnostic guid...

Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Interaction between socioeconomic status and parental history of ADHD determines prevalence.

Many studies have reported a higher prevalence of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) among disadvantaged populations, but few have considered how parental history of ADHD might modify that relationship. We evaluated whether the prevalence of ADHD varies by socioeconomic status (SES) and parental history of ADHD in a population-sample of elementary school children age 6-14 years.

The relationship between ADHD traits and sensory sensitivity in the general population.

Preliminary studies in children and adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) report both hypo-responsiveness and hyper-responsiveness to sensory stimuli, as well as problems modulating sensory input. As it has been suggested that those with ADHD exist at the extreme end of a continuum of ADHD traits, which are also evident in the general population, we investigated the link between ADHD and sensory sensitivity in the general population. Two online questionnaires measuring ADHD traits and ...

Neurocognitive Deficits Associated With ADHD in Athletes: A Systematic Review.

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common childhood disorder and is frequently diagnosed in young adults. Emerging studies suggest a relationship between ADHD and concussion.

Pharmacotherapy of emotional dysregulation in adults with ADHD: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Emotional dysregulation (ED) is a dysfunction in modifying an emotional state in an adaptive and goal oriented way, with excitability, ease anger, and mood lability. It is present in up to 70% of adults with ADHD, regardless of other comorbidities, and substantially worsens the psychosocial outcomes of the disorder. Besides fronto-parietal circuits mediating top-down control, brain regions involved in bottom-up processes (e.g., amygdala, orbitofrontal cortex, and ventral striatum) are implicated in ED. We p...

Neuropsychological Characteristics of Children with Mixed Autism and ADHD.

Clinical heterogeneity is a well-established characteristic of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). While the comorbidity of ASD and ADHD is well known in clinical practice, relatively little research has examined the neuropsychological profile of children with ASD + ADHD. Our study showed significant differences in the neuropsychological characteristics of children with ASD + ADHD compared to those with ASD only. Children with ASD + ADHD showed higher symptoms of anxiety, worse working memory, and less empathy,...

Validation of adapted daily dose definitions for hospital antibacterial drug use evaluation: a multicentre study.

The WHO/ATC (Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical) index DDD (WHO-DDD) is commonly used for drug consumption measurement. Discrepancies between WHO-DDD and actual prescribed daily doses (PDD) in hospitals have prompted alternative dose definitions adapted to doses recommended in hospital practice guidelines [recommended daily doses (RDD)].

Functional impairment in adult bipolar disorder with ADHD.

It is well established that patients with either bipolar disorder (BD) or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) present functional impairment even when in remission. Nevertheless, research on functional impairment with adult patients with bipolar disorder comorbid to ADHD (BD+ADHD) is very scarce. The main objective of the current report was to evaluate the overall and specific domains of functioning, in patients with BD+ADHD compared to patients with pure bipolar disorder (pBD) and healthy contro...

ADHD and Challenging behaviour in People with Intellectual Disability: should we screen for ADHD?

People with Intellectual Disability (ID) have cognitive impairments that affect their level of functioning the causes of which are multiple and often unknown. Behavioural difficulties are common among people with ID. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is recognised more among people with Intellectual Disability and could be a cause of problem behaviours. Screening and assessing for ADHD in people with ID is difficult because of the paucity of robust assessment tools and diagnostic criteria.

Extended-Release ADHD Drug.

Effects of meal composition and meal timing on the expression of genes involved in hepatic drug metabolism in rats.

With chronotherapy, drug administration is synchronized with daily rhythms in drug clearance and pharmacokinetics. Daily rhythms in gene expression are centrally mastered by the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus as well as by tissue clocks containing similar molecular mechanisms in peripheral organs. The central timing system is sensitive to changes in the external environment such as those of the light-dark cycle, meal timing and meal composition. We investigated how changes in diet composition a...

Do parental ADHD symptoms reduce the efficacy of parent training for preschool ADHD? A secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial.

Previous studies have suggested that children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) may benefit less from behavioral parent training (BPT) if their parents have high levels of ADHD symptoms. We conducted a secondary analysis of data from a randomized controlled trial to test the hypothesis that parental ADHD symptoms reduce the efficacy of two BPT programs in a sample of preschoolers with ADHD. One intervention was specifically designed for children with ADHD (NFPP: New Forest Parenting Progr...

Risk taking and adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A gap between real life behavior and experimental decision making.

Adults with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are prone to suboptimal decision making and risk taking. The aim of this study was to test performance on a theoretically-based probabilistic decision making task in well-characterized adults with and without ADHD, and examine the relation between experimental risk taking and history of real-life risk-taking behavior, defined as cigarette, alcohol, and street drug use. University students with and without ADHD completed a modified version of the Ca...

How neuropsychology can inform our understanding of preschool ADHD: Clinical and research implications.

Neuropsychological assessments in preschoolers have not received as much attention as in older children and adults. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common disorder that occurs in early childhood associated with poor academic and personal outcomes, such as learning and social difficulties. Preschoolers with ADHD may present cognitive deficits that are related with the ADHD symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity, but may also interfere, beyond and above the ADHD symptoms,...

A Naturalistic Comparison of Methylphenidate and Risperidone Monotherapy in Drug-Naive Youth With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Comorbid With Oppositional Defiant Disorder and Aggression.

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) are frequently co-occurring in youth, but data about the pharmacological management of this comorbidity are scarce, especially when impulsive aggression is prominent. Although stimulants are the first-line medication for ADHD, second-generation antipsychotics, namely, risperidone, are frequently used. We aimed to assess effectiveness and safety of monotherapy with the stimulant methylphenidate (MPH) and risperidone in a ...

Neurobiological support to the diagnosis of ADHD in stimulant-naïve adults: pattern recognition analyses of MRI data.

In adulthood, the diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been subject of recent controversy. We searched for a neuroanatomical signature associated with ADHD spectrum symptoms in adults by applying, for the first time, machine learning-based pattern classification methods to structural MRI and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data obtained from stimulant-naïve adults with childhood-onset ADHD and healthy controls (HC).

Rifampicin-Induced Fever in a Patient with Brucellosis: A Case Report.

We present a 35-year-old female patient who was started on rifampicin (900 mg orally once daily) and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) (160/800 mg orally twice daily) after being diagnosed with brucellosis. Following defervescence and improvement in her general condition, fever recurred on the 12th day of treatment. A re-challenge drug test lead to causality assessment and treatment was switched to a combination of streptomycin (1 g intramuscularly) for 10 days and TMP/SMX (160/800 mg orally twic...

ADHD medication use in pregnancy and risk of congenital malformation.

Maternal Smoking and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Offspring: A Meta-analysis.

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder in childhood. Exploring the risk factors for ADHD is helpful in preventing ADHD.

Bupropion for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults.

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent neurobiological condition, characterised by behavioral and cognitive symptoms such as inattention, impulsivity and/or excessive activity. The syndrome is commonly accompanied by psychiatric comorbidities and is associated with educational and occupational underachievement.Although psychostimulant medications are the mainstay of treatment for ADHD, not all adults respond optimally to, or can tolerate, these medicines. Thus, alternative non-stimul...

By the book: ADHD prevalence in medical students varies with analogous methods of addressing DSM items.

The marked increase in the prevalence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among university students gives rise to questions about how best to diagnose in this setting. The aim of the present study was to calculate ADHD prevalence in a large non-clinical sample of medical students using a stepwise design and to determine whether ADHD diagnosis varies if interviewees use additional probing procedures to obtain examples of positive DSM items.

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