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PubMed Journals Articles About "Silencing Genes Cellular Protein Factories Amplifies Production Http" RSS

20:22 EST 20th November 2019 | BioPortfolio

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Showing "Silencing Genes Cellular Protein Factories Amplifies Production Http" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 32,000+

Advances in targeted degradation of endogenous proteins.

Protein silencing is often employed as a means to aid investigations in protein function and is increasingly desired as a therapeutic approach. Several types of protein silencing methodologies have been developed, including targeting the encoding genes, transcripts, the process of translation or the protein directly. Despite these advances, most silencing systems suffer from limitations. Silencing protein expression through genetic ablation, for example by CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing, is irreversible, time c...


Recent trends in metabolic engineering of microbial chemical factories.

Microbe-mediated chemical production can replace traditional fossil-dependent production and hereby ensure sustainable production of chemicals that are important for our society. Significant success in economical chemical bioproduction has been accomplished by improving the cellular properties of microbial cells through metabolic engineering. The emergence of new techniques and strategies has led to a significant reduction in the turnaround time in the classic design-build-test-learn (DBTL) cycle in metabol...

APP, an androgen-regulated gene, is targeted by RNA-binding protein PSF/SFPQ in neuronal cells.

Amyloid precursor protein (APP) is a representative gene related to Alzheimer's disease (AD). Androgens function by binding to the androgen receptor (AR). Both androgen and RNA-binding protein PSF plays a role in the pathology of AD. However, the involvement of AR and PSF in APP regulation in neuron has not been investigated. Here, we explored the regulatory mechanism of APP expression by AR and PSF using neuron-derived cells. We demonstrated that androgen upregulates the production of APP at the mRNA and p...


Gene silencing by RNAi via oral delivery of dsRNA by bacteria in the South American tomato pinworm, Tuta absoluta.

RNA interference (RNAi) has been evaluated in several insect pests as a novel strategy to be included in integrated pest management. Lepidopterans are recognized to be recalcitrant to gene silencing by RNAi. As such, double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) delivery needs to be adjusted to assure its stability until it reaches the target gene transcript for silencing. Gene silencing by RNAi offers the potential to be used in the control of Tuta absoluta (Meyrick), one of the main insect pests of tomato (Solanum lycopers...

The Human Papillomavirus (HPV) E1 protein regulates the expression of cellular genes involved in immune response.

The Human Papillomavirus (HPV) E1 protein is the only viral protein with enzymatic activity. The main known function of this protein is the regulation of the viral DNA replication. Nevertheless, it has been demonstrated that the ablation of HPV18 E1 mRNA in HeLa cells promotes a deregulation of several genes, particularly those involved in host defense mechanisms against viral infections; however, the specific contribution of E1 protein in HPV-independent context has not been studied. The aim of this work w...

Exploiting day- and night-time metabolism of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 for fitness-coupled fumarate production around the clock.

Cyanobacterial cell factories are widely researched for the sustainable production of compounds directly from CO2. Their application, however, has been limited for two reasons. First, traditional approaches have been shown to lead to unstable cell factories that lose their production capability when scaled to industrial levels. Second, the alternative approaches developed so far are mostly limited to growing conditions, which are not always the case in industry, where non-growth periods tend to occur (e.g. ...

Engineering an artificial membrane vesicle trafficking system (AMVTS) for the excretion of β-carotene in Escherichia coli.

Large hydrophobic molecules, such as carotenoids, cannot be effectively excreted from cells by natural transportation systems. These products accumulate inside cells and affect normal cellular physiological functions, which hinders further improvement of carotenoid production by microbial cell factories. In this study, we proposed to construct a novel artificial transport system utilize membrane lipids to carry and transport hydrophobic molecules. Membrane lipids allow the physiological mechanism of membran...

Efficient RNA silencing suppression activity of Potato Mop-Top Virus 8K protein is driven by variability and positive selection.

Previously, we investigated the evolution of Potato mop-top virus (PMTV) ORFs. Results indicate that positive selection acts exclusively on an ORF encoding the 8K protein, a weak viral suppressor of RNA silencing (VSR). However, how the extraordinary variability contributes to 8K-mediated RNA silencing suppression remains unknown. Here, we characterized the RNA silencing suppression activity of the 8K protein from seven diverse isolates. We show that 8K encoded by isolate P1 exhibits stronger RNA silencing ...

Do arachidonic acid metabolites affect apoptosis in bovine endometrial cells with silenced PPAR genes?

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are expressed in bovine uterus, and their agonists are arachidonic acid (AA) metabolites. We hypothesised that silencing of PPAR genes in bovine endometrial stromal cells (ESC) would change the intracellular signalling through PPAR and affect apoptosis after cell treatment with different AA metabolites. The study's aims are detection of apoptosis and examining the influence of prostaglandins and leukotrienes on apoptosis occurring in physiological ESC and ...

MFN2 silencing promotes neural differentiation of embryonic stem cells via the Akt signaling pathway.

Mitofusin 2 (MFN2) is a regulatory protein participating in mitochondria dynamics, cell proliferation, death, differentiation, and so on. This study aims at revealing the functional role of MFN2 in the pluripotency maintenance and primitive differetiation of embryonic stem cell (ESCs). A dox inducible silencing and routine overexpressing approach was used to downregulate and upregulate MFN2 expression, respectively. We have compared the morphology, cell proliferation, and expression level of pluripotent ...

Production of humic acids by solid-state fermentation of in raw oil palm empty fruit bunch fibers.

Humic acids (HA) are organic macromolecules of high structural complexity and are primarily obtained from non-renewable carbon sources such as peat and coal. HA is widely used in agriculture but is known to have therapeutic properties, which are still poorly explored. Previous studies have shown the potential of biotechnological processes in the production of HA in submerged fermentation (SF) and solid-state fermentation (SSF) using pre-treated fibers of oil palm of empty fruit bunch (EFB) for the cultivati...

Novel promoters derived from Chinese Hamster Ovary cells via in silico and in vitro analysis.

For industrial production of recombinant proteins in mammalian cell lines, a high rate of gene expression is desired. Therefore, strong viral promoters are commonly used. However, these have several drawbacks as they override cellular responses, are not integrated into the cellular network and thus can induce stress and potentially epigenetic silencing. Endogenous promoters potentially have the advantage of a better response to cellular state and therefore may cause a lower level of stress by uncontrolled o...

The interaction between RE1-silencing transcription factor (REST) and heat shock protein 90 as new therapeutic target against Huntington's disease.

The wild type huntingtin protein (Htt), supports the production of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a survival factor for striatal neurons, through cytoplasmic sequestering of RE-1silencing transcription factor (REST). In Huntington´s Disease an inherited degenerative disease, caused by a CAG expansion in the 5´coding region of the gene, the mutant huntingtin protein (mHtt), causes that REST enters pathologically into the nucleus of cells, resulting in the repression of neuronal genes including B...

UCP2 alleviates tubular epithelial cell apoptosis in lipopolysaccharide-induced acute kidney injury by decreasing ROS production.

Uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2), an anion transporter, modulates the production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) and plays an important role in protecting against cell apoptosis. However, the role of UCP2 in sepsis-associated AKI remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the role of UCP2 in LPS-induced AKI in vitro and in vivo. UCP2 expression was increased in tubular epithelial cells (TECs) treated with LPS. Accordingly, UCP2 expression was distinctly upregulated in renal tissues fro...

Transcriptomic differences noted in Glaesserella parasuis between growth in broth and on agar.

Glaesserella parasuis is the cause of Glӓsser's disease in pigs and is a significant contributor to post-weaning mortality in the swine industry. Prevention of G. parasuis disease relies primarily on bacterin vaccines, which have shown good homologous protection and variable heterologous protection. Bacterin production involves large scale growth of the bacteria and proteins produced during the proliferation phase of production become important antigens that stimulate the immune response. In order to evalu...

Enhancement of cellulase production in Trichoderma reesei RUT-C30 by comparative genomic screening.

Cellulolytic enzymes produced by the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei are commonly used in biomass conversion. The high cost of cellulase is still a significant challenge to commercial biofuel production. Improving cellulase production in T. reesei for application in the cellulosic biorefinery setting is an urgent priority.

A Novel Assay Based on Confocal Microscopy to Test for Pathogen Silencing Suppressor Functions.

In plants, RNA silencing is an important mechanism for gene regulation and defense that is targeted by proteins of viral pathogens effecting silencing suppression. In this chapter we describe a new assay to probe silencing suppressor activity using Agrobacterium infiltration of Nicotiana benthamiana and confocal microscopy. The key element in this assay involves the use of a reporter construct that is transiently expressed at a much lower level than free GFP, and this increases the sensitivity of detection ...

Desmoglein 3 Silencing Inhibits Inflammation and Goblet Cell Mucin Secretion in a Mouse Model of Chronic Rhinosinusitis via Disruption of the Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling Pathway.

Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a common disease characterized by inflammation of the nose and paranasal sinuses lasting over 12 weeks. This study aims to evaluate the effect of desmoglein 3 (DSG3) on inflammatory response and goblet cell mucin secretion in a mouse model of CRS. The CRS-related differentially expressed genes and disease genes were screened using microarray-based gene expression analysis. Subsequently, CRS mouse models were established. The levels of pro-inflammatory factors TNF-α, IL-6, a...

Citrulline production and protein homeostasis.

Protein homeostasis is crucial for maintaining cell functions. Citrulline, an endogenous amino acid, is considered as an efficient source of arginine at systemic and cellular level. Accumulating evidence, obtained from citrulline supplementation studies, suggest anabolic properties especially in malnourished rodents and human. Although these studies might suggest a key role for citrulline in protein homeostasis, the supraphysiological concentrations of citrulline do not allow to conclude on a physiological ...

Core autophagy genes and human diseases.

Autophagy involves the formation of double-membrane autophagosomes and their delivery to lysosomes for degradation. In response to various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, autophagy recycles cellular constituents and removes cytotoxic threats such as protein aggregates and damaged organelles to maintain cellular homeostasis. Dysfunctional autophagy has been linked with multiple human diseases, including neurodegenerative diseases, tumorigenesis, diabetes, and immune diseases. Here we focus on human genetic...

Sumoylation of nucleoprotein (NP) mediated by activation of NADPH oxidase complex is a consequence of oxidative cellular stress during infection by Infectious salmon anemia (ISA) virus necessary to viral progeny.

The study evaluated the effects of nucleoprotein viral and the infectious virus in SHK-1 cells. The results show a strong respiratory burst activation and the induction of p47phox, SOD, GLURED, and apoptotic genes. Additionally, the cells alter the profile of SUMOylated proteins by the effect of transfection and infection experiments. In silico analyses show a set of structural motifs in NP susceptible of post-translational modification by the SUMO protein. Interestingly, the inhibition of the NADPH oxidase...

Production of zosteric acid and other sulfated phenolic biochemicals in microbial cell factories.

Biological production and application of a range of organic compounds is hindered by their limited solubility and toxicity. This work describes a process for functionalization of phenolic compounds that increases solubility and decreases toxicity. We achieve this by screening a wide range of sulfotransferases for their activity towards a range of compounds, including the antioxidant resveratrol. We demonstrate how to engineer cell factories for efficiently creating sulfate esters of phenolic compounds throu...

AC4 protein of tomato leaf curl Palampur virus is an RNA silencing suppressor and a pathogenicity determinant.

Plants deploy RNA silencing as a natural defence against invading viruses involving sequence-specific degradation of the viral RNAs. As a counter-defence strategy, viruses encode suppressor proteins that simultaneously target different steps of the silencing machinery. Tomato leaf curl Palampur virus (ToLCPalV) is a bipartite begomovirus in Geminiviridae family. It is responsible for significant reduction in the crop yield and quality. DNA-A of the virus encodes for six proteins whereas DNA-B codes for two ...

Plant-Mediated Silencing of the Whitefly Cyclophilin B and Heat Shock Protein 70 Impairs Insect Development and Virus Transmission.

The whitefly is a global pest and transmits extremely important plant viruses especially begomoviruses, that cause substantial crop losses. is one of the top invasive species worldwide and have developed resistance to all major pesticide classes. One of the promising alternative ways for controlling this pest is studying its genetic makeup for identifying specific target proteins which are critical for its development and ability to transmit viruses. (TYLCV) is the most economically important and well-st...

Single-cell correlations of mRNA and protein content in a human monocytic cell line after LPS stimulation.

The heterogeneity of mRNA and protein expression at the single-cell level can reveal fundamental information about cellular response to external stimuli, including the sensitivity, timing, and regulatory interactions of genes. Here we describe a fully automated system to digitally count the intron, mRNA, and protein content of up to five genes of interest simultaneously in single-cells. Full system automation of 3D microscope scans and custom image analysis routines allows hundreds of individual cells to be...


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