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PubMed Journals Articles About "Silencing Genes Cellular Protein Factories Amplifies Production Http" RSS

17:49 EDT 21st September 2019 | BioPortfolio

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Showing "Silencing Genes Cellular Protein Factories Amplifies Production http" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 32,000+

Advances in targeted degradation of endogenous proteins.

Protein silencing is often employed as a means to aid investigations in protein function and is increasingly desired as a therapeutic approach. Several types of protein silencing methodologies have been developed, including targeting the encoding genes, transcripts, the process of translation or the protein directly. Despite these advances, most silencing systems suffer from limitations. Silencing protein expression through genetic ablation, for example by CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing, is irreversible, time c...


Recent trends in metabolic engineering of microbial chemical factories.

Microbe-mediated chemical production can replace traditional fossil-dependent production and hereby ensure sustainable production of chemicals that are important for our society. Significant success in economical chemical bioproduction has been accomplished by improving the cellular properties of microbial cells through metabolic engineering. The emergence of new techniques and strategies has led to a significant reduction in the turnaround time in the classic design-build-test-learn (DBTL) cycle in metabol...

Engineering of plastids to optimize the production of high-value metabolites and proteins.

Plastids are interesting targets for metabolic engineering using the tools of synthetic biology. Plastids carry their own genome, which can be manipulated genetically in many algae and plants. Incorporating foreign genes into the plastid genome offers valuable benefits, such as high-level foreign protein expression and the absence of gene silencing. Here, we review progress in bioengineering of chloroplasts to produce valuable metabolites and proteins. Various strategies for enhancing yields of desired prod...


MRG-1 is required for both chromatin-based transcriptional silencing and genomic integrity of primordial germ cells in C. elegans.

In C. elegans, germline cells remain transcriptionally silenced during embryogenesis. The transcriptional silencing is achieved by two different mechanisms: one is the inhibition of RNA polymerase II in P2-P4 cells at the establishment stage, and another is chromatin-based silencing in two primordial germ cells (PGCs) at the maintenance stage; however, the molecular mechanism underlying chromatin-based silencing is less understood. We investigated the role of the chromodomain protein MRG-1, which is an esse...

Gene silencing by RNAi via oral delivery of dsRNA by bacteria in the South American tomato pinworm, Tuta absoluta.

RNA interference (RNAi) has been evaluated in several insect pests as a novel strategy to be included in integrated pest management. Lepidopterans are recognized to be recalcitrant to gene silencing by RNAi. As such, double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) delivery needs to be adjusted to assure its stability until it reaches the target gene transcript for silencing. Gene silencing by RNAi offers the potential to be used in the control of Tuta absoluta (Meyrick), one of the main insect pests of tomato (Solanum lycopers...

Filamentous fungi for the production of enzymes, chemicals and materials.

Filamentous fungi have been used for more than a century as versatile and highly productive cell factories. They are used to produce enzymes and small molecule compounds such as antibiotics and organic acids. Filamentous fungi are now also being explored for the production of sustainable materials that can for instance replace plastics. Mutagenesis and genetic modification are used to improve performance of production strains. Single cell technologies and bulk sample analysis are novel strategies to identif...

Synaptosomal-associated protein 29 is required for the autophagic degradation of hepatitis B virus.

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication and envelopment is dependent on cellular autophagy. Previously, we have provided evidence for the extensive lysosomal degradation of HBV virions and the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), which is likely controlled by autophagosome-lysosome fusion. Synaptosomal-associated protein 29 (SNAP29) has been identified as a protein specifically mediating autophagosome-lysosome fusion. Thus, in the present study, we addressed the hypothesis that SNAP29 is required for the autoph...

Engineering an artificial membrane vesicle trafficking system (AMVTS) for the excretion of β-carotene in Escherichia coli.

Large hydrophobic molecules, such as carotenoids, cannot be effectively excreted from cells by natural transportation systems. These products accumulate inside cells and affect normal cellular physiological functions, which hinders further improvement of carotenoid production by microbial cell factories. In this study, we proposed to construct a novel artificial transport system utilize membrane lipids to carry and transport hydrophobic molecules. Membrane lipids allow the physiological mechanism of membran...

Construction of 3β-HSD gene silencing cell line and its effects on apoptosis induced by DEHP.

To construct 3β-HSD gene shRNA lentivirus interference vecto, then transfect into human MCF-7 cells, and construct cell line with 3β-HSD gene silencing, finally to study the effects of 3β-HSD on apoptosis induced by di- (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) . According to the mRNA sequence of 3β-HSD gene provided by GenBank, three interference sequences were designed and connected to PLVX-shRNA2-puro after annealing. The recombinant lentivirus vector was transfected into 293FT cells, the virus supernatants w...

The LIM-Only Protein FHL2 is involved in Autophagy to Regulate the Development of Skeletal Muscle Cell.

Four and a half LIM domain protein 2 (FHL2) is a LIM domain protein expressed in muscle tissue whose deletion is causative of myopathies. Although FHL2 has a confirmed important role in muscle development, its autophagy-related function in muscle differentiation has not been fully determined. C2C12 cells were treated with FHL2-konwdown or FHL2-overexpression. The morphology of C2C12 cells was observed by transmission electron microscopy. The mRNA and protein abundances of muscle related genes and autophagy...

Wiring cell growth to product formation.

Microbial cell factories offer new and sustainable production routes for high-value chemicals. However, identification of high producers within a library of clones remains a challenge. When product formation is coupled to growth, millions of metabolic variants can be effectively interrogated by growth selection, dramatically increasing the throughput of strain evaluation. While growth-coupled selections for cell factories have a long history of success based on metabolite auxotrophies and toxic antimetaboli...

Direct visualization of cardiac transcription factories reveals regulatory principles of nuclear architecture during pathological remodeling.

Heart failure is associated with hypertrophying of cardiomyocytes and changes in transcriptional activity. Studies from rapidly dividing cells in culture have suggested that transcription may be compartmentalized into factories within the nucleus, but this phenomenon has not been tested in vivo and the role of nuclear architecture in cardiac gene regulation is unknown. While alterations to transcription have been linked to disease, little is known about the regulation of the spatial organization of transcri...

Efficient RNA silencing suppression activity of Potato Mop-Top Virus 8K protein is driven by variability and positive selection.

Previously, we investigated the evolution of Potato mop-top virus (PMTV) ORFs. Results indicate that positive selection acts exclusively on an ORF encoding the 8K protein, a weak viral suppressor of RNA silencing (VSR). However, how the extraordinary variability contributes to 8K-mediated RNA silencing suppression remains unknown. Here, we characterized the RNA silencing suppression activity of the 8K protein from seven diverse isolates. We show that 8K encoded by isolate P1 exhibits stronger RNA silencing ...

Defining transgene insertion sites and off-target effects of homology-based gene silencing informs the use of functional genomics tools in Phytophthora infestans.

DNA transformation and homology-based transcriptional silencing are frequently used to assess gene function in Phytophthora. Since unplanned side-effects of these tools are not well-characterized, we used P. infestans to study plasmid integration sites and whether knockdowns caused by homology-dependent silencing spreads to other genes. Insertions occurred both in gene-dense and gene-sparse regions but disproportionately near the 5' ends of genes, which disrupted native coding sequences. Microhomology at th...

Osmotic stress activates nif and fix genes and induces the Rhizobium tropici CIAT 899 Nod factor production via NodD2 by up-regulation of the nodA2 operon and the nodA3 gene.

The symbiosis between rhizobia and legumes is characterized by a complex molecular dialogue in which the bacterial NodD protein plays a major role due to its capacity to activate the expression of the nodulation genes in the presence of appropiate flavonoids. These genes are involved in the synthesis of molecules, the nodulation factors (NF), responsible for launching the nodulation process. Rhizobium tropici CIAT 899, a rhizobial strain that nodulates Phaseolus vulgaris, is characterized by its tolerance t...

Do arachidonic acid metabolites affect apoptosis in bovine endometrial cells with silenced PPAR genes?

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are expressed in bovine uterus, and their agonists are arachidonic acid (AA) metabolites. We hypothesised that silencing of PPAR genes in bovine endometrial stromal cells (ESC) would change the intracellular signalling through PPAR and affect apoptosis after cell treatment with different AA metabolites. The study's aims are detection of apoptosis and examining the influence of prostaglandins and leukotrienes on apoptosis occurring in physiological ESC and ...

MFN2 silencing promotes neural differentiation of embryonic stem cells via the Akt signaling pathway.

Mitofusin 2 (MFN2) is a regulatory protein participating in mitochondria dynamics, cell proliferation, death, differentiation, and so on. This study aims at revealing the functional role of MFN2 in the pluripotency maintenance and primitive differetiation of embryonic stem cell (ESCs). A dox inducible silencing and routine overexpressing approach was used to downregulate and upregulate MFN2 expression, respectively. We have compared the morphology, cell proliferation, and expression level of pluripotent ...

The interaction between RE1-silencing transcription factor (REST) and heat shock protein 90 as new therapeutic target against Huntington's disease.

The wild type huntingtin protein (Htt), supports the production of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a survival factor for striatal neurons, through cytoplasmic sequestering of RE-1silencing transcription factor (REST). In Huntington´s Disease an inherited degenerative disease, caused by a CAG expansion in the 5´coding region of the gene, the mutant huntingtin protein (mHtt), causes that REST enters pathologically into the nucleus of cells, resulting in the repression of neuronal genes including B...

Novel promoters derived from Chinese Hamster Ovary cells via in silico and in vitro analysis.

For industrial production of recombinant proteins in mammalian cell lines, a high rate of gene expression is desired. Therefore, strong viral promoters are commonly used. However, these have several drawbacks as they override cellular responses, are not integrated into the cellular network and thus can induce stress and potentially epigenetic silencing. Endogenous promoters potentially have the advantage of a better response to cellular state and therefore may cause a lower level of stress by uncontrolled o...

UCP2 alleviates tubular epithelial cell apoptosis in lipopolysaccharide-induced acute kidney injury by decreasing ROS production.

Uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2), an anion transporter, modulates the production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) and plays an important role in protecting against cell apoptosis. However, the role of UCP2 in sepsis-associated AKI remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the role of UCP2 in LPS-induced AKI in vitro and in vivo. UCP2 expression was increased in tubular epithelial cells (TECs) treated with LPS. Accordingly, UCP2 expression was distinctly upregulated in renal tissues fro...

Transcriptomic differences noted in Glaesserella parasuis between growth in broth and on agar.

Glaesserella parasuis is the cause of Glӓsser's disease in pigs and is a significant contributor to post-weaning mortality in the swine industry. Prevention of G. parasuis disease relies primarily on bacterin vaccines, which have shown good homologous protection and variable heterologous protection. Bacterin production involves large scale growth of the bacteria and proteins produced during the proliferation phase of production become important antigens that stimulate the immune response. In order to evalu...

A Novel Assay Based on Confocal Microscopy to Test for Pathogen Silencing Suppressor Functions.

In plants, RNA silencing is an important mechanism for gene regulation and defense that is targeted by proteins of viral pathogens effecting silencing suppression. In this chapter we describe a new assay to probe silencing suppressor activity using Agrobacterium infiltration of Nicotiana benthamiana and confocal microscopy. The key element in this assay involves the use of a reporter construct that is transiently expressed at a much lower level than free GFP, and this increases the sensitivity of detection ...

Enhancement of cellulase production in Trichoderma reesei RUT-C30 by comparative genomic screening.

Cellulolytic enzymes produced by the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei are commonly used in biomass conversion. The high cost of cellulase is still a significant challenge to commercial biofuel production. Improving cellulase production in T. reesei for application in the cellulosic biorefinery setting is an urgent priority.

Desmoglein 3 Silencing Inhibits Inflammation and Goblet Cell Mucin Secretion in a Mouse Model of Chronic Rhinosinusitis via Disruption of the Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling Pathway.

Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a common disease characterized by inflammation of the nose and paranasal sinuses lasting over 12 weeks. This study aims to evaluate the effect of desmoglein 3 (DSG3) on inflammatory response and goblet cell mucin secretion in a mouse model of CRS. The CRS-related differentially expressed genes and disease genes were screened using microarray-based gene expression analysis. Subsequently, CRS mouse models were established. The levels of pro-inflammatory factors TNF-α, IL-6, a...

Citrulline production and protein homeostasis.

Protein homeostasis is crucial for maintaining cell functions. Citrulline, an endogenous amino acid, is considered as an efficient source of arginine at systemic and cellular level. Accumulating evidence, obtained from citrulline supplementation studies, suggest anabolic properties especially in malnourished rodents and human. Although these studies might suggest a key role for citrulline in protein homeostasis, the supraphysiological concentrations of citrulline do not allow to conclude on a physiological ...


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