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PubMed Journals Articles About "Single Cell Scrutinized Neural Nets" RSS

15:11 EDT 23rd March 2019 | BioPortfolio

Single Cell Scrutinized Neural Nets PubMed articles on BioPortfolio. Our PubMed references draw on over 21 million records from the medical literature. Here you can see the latest Single Cell Scrutinized Neural Nets articles that have been published worldwide.

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Showing "Single Cell Scrutinized Neural Nets" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 37,000+

Human Spermatogonial Stem Cells Scrutinized under the Single-Cell Magnifying Glass.

Spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) are essential for adult spermatogenesis. Recently, Wang et al. (2018), Guo et al. (2018), and Hermann et al. (2018) used single-cell RNA sequencing to define and molecularly characterize human testicular cell populations, including spermatogonial subsets with characteristics of human SSCs.


Single cell RNA-sequencing: replicability of cell types.

Recent technical advances have enabled transcriptomics experiments at an unprecedented scale, and single-cell profiles from neural tissue are accumulating rapidly. There has been considerable effort to use these profiles to understand cell diversity, primarily through unsupervised clustering and differential expression analysis. However, current practices to validate these findings vary. In this review, we describe recent efforts to evaluate clusters from single-cell RNA-sequencing data, and provide a frame...

Generalization and Expressivity for Deep Nets.

Along with the rapid development of deep learning in practice, theoretical explanations for its success become urgent. Generalization and expressivity are two widely used measurements to quantify theoretical behaviors of deep nets. The expressivity focuses on finding functions expressible by deep nets but cannot be approximated by shallow nets with similar number of neurons. It usually implies the large capacity. The generalization aims at deriving fast learning rate for deep nets. It usually requires small...


Single-Cell Photothermal Neuromodulation for Functional Mapping of Neural Networks.

Photothermal neuromodulation is one of the emerging technologies being developed for neuroscience studies because it can provide minimal-invasive control of neural activity in the deep brain with sub-millimeter precision. However, single cell modulation without genetic modification still remains a challenge, hindering its path to the broad application. Here, we introduce a nanoplasmonic approach to inhibit single neural activity with high temporal resolution. Low intensity of near infrared (NIR) was focused...

Brain expansion promoted by polycomb-mediated anterior enhancement of a neural stem cell proliferation program.

During central nervous system (CNS) development, genetic programs establish neural stem cells and drive both stem and daughter cell proliferation. However, the prominent anterior expansion of the CNS implies anterior-posterior (A-P) modulation of these programs. In Drosophila, a set of neural stem cell factors acts along the entire A-P axis to establish neural stem cells. Brain expansion results from enhanced stem and daughter cell proliferation, promoted by a Polycomb Group (PcG)->Homeobox (Hox) homeotic n...

Single-Cell Analysis of Regional Differences in Adult V-SVZ Neural Stem Cell Lineages.

The ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ) harbors adult neural stem cells. V-SVZ neural stem cells exhibit features of astrocytes, have a regional identity, and depending on their location in the lateral or septal wall of the lateral ventricle, generate different types of neuronal and glial progeny. We performed large-scale single-cell RNA sequencing to provide a molecular atlas of cells from the lateral and septal adult V-SVZ of male and female mice. This revealed regional and sex differences among adult...

Neutrophil extracellular trap production contributes to pathogenesis in SIV-infected nonhuman primates.

Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are involved in the pathogenesis of many infectious diseases, yet their dynamics and impact on HIV/SIV infection were not yet assessed. We hypothesized that SIV infection and the related microbial translocation trigger NET activation and release (NETosis), and investigated the interactions between NETs and immune cell populations and platelets. We compared and contrasted the levels of NETs between SIV-uninfected, SIV-infected, and SIV-infected antiretroviral-treated non...

Neural crest migration with continuous cell states.

Models of cranial neural crest cell migration in cell-induced (or self-generated) gradients have included a division of labour into leader and follower migratory states, which undergo chemotaxis and contact guidance, respectively. Despite validated utility of these models through experimental perturbation of migration in the chick embryo and gene expression analysis showing relevant heterogeneity at the single cell level, an often raised question has been whether the discrete cell states are necessary, or i...

BCG-induced formation of neutrophil extracellular traps play an important role in bladder cancer treatment.

Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) is one of the most effective treatments for bladder cancer. Little attention has been paid to the possible role of neutrophils in BCG immunotherapy. In this study, we examined neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) formation induced by BCG stimulation, and found that BCG-induced NETs exerted cytotoxicity, induced apoptosis and cell-cycle arrest, and inhibited migration in bladder tumor cells. BCG-activated tumor cells but not non-activated ones elicited NETs formation, in which...

Extracellular DNA, Neutrophil Extracellular Traps, and Inflammasome Activation in Severe Asthma.

Extracellular DNA (eDNA) and neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are implicated in multiple inflammatory diseases. NETs mediate inflammasome activation and IL-1β secretion from monocytes and cause airway epithelial cell injury, but the role of eDNA, NETs, and IL-1β in asthma is uncertain.

The generalisability of artificial neural networks used to classify electrophoretic data produced under different conditions.

Previous work has shown that artificial neural networks can be used to classify signal in an electropherogram into categories that have interpretational meaning (such as allele, baseline, pull-up or stutter). The previous work trained the neural networks on a single data type, produced under a single laboratory condition and applied it to data that was matched in these factors. In this work we investigate the ability of neural networks to be trained on data of different types (i.e. single sourced profiles o...

Spatial Genomic Analysis: A Multiplexed Transcriptional Profiling Method that Reveals Subpopulations of Cells Within Intact Tissues.

Here, we present Spatial Genomic Analysis (SGA), a quantitative single-cell transcriptional profiling method that takes advantage of single-molecule imaging of individual transcripts for up to a hundred genes. SGA relies on a machine learning-based image analysis pipeline that performs cell segmentation and transcript counting in a robust way. SGA is suitable for various in situ applications and was originally developed to address heterogeneity in the neural crest, which is a transient embryonic stem cell p...

Magnetic nano-nets for capture of microbes in solution based on physical contact.

Self-assembly of Au nanoparticles with Fe ions is used to develop magnetic nano-nets similar to fishing nets for capture and removal of microbes in aqueous medium. The nano-nets have a high aspect ratio, span microns in length with openings of 80-300 nm. This allows them to sample the liquid medium even at low volume fraction and also entrap the microbes in the solution. The nets and the trapped microbes can be effectively pulled from the solution by using an off the shelf magnet. Since the capture is bas...

Aluminum-Induced Neural Cell Death.

Aluminum (Al), an abundant element in the earth's crust, is well-known for its neurotoxicity. Nonetheless, its causal role in neurodegenerative diseases, particularly in Alzheimer's disease (AD), is still in debate. Ample studies have shown that neural cell death and cognitive deficits induced by Al are similar to those in AD. In the present chapter, we demonstrate separately the Al-induced cell death in neuron, neuroglia cells, and co-cultured neural cells from newborn rats to illustrate the neurotoxic eff...

Elevated plasma levels of cell-free DNA during orthotopic liver transplantation are associated with activation of coagulation.

We thank Kolaczkowska and Jenne for their interest in our paper on plasma levels of cell-free DNA and the association with activation of coagulation prior to and during liver transplantation. We observed elevated levels of MPO-DNA complexes in plasma of patients prior to liver transplantation, which indeed suggests formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) in patients with liver disease. However, we would like to stress that although the role of NETs in experimental animal models of liver disease h...

Neutrophil Extracellular Traps in Arterial and Venous Thrombosis.

Thrombotic complications are still a major health risk worldwide. Our view on the pathophysiology of thrombosis has significantly changed since the discovery of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) and their prothrombotic characteristics. Generated by neutrophils that release their decondensed chromatin as a network of extracellular fibers, NETs promote thrombus formation by serving as a scaffold that activates platelets and coagulation. The thrombogenic involvement of NETs has been described in various se...

Targeted next-generation sequencing of well-differentiated rectal, gastric, and appendiceal neuroendocrine tumors to identify potential targets.

Rectal neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are the most common gastrointestinal (GI) NETs with an uncertain malignant potential despite their small size. There are limited data about driver mutations in rectal NETs, which may explain the tumors' unexpected behavior or common histologic morphology with other GI-NETs. Here, we investigated the clinically and pathologically relevant mutations of rectal and non-rectal NETs and compared the frequency and clinical significance of detected mutations between them. We sequ...

Single-cell RNA-seq Interpretations using Evolutionary Multiobjective Ensemble Pruning.

In recent years, single-cell RNA sequencing enables us to discover cell types or even subtypes. Its increasing availability provides opportunities to identify cell populations from single-cell RNA-seq data. Computational methods have been employed to reveal the gene expression variations among multiple cell populations. Unfortunately, the existing ones can suffer from realistic restrictions such as experimental noises, numerical instability, high dimensionality, and computational scalability.

Stem Cell Aging? Blame It on the Niche.

The molecular basis for the neural stem cell quiescence-to-activation transition has become an important focus in the study of adult neurogenesis. Recently in Cell, Kalamakis et al. (2019) show that aged neural stem cells face greater barriers to exiting quiescence, imposed by the niche through inflammation and altered Wnt signaling.

The formation and disordered degradation of neutrophil extracellular traps in necrotizing lesions of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis.

Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV) is characterized by the production of ANCAs and systemic necrotizing vasculitis in small vessels. Disordered regulation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) is critically involved in the pathogenesis of AAV. NETs are web-like DNA decorated with antimicrobial proteins; they are extruded from activated neutrophils. The principal degradation factor of NETs in vivo is DNase I; however, NETs resistant to DNase I can persist in tissues an...

A single cell transcriptional portrait of embryoid body differentiation and comparison to progenitors of the developing embryo.

Directed differentiation of pluripotent stem cells provides an accessible system to model development. However, the distinct cell types that emerge, their dynamics, and their relationship to progenitors in the early embryo has been difficult to decipher because of the cellular heterogeneity inherent to differentiation. Here, we used a combination of bulk RNA-Seq, single cell RNA-Seq, and bioinformatics analyses to dissect the cell types that emerge during directed differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cel...

Single cell RNA-seq data clustering using TF-IDF based methods.

Single cell transcriptomics is critical for understanding cellular heterogeneity and identification of novel cell types. Leveraging the recent advances in single cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-Seq) technology requires novel unsupervised clustering algorithms that are robust to high levels of technical and biological noise and scale to datasets of millions of cells.

Graphene-Based Nanocomposites for Neural Tissue Engineering.

Graphene has made significant contributions to neural tissue engineering due to its electrical conductivity, biocompatibility, mechanical strength, and high surface area. However, it demonstrates a lack of biological and chemical cues. Also, it may cause potential damage to the host body, limiting its achievement of efficient construction of neural tissues. Recently, there has been an increasing number of studies showing that combining graphene with other materials to form nano-composites can provide except...

PAD4-dependent NETs generation are indispensable for intestinal clearance of Citrobacter rodentium.

Peptidyl arginine deiminase-4 (PAD4) is indispensable for generation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), which can provide antimicrobial effects during host innate immune response; however, the role of PAD4 against gastrointestinal infection is largely unknown. Herein, we challenged PAD4-deficient (Pad4) mice and wild-type (WT) littermates with Citrobacter rodentium (CR), and investigated bacteria clearance and gut pathology. Luminal colonization of CR in Pad4 mice peaked between 11-14 days post-infec...

Rainbow-Seq: Combining Cell Lineage Tracing with Single-Cell RNA Sequencing in Preimplantation Embryos.

We developed the Rainbow-seq technology to trace cell division history and reveal single-cell transcriptomes. With distinct fluorescent protein genes as lineage markers, Rainbow-seq enables each single-cell RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) experiment to simultaneously decode the lineage marker genes and read single-cell transcriptomes. We triggered lineage tracking in each blastomere at the 2-cell stage, observed microscopically inequivalent contributions of the progeny to the two embryonic poles at the blastocyst ...


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