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Showing "Gilchrist Institute Achievement Sciences" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 4,700+

US National Cancer Institute-China Collaborative Studies on Chinese Medicine and Cancer.

Since 2007, the US National Cancer Institute (NCI) Office of Cancer Complementary and Alternative Medicine (OCCAM), together with the Cancer Institute of the China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences (CICACMS), institutes at China Academy of Sciences and Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, have engaged in collaborations on Chinese medicine (CM) and cancer research. Through these collaborations, CM drugs and compounds have been studied at NCI labs. This paper summarizes the discoveries and progress on these...

Brief Report: Executive Function as a Predictor of Academic Achievement in School-Aged Children with ASD.

The contributions of Executive Function (EF) to academic achievement in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are not well understood. Academic achievement and its association with EF is described in 32, 9-year-old children with ASD. EF at age 6 and 9, and academic achievement at age 9 were assessed as part of a larger longitudinal study. Better performance on a Spatial Reversal task but not A-not-B with Invisible Displacement at age 6 was associated with better math achievement at age 9. No relation...

Values Affirmation Intervention Reduces Achievement Gap between Underrepresented Minority and White Students in Introductory Biology Classes.

Achievement gaps between underrepresented minority (URM) students and their white peers in college science, technology, engineering, and mathematics classrooms are persistent across many white-majority institutions of higher education. Attempts to reduce this phenomenon of underperformance through increasing classroom structure via active learning have been partially successful. In this study, we address the hypothesis that the achievement gap between white and URM students in an undergraduate biology cours...

The mediating role of cognitive ability on the relationship between motor proficiency and early academic achievement in children.

The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between motor proficiency and academic achievement in 7 years-old children. A mediating model in which the relation between motor proficiency and academic achievement is mediated by cognitive ability was tested. Participants included 152 children from the longitudinal study Jeunes enfants et leurs milieux de vie (Young Children and their Environments). Motor proficiency was evaluated with the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (BOT2), cognit...

Healthy lifestyle behaviours are positively and independently associated with academic achievement: An analysis of self-reported data from a nationally representative sample of Canadian early adolescents.

The lifestyle behaviours of early adolescents, including diet, physical activity, sleep, and screen usage, are well established contributors to health. These behaviours have also been shown to be associated with academic achievement. Poor academic achievement can additionally contribute to poorer health over the lifespan. This study aims to characterize the associations between health behaviours and self-reported academic achievement.

Effects of achievement differences for internal/external frame of reference model investigations: A test of robustness of findings over diverse student samples.

Achievement in math and achievement in verbal school subjects are more strongly correlated than the respective academic self-concepts. The internal/external frame of reference model (I/E model; Marsh, 1986, Am. Educ. Res. J., 23, 129) explains this finding by social and dimensional comparison processes. We investigated a key assumption of the model that dimensional comparisons mainly depend on the difference in achievement between subjects. We compared correlations between subject-specific self-concepts of ...

The Tanenbaum Open Science Institute: Leading a Paradigm Shift at the Montreal Neurological Institute.

The Montreal Neurological Institute is adopting an Open Science Policy that will be enacted by the Tanenbaum Open Science Institute. The aim is to accelerate the generation of knowledge and novel effective treatments for brain disorders by freeing science.

Maternal smoking during pregnancy and scholastic achievement in childhood: evidence from the LIFECOURSE cohort study.

Research on the impact of maternal smoking during pregnancy (MSDP) on scholastic achievement in the offspring has shown conflicting findings. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of MSDP on scholastic achievement in a birth cohort of children in 4th, 7th and 10th grades.

Interventions aimed at closing the social class achievement gap: changing individuals, structures, and construals.

Understanding the sources of the social class achievement gap in education is an important step toward ensuring that education serves its purpose as an engine of social mobility. The goal of the current article is to provide a brief overview of the sources of the social class achievement gap as well as interventions aimed at closing this gap. We outline three major sources of the social class achievement gap-individual skills, structural conditions, and people's processes of meaning-making, or construals-an...

Academic Achievement of American Indian and Alaska Native Students: Does Social Emotional Competence Reduce the Impact of Poverty.

Social-emotional competence may be a protective factor for academic achievement among American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) students. This study used Fisher's r to Z transformations to test for group differences in the magnitude of relationships between social-emotional competence and achievement. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to determine the variance in academic achievement explained by student race, poverty, and social-emotional competence, and the schoolwide percentage of students by race. D...

Disentangling the relationship between children's motor ability, executive function and academic achievement.

Even though positive relations between children's motor ability and their academic achievement are frequently reported, the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. Executive function has indeed been proposed, but hardly tested as a potential mediator. The aim of the present study was therefore to examine the mediating role of executive function in the relationship between motor ability and academic achievement, also investigating the individual contribution of specific motor abilities to the hypothesized m...

Exploring the relations among physical fitness, executive functioning, and low academic achievement.

Physical fitness seems to be related to academic performance, at least when taking the role of executive functioning into account. This assumption is highly relevant for the vulnerable population of low academic achievers because their academic performance might benefit from enhanced physical fitness. The current study examined whether physical fitness and executive functioning are independent predictors of low mathematics and spelling achievement or whether the relation between physical fitness and low ach...

Achievement, Language, and Technology Use Among College-Bound Deaf Learners.

Deaf learners are a highly heterogeneous group who demonstrate varied levels of academic achievement and attainment. Most prior research involving this population has focused on factors facilitating academic success in young deaf children, with less attention paid to older learners. Recent studies, however, have suggested that while factors such as early cochlear implantation and early sign language fluency are positively associated with academic achievement in younger deaf children, they no longer predict ...

Developmental Change in the Influence of Domain-General Abilities and Domain-Specific Knowledge on Mathematics Achievement: An Eight-Year Longitudinal Study.

The contributions of domain-general abilities and domain-specific knowledge to subsequent mathematics achievement were longitudinally assessed (n = 167) through 8(th) grade. First grade intelligence and working memory and prior grade reading achievement indexed domain-general effects and domain-specific effects were indexed by prior grade mathematics achievement and mathematical cognition measures of prior grade number knowledge, addition skills, and fraction knowledge. Use of functional data analysis enabl...

The P50 Research Center in Perioperative Sciences: How the investment by the National Institute of General Medical Sciences in Team Science has reduced post-burn mortality.

Since the inception of the P50 Research Center in Peri-Operative Sciences (RCIPS) funding mechanism, the National Institute for General Medical Sciences has supported a team approach to science. Many advances in critical care, particularly burns, have been driven by RCIPS teams. In fact, burns that were fatal in the early 1970s, prior to the inception of the P50 RCIPS program, are now routinely survived as a result of the P50-funded research. The advances in clinical care that led to the reduction in post-b...

'Where there is a will, there is a way': Belief in school meritocracy and the social-class achievement gap.

Meritocratic ideology can promote system justification and the perpetuation of inequalities. The present research tests whether priming merit in the school context enhances the effect of socioeconomic status (SES) on school achievement. French fifth graders read a text priming either school merit or a neutral content, reported their French and mathematics self-efficacy as well as their belief in school meritocracy (BSM), and then took French and mathematics tests. Compared to the neutral condition, the meri...

Using Achievement Goal Theory in Motor Skill Instruction: A Systematic Review.

Over the past two decades, achievement goal theory (AGT) has been used as a theoretical framework to design and implement motor skill programming in young children.

The Role of Family Characteristics for Students' Academic Outcomes: A Person-Centered Approach.

Using data from 1,571 ninth-grade students (Mage  = 14.62) from 82 academic track schools in Germany and their predominantly Caucasian middle-class parents, configurations of different family characteristics reported by parents were investigated. Latent profile analyses considering academic involvement, family interest, parents' self-concept, child's need for support, and parents' time and energy identified average, indifferent, motivated and engaged, motivated and disengaged, and involved families. Cross...

Chronic sleep reduction is associated with academic achievement and study concentration in higher education students.

Inadequate sleep impairs cognitive function and has been associated with worse academic achievement in higher education students; however, studies that control for relevant background factors and include knowledge on sleep hygiene are scarce. This study examined the association of chronic sleep reduction (i.e. symptoms of chronic sleep reduction such as shortness of sleep, sleepiness and irritation), subjective sleep quality and sleep hygiene knowledge with academic achievement (grades and study credits) an...

Intelligence and Academic Achievement of Adolescents with Craniofacial Microsomia.

The authors compared the IQ and academic achievement of adolescents with craniofacial microsomia (cases) and unaffected children (controls). Among cases, the authors analyzed cognitive functioning by facial phenotype.

The contribution of spatial ability to mathematics achievement in middle childhood.

Strong spatial skills are associated with success in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) domains. Although there is convincing evidence that spatial skills are a reliable predictor of mathematical achievement in preschool children and in university students, there is a lack of research exploring associations between spatial and mathematics achievement during the primary school years. To address this question, this study explored associations between mathematics and spatial skills in chi...

Health as a Predictor of Students' Academic Achievement: A 3-Level Longitudinal Study of Finnish Adolescents.

Studies have shown a relationship between students' health and their academic achievements, but whether health of classmates and schoolmates impacts individual students' school achievement is less known. We studied these effects on students in lower secondary school in Finland.

Optimal outcome achievement in partial nephrectomy for T1 renal masses: A contemporary analysis of open and robotic cases.

To compare optimal outcome achievement between open and robotic partial nephrectomy.

Updates to the National Cancer Institute's PDQ Information from Recently Published Oncology Research.

Updates to the National Cancer Institute's PDQ Information from Recently Published Oncology Research.

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