PubMed Journals Articles About "The Neuropsychiatric Evaluation Of HIV-Positive And Negative Drug Using Individuals: Study 215" RSS

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Showing "Neuropsychiatric Evaluation Positive Negative Drug Using Individuals Study" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 80,000+

The interactive effect of valence and context on reversal learning in individuals with Parkinson's disease.

Cognitive deficits in Parkinson's disease (PD) have increasingly been recognized over the last decade and reversal learning in particular has received a great deal of attention. In a classical reversal-learning paradigm, participants learn to associate various stimuli with specific responses (i.e. A →Positive; B→ Negative), and subsequently learn to associate the same stimuli with opposite outcomes (i.e., A→Negative; B→ Positive). Prior studies have revealed that medicated PD patients have a selecti...

How to modify persisting negative expectations in major depression? An experimental study comparing three strategies to inhibit cognitive immunization against novel positive experiences.

Research has shown that negative expectations in major depressive disorder (MDD) often persist despite positive disconfirming experiences. To explain this phenomenon, the concept of cognitive immunization has been introduced: that is, individuals with MDD reappraise disconfirming positive evidence in such a way that negative expectations are maintained. In this study, we examined whether it is possible to inhibit cognitive immunization to facilitate expectation update.

Hispanic Caregiver Experiences Supporting Positive Postschool Outcomes for Young Adults With Disabilities.

The rate of competitive employment, or employment in community settings for minimum wage or higher, of working-age individuals with disabilities trails behind individuals without disabilities in the United States. These statistics are even more alarming among Hispanic individuals who have disabilities. The purpose of this study was to explore the negative and positive experiences of Hispanic caregivers from a Midwestern state as they support their family members with disabilities to achieve positive postsch...

Implications of de novo mutations in guiding drug discovery: A study of four neuropsychiatric disorders.

Recent studies have suggested an important role of de novo mutations (DNMs) in neuropsychiatric disorders. As DNMs are not subject to elimination due to evolutionary pressure, they are likely to have greater disruptions on biological functions. While a number of sequencing studies have been performed on neuropsychiatric disorders, the implications of DNMs for drug discovery remain to be explored. In this study, we employed a gene-set analysis approach to address this issue. Four neuropsychiatric disorders w...

Predictive value of attentional bias for the recurrence of depression: A 4-year prospective study in remitted depressed individuals.

Previous research showed that individuals who were remitted from a depressive disorder displayed heightened attention towards negative adjectives (e.g., worthless). We tested if this attentional bias (AB) is predictive of future recurrence of depressive episodes and/or having depressive symptoms at 2- and 4-year follow-up. We used a longitudinal approach within the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA) and selected participants who were remitted from Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) (n = 91...

From negative to positive body image: Men's and women's journeys from early adolescence to emerging adulthood.

This study examined the developmental journeys of individuals who have overcome negative body image in early adolescence and developed positive body image on their way to emerging adulthood. Interviews were conducted with 15 women and 16 men (aged 26-27) recruited from a large longitudinal sample. Results demonstrated different patterns of positive body image development, but most participants had overcome their negative body image by age 18. Factors contributing to their negative body image in early adoles...

Dynorphin / Kappa-opioid receptor control of dopamine dynamics: implications for negative affective states and psychiatric disorders.

Negative affective states are prevalent symptoms in a plethora of neuropsychiatric disorders, including depression and drug addiction. Dysfunction of mesocorticolimbic dopamine systems has been implicated in negative affective states in neuropsychiatric disorders. The dynorphin / kappa-opioid receptor system is a powerful effector of stress-related behavior and is highly enriched within the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system. Dysfunction of dynorphin/KOR signaling within the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system...

A Study of Pap Smears in HIV-Positive and HIV-Negative Women from a Tertiary Care Center in South India.

The aim of this work was to study the spectrum of epithelial abnormalities on Pap smears of HIV-positive women categorized as per the Bethesda System of Reporting Cervical Cytology, to correlate them with CD4 lymphocyte counts, and to compare them with the spectrum of abnormalities seen in a HIV-negative control group. Study Design and Methodology: The present study was a 6-year retrospective study conducted in the Department of Pathology at Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore, which included 150 Pap smears...

Aging and the evolution of comorbidities among HIV-positive individuals in a European cohort.

To describe changes in the prevalence of comorbidities and risk factors among HIV-positive individuals in the EuroSIDA study.

Multidrug-resistant Gram-negative osteomyelitis: a 10-year study.

Few series of osteomyelitis due to multi-drug (MDR) or extensively-drug resistant (XDR) gram-negative bacteria exist. A retrospective study of MDR and XDR gram-negative osteomyelitis cases was performed, aiming to investigate causative organisms, proper surgical and medical management, as well as outcome.

Neighborhood affluence is not associated with positive and negative valence processing in adults with mood and anxiety disorders: A Bayesian inference approach.

Survey-based studies show that neighborhood disadvantage is associated with community reported mental health problems. However, fewer studies have examined whether neighborhood characteristics have measurable impact on mental health status of individuals in general and whether neighborhood characteristics impact positive/negative valence processing at both behavioral and brain levels. This study addressed these questions by investigating effects of census-based neighborhood affluence on self-reported sympto...

Receiving a hug is associated with the attenuation of negative mood that occurs on days with interpersonal conflict.

Interpersonal touch is emerging as an important topic in the study of adult relationships, with recent research showing that such behaviors can promote better relationship functioning and individual well-being. This investigation considers whether being hugged is associated with reduced conflict-related decreases in positive affect and increases in negative affect as well as whether these associations differ between women and men. A sample of 404 adults were interviewed every night for 14 consecutive days a...

Affect and cannabis use in daily life: a review and recommendations for future research.

Although cannabis is often used for the purposes of relieving negative affective states such as anxiety and depression, the associations between cannabis use and affect in daily life are unclear. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) has been used to study these associations in individuals' natural environments, providing more ecological validity, minimizing retrospective bias, and allowing for the analysis of within-individual processes over time. This review focuses on studies that utilized EMA to examine...

Is positive emotion an amplifier or a buffer? It depends: Dialectical thinking moderates the impact of positive emotion on intergroup conflicts.

Positive emotions have been shown to shape individuals' reactions to intergroup conflicts, but the exact mechanism remains unknown. The current research hypothesizes that the impact of positive emotions would be moderated by dialectical thinking: beliefs about accepting contradiction and change. Experiencing positive emotions in an intergroup conflict may be perceived as unacceptable and evokes discomfort among nondialectical individuals, amplifying the negative reactions toward outgroup members. In contras...

Depression and risky alcohol use: an examination of the role of difficulties regulating positive emotions in trauma-exposed individuals.

The co-occurrence of depression and risky alcohol use is clinically relevant given their high rates of comorbidity and reciprocal negative impact on outcomes. Emotion dysregulation is one factor that has been shown to underlie this association. However, literature in this area has been limited in its exclusive focus on emotion dysregulation stemming from negative emotions.

Difficulty in updating positive beliefs about negative cognition is associated with increased depressed mood.

Depressed people hold positive beliefs about negative cognition (e.g., rumination is useful to find a solution), which may motivate those individuals to engage in sustained negative thinking. However, in reality, rumination often leads to unfavorable outcomes. Thus, such beliefs create a large discrepancy between one's expectations and the actual outcome. Therefore, we hypothesized that this prediction error would be associated with increased depressed mood.

Expanded-Access Study of Palbociclib in Combination With Letrozole for Treatment of Postmenopausal Women With Hormone Receptor-Positive, HER2-Negative Advanced Breast Cancer.

Palbociclib is a cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 4 and 6 inhibitor that was conditionally approved in the United States (February 2015) and Canada (March 2016) with letrozole as initial endocrine-based therapy for postmenopausal women with hormone receptor (HR)-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative metastatic breast cancer. A palbociclib expanded-access program (EAP) was initiated as an interim measure to provide drug access before commercial availability of drug.

A combination of GATA3 and SOX10 is useful for the diagnosis of metastatic triple negative breast Cancer.

In metastatic breast cancer (MBC), it can be difficult to establish the origin if the primary tumor is triple negative or if there is a loss of biomarker expression. SOX10 expression has been reported in primary triple negative breast cancer but is poorly studied in metastatic lesions. In this study, the diagnostic utility of a panel of SOX10, GATA3, and androgen receptor (AR) in MBC negative for estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) was eval...

Clearance of Type-Specific, Low-Risk, and High-Risk Cervical Human Papillomavirus Infections in HIV-Negative and HIV-Positive Women.

Purpose There is a dearth of data on clearance of cervical human papillomavirus (HPV) infection among women in West Africa. We examined the clearance of low-risk (lr) and high-risk (hr) cervical HPV infections, and the factors associated with these measures in HIV-negative and HIV-positive women. Methods We studied 630 Nigerian women involved in a study of HPV infection using short polymerase chain reaction fragment-10 assay and line probe assay-25. Research nurses used a cervical brush to collect samples o...

Evaluation of the prognostic value of all four HER family receptors in patients with metastatic breast cancer treated with trastuzumab: A Hellenic Cooperative Oncology Group (HeCOG) study.

In the current study, we performed a complete analysis, with four different methods, of all four HER family receptors, in a series of patients with metastatic breast cancer treated with trastuzumab-based regimens and evaluated their prognostic value. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor tissue samples were collected from 227 patients, considered to be HER2-positive when assessed at the local laboratories. We evaluated gene amplification, copy number variations (CNVs), mRNA and protein expression of all fo...

Positive and Negative Affect Change among People Living with HIV: a One-Year Prospective Study.

The aim of this study was to investigate the heterogeneity of changes in affective states, i.e., positive (PA) and negative (NA) affect, as well as the sociodemographic and clinical covariates of these changes among people living with HIV (PLWH) in a 1-year prospective study.

Association of baseline inflammatory markers and the development of negative symptoms in individuals at clinical high risk for psychosis.

Negative symptoms are common in individuals at clinical high-risk (CHR) for psychosis and are associated with worse functional outcomes. Inflammation may be one mechanism underlying negative symptoms. Inflammatory markers are altered in individuals at CHR and are associated with negative symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. We thus hypothesized that baseline inflammatory markers would predict the development of negative symptoms in individuals at CHR for psychosis. Thirty seven individuals from the Nort...

Quantifying placebo responses in clinical evaluation of neuropsychiatric symptoms in Alzheimer's disease.

This study aimed to establish a non-linear mixed effects model to quantitatively analyze the placebo responses of neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) in Alzheimer's disease (AD).

The regulation of negative and positive affect in response to daily stressors.

Experimental investigations of emotion regulation have shown that reappraisal (changing interpretations to change emotions) and distraction (directing attention to change emotions) are effective for regulating the experience of both negative and positive affect, while suppression (changing the outward expression of emotion) has been consistently shown to be ineffective. It is unknown, however, whether this pattern of effects generalizes to the context of daily stressors-a common part of daily life in which ...

Evaluation of metformin in combination with rifampicin containing antituberculosis therapy in patients with new, smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis (METRIF): study protocol for a randomised clinical trial.

Shorter duration of treatment for the management of drug-susceptible pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) would be a significant improvement in the care of patients suffering from the disease. Besides newer drugs and regimens, other modalities like host-directed therapy are also being suggested to reach this goal. This study's objective is to assess the efficacy and safety of metformin-containing anti-TB treatment (ATT) regimen in comparison to the standard 6-month ATT regimen in the treatment of patients with newly...

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