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Showing "Ozone" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 212

Ozone-Related Respiratory Morbidity in a Low-Pollution Region.

We evaluated the effects of ozone on respiratory-related hospital admissions in three counties in Washington State from 1990 to 2006. We further examined vulnerability to ozone by key demographic factors.

Effect of acute ozone exposure on the lung metabolomes of obese and lean mice.

Pulmonary responses to the air pollutant, ozone, are increased in obesity. Both obesity and ozone cause changes in systemic metabolism. Consequently, we examined the impact of ozone on the lung metabolomes of obese and lean mice. Lean wildtype and obese db/db mice were exposed to acute ozone (2 ppm for 3 h) or air. 24 hours later, the lungs were excised, flushed with PBS to remove blood and analyzed via liquid-chromatography or gas-chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry for metabolites. Both obesity an...

Ozone-induced stomatal sluggishness changes stomatal parameters of Jarvis-type model in white birch and deciduous oak.

Stomatal ozone flux is closely related to ozone injury to plants. Jarvis-type multiplicative model has been recommended for estimating stomatal ozone flux in forest trees. Ozone may change stomatal conductance by both stomatal closure and less efficient stomatal control (stomatal sluggishness). However, current Jarvis-type models did not account for these ozone effects on stomatal conductance in forest trees. We thus examined seasonal course of stomatal conductance in two common deciduous tree species nativ...

On the role of ozone feedback in the ENSO amplitude response under global warming.

The El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) in the tropical Pacific Ocean is of key importance to global climate and weather. However, state-of-the-art climate models still disagree on the ENSO's response under climate change. The potential role of atmospheric ozone changes in this context has not been explored before. Here we show that differences between typical model representations of ozone can have a first-order impact on ENSO amplitude projections in climate sensitivity simulations. The vertical temperat...

Ozone in the Food Industry: Principles of Ozone Treatment, Mechanisms of Action, and Applications. An Overview.

The food contamination issue requires continuous control of food at each step of the production process. High quality and safety of products are equally important factors in the food industry. They may be achieved with several, more or less technologically advanced methodologies. In this work, we review the role, contribution, importance, and impact of ozone as a decontaminating agent used to control and eliminate the presence of microorganisms in food products as well as to extend their shelf-life and remo...

Ozone generated by air purifier in low concentrations: friend or foe?

Ozone helps decontamination environments due to its oxidative power, however present toxicity when it is in high concentrations, by long periods of exposition. This study aimed to assess the safety of ozone generator air purifier at concentrations of 0.05 ppm in rats exposed to 3 and 24 h/day for 14 and 28 days. No significant differences are observed between groups in clinical signs, feed and water intake, relative body weight gain and relative weight of organs, macroscopy and microscopy of lungs, and o...

Shelf life characteristics of bread produced from ozonated wheat flour.

The objective of this work was to study the effect of ozone treatment on the quality of bread and its shelf life. Flour was treated with ozone gas a rate of 5 L/min for 5, 15, 25, 35, and 45 min. Baking studies showed that bread made from flour treated with ozone for 15 min exhibited improved quality properties (in terms of specific volume, bread color, and crumb cell numbers). Expousre to ozone for shorter times did not cause obvious changes in the major volatile compounds of bread. A shelf life tests show...

Fertilizer efficiency in wheat is reduced by ozone pollution.

Inefficient use of fertilizers by crops increases the risk of nutrient leaching from agro-ecosystems, resulting in economic loss and environmental contamination. We investigated how ground-level ozone affects the efficiency by which wheat used applied nitrogen (N) fertilizer to produce grain protein (NEP, N efficiency with respect to protein yield) and grain yield (NEY, N efficiency with respect to grain yield) across a large number of open-top chamber field experiments. Our results show significant negativ...

Augmented Responses to Ozone in Obese Mice Require IL-17A and Gastrin-releasing Peptide.

Ozone and obesity both increase IL-17A in the lungs. In mice, obesity augments the airway hyperresponsiveness and neutrophil recruitment induced by acute ozone exposure. Therefore, we examined the role of IL-17A in obesity-related increases in the response to ozone observed in obese mice. Lean wildtype and obese db/db mice were pretreated with IL-17A blocking or isotype antibodies, exposed to air or ozone (2 ppm for 3 h), and evaluated 24 h later. Microarray analysis of lung tissue gene expression was used ...

A unifying explanation for variation in ozone sensitivity among woody plants.

Tropospheric ozone is considered the most detrimental air pollutant for vegetation at the global scale, with negative consequences for both provisioning and climate regulating ecosystem services. In spite of recent developments in ozone exposure metrics, from a concentration-based to a more physiologically relevant stomatal flux-based index, large scale ozone risk assessment is still complicated by a large and unexplained variation in ozone sensitivity among tree species. Here we explored whether the variat...

Application of ozone micro-nano-bubbles to groundwater remediation.

Ozone is widely used for water treatment because of its strong oxidation ability. However, the efficiency of ozone in groundwater remediation is limited because of its relatively low solubility and rapid decomposition in the aqueous phase. Methods for increasing the stability of ozone within the subsurface are drawing increasing attention. Micro-nano-bubbles (MNBs), with diameters ranging from tens of nanometres to tens of micrometres, present rapid mass transfer rates, persist for a relatively long time in...

Impact of ozonation and biological activated carbon filtration on ceramic membrane fouling.

Ozone pre-treatment (ozonation, ozonisation) and biological activated carbon (BAC) filtration pre-treatment for the ceramic microfiltration (CMF) treatment of secondary effluent (SE) were studied. Ozone pre-treatment was found to result in higher overall removal of UV absorbance (UVA254) and colour, and higher permeability than BAC pre-treatment or the combined use of ozone and BAC (O3+BAC) pre-treatment. The overall removal of colour and UVA254 by ceramic filtration of the ozone pre-treated water was 97% a...

Association of Ozone Exposure With Cardiorespiratory Pathophysiologic Mechanisms in Healthy Adults.

Exposure to ozone has been associated with cardiovascular mortality, but the underlying biological mechanisms are not yet understood.

Predicting trace organic compound attenuation by ozone oxidation: Development of indicator and surrogate models.

Ozone oxidation has been demonstrated to be an effective treatment process for the attenuation of trace organic compounds (TOrCs); however, predicting TOrC attenuation by ozone processes is challenging in wastewaters. Since ozone is rapidly consumed, determining the exposure times of ozone and hydroxyl radical proves to be difficult. As direct potable reuse schemes continue to gain traction, there is an increasing need for the development of real-time monitoring strategies for TOrC abatement in ozone oxidat...

Ambient Ozone Pollution and Daily Mortality: A Nationwide Study in 272 Chinese Cities.

Few large multicity studies have been conducted in developing countries to address the acute health effects of atmospheric ozone pollution.

Mechanistic Basis for Obesity-related Increases in Ozone-induced Airway Hyperresponsiveness in Mice.

Obesity is a risk factor for asthma, especially nonallergic asthma. Ozone, a common air pollutant, is a nonallergic asthma trigger. Importantly, ozone-induced decrements in lung function are greater in obese and overweight human subjects than in lean individuals. Obese mice also exhibit exaggerated pulmonary responses to ozone. Ozone causes greater increases in pulmonary resistance, in bronchoalveolar lavage neutrophils, and in airway hyperresponsiveness in obese than in lean mice. Our data indicate that IL...

Association of Low-Level Ozone with Cognitive Decline in Older Adults.

Increasing evidence points to an association of airborne pollutant exposure with respiratory, cardiovascular, and neurological pathology. We examined whether or not ground-level ozone or fine particulate matter ≤ 2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5) was associated with accelerated cognitive decline. Using repeated measures mixed regression modeling, we analyzed cognitive performance of a geographically diverse sampling of individuals from the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center between 2004-2008. Ambient air ...

Comparison of dental bleaching effects of ozone and hydrogen peroxide: An ex vivo study.

To compare the efficacy of using ozone versus hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) for tooth bleaching.

Current surface ozone concentrations significantly decrease wheat growth, yield and quality.

Tropospheric ozone is known to adversely affect crops and other vegetation. Most studies have focussed on the effects of elevated ozone levels vs. present ambient. We investigated the effect of present ambient surface ozone (O3) concentrations vs. preindustrial on a range of agronomically important response variables in field-grown wheat, using results from 33 experiments (representing 9 countries, 3 continents, 17 cultivars plus one set of 4 cultivars) having both charcoal filtered (CF) and non-filtered (N...

Effect of Ambient Ozone Exposure Assessed by Individual Monitors on Nasal Function and Exhaled NO Among School Children in the Area of Thessaloniki, Greece.

The study of short-term effects of environmental ozone exposure on nasal airflow, lung function, and airway inflammation METHODS:: Ninety one children-47 underwent rhinomanometry-were included. The study was carried out during the 2013 to 2014 academic year. Activity questionnaires and personal O3 samplers were distributed and 1 week later, respiratory measurements were performed. Daily measurements of outdoor ozone were also considered.

Weekly Personal Ozone Exposure and Respiratory Health in a Panel of Greek Schoolchildren.

The association of ozone exposure with respiratory outcomes has been investigated in epidemiologic studies mainly including asthmatic children. The findings reported had methodological gaps and inconsistencies.

Quantifying Neighborhood-Scale Spatial Variations of Ozone at Open Space and Urban Sites in Boulder, Colorado Using Low-Cost Sensor Technology.

Recent advances in air pollution sensors have led to a new wave of low-cost measurement systems that can be deployed in dense networks to capture small-scale spatio-temporal variations in ozone, a pollutant known to cause negative human health impacts. This study deployed a network of seven low-cost ozone metal oxide sensor systems (UPods) in both an open space and an urban location in Boulder, Colorado during June and July of 2015, to quantify ozone variations on spatial scales ranging from 12 m between UP...

Short-term ozone exposure and asthma severity: Weight-of-evidence analysis.

To determine whether evidence indicates that short-term exposure to ambient concentrations of ozone in the United States can affect asthma severity, we systematically reviewed published controlled human exposure, epidemiology, and animal toxicity studies. The strongest evidence for a potential causal relationship came from epidemiology studies reporting increased emergency department visits and hospital admissions for asthma following elevated ambient ozone concentrations. However, while controlled exposure...

The antibacterial effect of topical ozone on the treatment of MRSA skin infection.

Skin can be infected by many types of microorganisms, most commonly by gram‑positive strains of Staphylococcus and Streptococcus spp. Treatment of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) infections, particularly that of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), is a challenge in clinical practice. Ozone therapy has proven to be one of the strongest antiseptics against the majority of microorganisms involved in skin infections. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the microbicidal effects ...

Assessment of antibacterial efficacy of ozone therapy in treatment of caries at the white spot stage.

Effect on cariogenic flora is the key toremineralizing therapy efficacy in treatment of initial caries (at the white spot stage). Ozone in dentistry is used as a highly effective antibacterial agent. Treatment of white spot lesions with the ozone-air mixture leads to significant increase of efficacy in non-invasive treatment of initial caries.

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