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Things Know About Cholesterol PubMed articles on BioPortfolio. Our PubMed references draw on over 21 million records from the medical literature. Here you can see the latest Things Know About Cholesterol articles that have been published worldwide.
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Most people have a desire to live in a just world, a place where good things happen to good people and bad things happen to bad people. And yet, injustices do occur: good things happen to bad people and bad things happen to good people. Across four experiments, we show that people respond quite differently to correct these two types of injustices. When bad things happen to good people, individuals are eager to compensate a good person's losses, but only do so to a small degree. In contrast, when a good thin...
Elevated low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Dietary guidance recommends reducing saturated fatty acid, trans fatty acid, and cholesterol intakes to reduce circulating LDL cholesterol. Cholesterol intake may also affect high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol concentrations, but its impact has not been fully quantified.
Measuring cholesterol efflux involves the tracking of cholesterol movement out of cells. Cholesterol efflux is an essential mechanism to maintain cellular cholesterol homeostasis, and this process is largely regulated via the LXR transcription factors and their regulated genes, the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) cholesterol transporters ABCA1 and ABCG1. Typically, efflux assays are performed utilizing radiolabeled cholesterol tracers to label intracellular cholesterol pools, and these assays may be tailored to ...
Current guidelines suggest screening for dyslipidemia in early adulthood. In Thailand, a screening total cholesterol level is most commonly used potentially due to the costs of the test. However, the appropriate TC cut-off point that correlates with elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (Non-HDL-C) levels for the low cardiovascular risk younger population have not been examined extensively in the literature.
High LDL-cholesterol concentrations constitute a risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. By consensus, cholesterol-lowering therapy is initiated with a statin that reduces endogenous cholesterol synthesis, upregulates hepatic LDL receptor activity, increases LDL clearance and lowers LDL-cholesterol concentrations in the bloodstream. The efficacy of statin treatment is dose dependent and achieves a risk reduction of up to 50%. However, a substantial body of evidence suggests that a quarter of statin...
The diffusion of cholesterol in biological membranes is critical to cellular processes such as the formation of cholesterol-enriched domains. The cholesterol diffusion may be complicated especially when cholesterol flip-flops and/or stays at the membrane center. Understanding the diffusion mechanism of cholesterol at a molecular level should be, therefore, a topic of interest. We perform molecular dynamics simulations up to 100 microseconds for lipid bilayers with various concentrations of cholesterol. We f...
Guidelines for cholesterol-lowering medication either advocate fixed dose statin treatment without low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol targets or treatment aimed at LDL cholesterol goals. The decrease in LDL cholesterol concentration determines the reduction in atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk.
Low-density lipoprotein particles are taken up by cells and delivered to the lysosome where their cholesterol esters are cleaved off by acid lipase. The released, free cholesterol is then exported from lysosomes for cellular needs or storage. This article summarizes recent advances in our understanding of the molecular basis of cholesterol export from lysosomes. Cholesterol export requires NPC intracellular cholesterol transporter 1 (NPC1) and NPC2, genetic mutations of which can cause Niemann-Pick type C d...
The profile of cholesterol metabolism, i.e., high absorption vs. high synthesis, may have a role in the development of atherosclerosis, the early lesions of which can be present already in childhood. Since there is no information on cholesterol metabolism in children from birth to adolescence, we evaluated cholesterol metabolism in 0-15 year-old children and adolescents without dyslipidemia.
Under "treat to risk" goals, low-density (LDL)-cholesterol follow-up measurements monitor statin compliance rather than titration to target levels, however, there is little evidence showing that more-frequent monitoring reduces LDL-cholesterol. We therefore tested whether frequency of blood tests significantly predicted lipoprotein improvements in a large anonymized clinical laboratory database. Differences (∆ ± SE) in total cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL-cholesterol between baseline and follow-...
Cholesterol is a key steroidal, lipid biomolecule found abundantly in plasma membranes of eukaryotic cells. It is an important structural component of cellular membranes and regulates membrane fluidity and permeability. Cholesterol is also essential for normal functioning of key proteins including ion-channels, G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), membrane bound steroid receptors, and receptor kinases. It is thought that cholesterol exerts its actions via specific binding to chiral proteins and lipids as we...
Background Natural supplements and herbal medicines have been attracted to use for managing elevated cholesterol levels. Tiliacora triandra (Colebr.) Diels (TT) or Yanang (in Thai) is commonly used as an ingredient in various types of Thai foods. In this study, we investigated the effect of methanolic TT leaf extract on cholesterol absorption by measuring the uptake and the efflux of cholesterol and cholesterol micellar solubility. In addition, we tested the effect of TT leaf extract on pancreatic lipase ac...
Cholesterol is a common nutrient in the human diet and eggs are a major source of dietary cholesterol. Whether dietary cholesterol or egg consumption is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality remains controversial.
The plasma membrane is a highly complex, multicomponent system, central to the functioning of cells. Cholesterol, key lipid component of the plasma membrane, promotes the formation of nanodomains. These nanodomains are often correlated across the two membrane leaflets, but the underlying physical mechanism remains unclear. Using coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations, we investigate the influence of cholesterol flip-flop on membrane properties, in particular the inter-leaflet coupling of cholesterol ...
The serotonin receptor is a representative member of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily and acts as an important drug target. In our previous work, we comprehensively demonstrated that membrane cholesterol is necessary in the organization, dynamics and function of the serotonin receptor. In this context, analysis of high-resolution GPCR crystal structures in general and in silico studies of the serotonin receptor in particular, have suggested the presence of cholesterol interaction sites (hot...
Obesity is a worldwide epidemic problem, described as a risk factor for hepatic diseases, such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and other pathologies related to development of cholesterol crystals and cholesterol gallbladder stones. It has been reported that cholesterol overload may cause hepatic damage; however, little is known about the effects of an acute hypercholesterolemic diet on the gallbladder. The aim of this manuscript was to evaluate the impact of a cholesterol-rich diet on the gallbladder.
Cholesterol has been shown to modulate the activity of multiple G Protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), yet whether cholesterol acts through specific interactions, indirectly via modifications to the membrane, or via both mechanisms is not well understood. High-resolution crystal structures of GPCRs have identified bound cholesterols; based on a β-adrenergic receptor (βAR) structure bound to cholesterol and the presence of conserved amino acids in class A receptors, the cholesterol consensus motif (CCM) was ...
Cholesterol is an integral component of cellular membranes and has been shown to be an important functional regulator for many different ion channels, including inwardly rectifying potassium (Kir) channels. Consequently, understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying this regulation represents a critical field of study. Broadly speaking, cholesterol can mediate ion channel function either directly by binding to specific sites or indirectly by altering surrounding membrane properties. Owing to the similar...
Beyond the hepatobiliary pathway, studies have demonstrated that direct transintestinal cholesterol efflux (TICE) of plasma-derived cholesterol may contribute to reverse cholesterol transport. The clinical evidence of TICE in human remains challenged because of the difficulty to discriminate the hepatobiliary and transintestinal routes in vivo.
Cerebral cholesterol metabolism is perturbed in late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD), but whether also the extracerebral cholesterol metabolism is perturbed is not known. Thus, we studied whole-body cholesterol synthesis and absorption with serum noncholesterol sterols in men without AD (n = 114) or with (n = 18) "pure" AD (no concomitant atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease) in a long-term cohort (the Helsinki Businessmen Study) of home-dwelling older men without lipid-lowering drugs and on their ...
Life evolved in an aqueous environment, necessitating the evolution of carrier proteins to shuttle lipophilic molecules within and between cells. Sandhu et. al. (2018) report the discovery of a long-sought-after cholesterol carrier protein, named Aster, which transports cholesterol from the plasma membrane to the endoplasmic reticulum.
In the context of biology as a whole and of our own personal lives, seemingly small things can prove surprisingly influential. Here, I consider the powerful impact of small organisms-the inhabitants of the microbial world-and the small events that shaped my own development as a scientist. I reflect on the early days of the fields of molecular biology and microbial ecology and my own role in the origin story of what we now call "metagenomics".
The 2018 American College of Cardiology (ACC) and American Heart Association (AHA) cholesterol guidelines are a comprehensive update providing recommendations for management of patients with high blood cholesterol based on the best available evidence. This review highlights key topics clinicians need to know for the primary prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) based on the 2018 ACC/AHA cholesterol guidelines.
Although studies exist comparing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD), most have limitations in the mathematical models used to evaluate their prognostic power adjusted for the other risk factors (cardiovascular risk).